History Podcasts

1 June 1941

1 June 1941



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

1 June 1941

June

1234567
891011121314
15161718192021
22232425262728
2930

Iraq

Regent Emir Abdullah returns to Baghdad after British victory over pro-Axis forces

War at Sea

Prinz Eugen reaches safety in Brest



1 June 1941 - History

Casualty Lists of the Royal Navy and Dominion Navies, World War 2
Researched & compiled by Don Kindell, all rights reserved

1st - 30th JUNE 1941 - in date, ship/unit & name order

Edited by Gordon Smith, Naval-History.Net

Notes:

(1) Casualty information in order - Surname, First name, Initial(s), Rank and part of the Service other than RN (RNR, RNVR, RFR etc), Service Number (ratings only, also if Dominion or Indian Navies), (on the books of another ship/shore establishment, O/P &ndash on passage), Fate

(2) Click for abbreviations

(3) L ink to Commonwealth War Graves Commission

(4) More information may be found in the Name Lists

Background Events - June-November 1941
Invasion of Russia, Malta Convoys, Japan prepares for war

1 June 1941

Barrington

ANDERSON, George, Act/Petty Officer, D/JX 165769, died

Calcutta , ship loss

ALLTON, George A, Chief Engine Room Artificer (Pens), C/M 6255, MPK

ANDERSON, Kenneth C, Able Seaman, RNVR, C/LD/X 33287, MPK

ANSCOMBE, William E, Ordinary Seaman, C/JX 221145, MPK

AYLING, Leslie G, Canteen Assistant, NAAFI, MPK

BALDERSTON, Arthur L, Stoker Petty Officer, RFR, C/K 66827, MPK

BARNES, William L, Able Seaman, RFR, C/J 91951, MPK

BARTLETT, James, Stoker 2c, P/KX 111007, MPK

BENFIELD, Kenneth A, Painter, P/MX 55009, MPK

BLANCH, William G G, Stoker 1c, C/KX 94658, MPK

BRIGGS, Henry L, Able Seaman, C/JX 158927, MPK

BROAD, Bernard, Boy, P/JX 160180, MPK

BROOKS, Edwin A, Supply Assistant, P/MX 68084, MPK

BROOMHAM, George D, Supply Assistant, P/MX 68082, MPK

BURDEN, John, Stoker Petty Officer, P/K 57255, MPK

CAPP, James J, Able Seaman, C/JX 195729, MPK

CHALMERS, James S, Ordinary Seaman, P/JX 157617, MPK

CLARKE, Edward G, Able Seaman, C/JX 15576, MPK

COOPER, Albert, Stoker Petty Officer (Pens), C/K 59118, MPK

CROCKER, Kenneth B, Leading Stoker, C/KX 84910, MPK

CUNNINGHAM, Arthur, Able Seaman, D/JX 191164, DOW

DAVIS, James F, Canteen Manager, NAAFI, MPK

DAWSON, William, Stoker 1c, C/KX 106605, MPK

DRISCOLL, James W, Able Seaman, RFR, C/SS 11921, MPK

DUNWOODIE, Robert, Ordinary Seaman, C/JX 196895, MPK

DYBLE, William J, Able Seaman, C/JX 159627, MPK

EBBAGE, Geoffrey G, Able Seaman, C/JX 159852, MPK

EDWARDS, Cornelius D, Stoker 1c, C/KX 106611, MPK

EKE, James, Stoker 1c, C/KX 99502, MPK

ELLEN, David M, Ordinary Signalman, D/JX 214010, MPK

EVANS, William J, Leading Stoker, RFR, C/K 62010, MPK

FOREMAN, Wilfred J, Stoker 1c, C/KX 106618, MPK

FORSHAW, George, Stoker 1c, C/KX 92590, MPK

FOSTER, Edward C, Stoker 1c, RFR, C/SS 119958, MPK

FRENCH, Frederick P G, Stoker 1c, C/KX 95633, MPK

GARDNER, Herbert J, Able Seaman, RNVR, C/LD/X 4394, MPK

GIBBS, James W J, Supply Assistant, RNVR, C/CD/X 129, MPK

GRIMWOOD, Spencer A J, Able Seaman, C/JX 159239, MPK

HALL, Frederick H, Able Seaman, C/JX 160351, MPK

HARRINGTON, William J, Ty/Act/Stoker Petty Officer, RFR, C/K 66260, MPK

HAYNES, William R, Canteen Assistant, NAAFI, MPK

HEXTALL, Ronald, Ordinary Seaman, P/JX 241034, MPK

HICKS, Oliver J S, Stoker 2c, D/KX 111666, MPK

HOLLIDAY, William, Stoker 1c, RFR, C/SS 119084, MPK

HOPKINS, John R W, Able Seaman, C/SSX 128303, MPK

HUBBARD, Arthur, Stoker 1c, RFR, C/SS 124805, MPK

HUNTER-BLAIR, Gaspard P, Commander, MPK

JOEL, Thomas J, Chief Petty Officer Stoker (Pens), C/K 60951, MPK

JONES, Robert A, Able Seaman, D/JX 125063, MPK

KNIGHT, Dennis A, Stoker 1c, C/K 94274, MPK

LEE, Bernard F T, Supply Chief Petty Officer, C/M 37625, MPK

LEE, Stanley J P, Stoker 1c, C/KX 102672, MPK

LEGG, Arthur S, Able Seaman, P/J 111714, MPK

LEWIS, Joseph, Petty Officer Steward, E/LX 20157, MPK

LILBURN, Arthur S S, Stoker 2c, D/KX 110864, MPK

MAHONEY, Henry C, Stoker 2c, C/KX 109373, MPK

MAJOR, Frederick W, Stoker 1c, C/KX 102675, MPK

MARCH, Frederick J, Lieutenant, MPK

MARKHAM, James I, Able Seaman, C/JX 193645, MPK

MARSHALL, Wilfred C, Ty/Act/Petty Officer, C/JX 140113, MPK

MASKELYNE, Edward L, Ordinary Seaman, D/JX 200489, MPK

MATTHEWS, Henry R T, Stoker 2c, C/KX 100951, MPK

METCALFE, Joseph L, Stoker 1c, C/KX 97669, MPK

MOON, Francis S, Leading Stoker, RFR, C/K 61162, MPK

MOORE, Denis, Act/Engine Room Artificer 4c, P/MX 78308, MPK

MUNDELL, Henry T, Act/Joiner 4c, P/MX 64801, MPK

NEWTON, Sydney J, Stoker 1c, C/K 97665, MPK

OLIVER, Clifford C, Stoker 1c, C/KX 101358, MPK

OVENDEN, George L, Ty/Act/Stoker Petty Officer, RFR, C/K 65299, MPK

OWERS, Kenneth V, Leading Stoker, C/KX 83028, MPK

PAY, Leonard L, Cook, C/MX 54298, MPK

PEAKE, Arthur J, Stoker 2c, P/KX 109527, MPK

PEARCEY, Thomas H, Stoker 2c, D/KX 110952, MPK

PHILLIPS, Frederick A J, Petty Officer, P/JX 126281, MPK

PRATT, Thomas E, Regulating Petty Officer, C/M 40163, MPK

QUAYLE, Robert, Ordinary Seaman, C/JX 221249, MPK

RAINFORD, John, Leading Seaman, C/JX 138670, MPK

RALPH, Stephen H, Ordnance Artificer 4c, P/MX 64324, MPK

RHODES, Charles, Armourer (Pens), C/M 31174, MPK

ROGERS, Alfred W, Stoker 1c, C/KX 106687, MPK

ROSCOW, Wilfred, Stoker Petty Officer, RFR, C/K 66685, MPK

ROWDEN, James H, Stoker Petty Officer, RFR, C/K 67130, MPK

RUDKIN, Frank C, Stoker 1c, C/KX 106688, MPK

RYAN, Frederick J, Ordinary Seaman, C/JX 179088, MPK

SADLER, Alfred, Leading Seaman, RFR, C/J 96028, MPK

SALMON, William J, Ordinary Seaman, D/JX 214840, MPK

SAMPSON, William E, Petty Officer, C/J 103536, MPK

SANDERSON, Leonard, Act/Blacksmith 4c, C/MX 59799, MPK

SCOTT, Eric, Engine Room Artificer 5c, C/MX 56236, MPK

SMITH, Henry F, Mechanician, C/K 55304, MPK

SMITH, John H, Able Seaman, RFR, C/J 104653, MPK

SMITH, Reginald E, Signalman, C/JX 156462, MPK

SPALDING, Walter, Able Seaman, RFR, C/J 98542, MPK

SPRINGETT, William G, Stoker 1c, C/KX 97354, MPK

STANLEY, Jack V, Able Seaman, RNVR, C/LD/X 4569, MPK

STOAKES, Richard S, Stoker 1c, C/KX 97880, MPK

STONE, William J, Act/Leading Seaman, P/SSX 23573, MPK

SUTTON, Donald J, Stoker 1c, C/KX 97603, MPK

THOMAS, James G, Marine, CH/X 2584, MPK

THOMPSON, Ernest, Stoker 1c, C/KX 106490, MPK

TWYMAN, John A, Stoker 1c, C/KX 93530, MPK

TYLER, George W, Stoker 2c, P/KX 111308, MPK

VICKERS, Peter A, Supply Petty Officer, P/MX 51196, MPK

WALLIS, John H, Ordnance Artificer 1c, C/M 38683, MPK

WILKINSON, George W, Stoker 1c, C/KX 106500, MPK

WILLIAMS, Leslie, Able Seaman, RNVR, C/LD/X 3003, MPK

WILSON, Samuel T, Stoker 2c, D/KX 112980, MPK

WISE, Stanley A, Stoker 1c, C/KX 106497, MPK

WOLLAGE, John A, Engine Room Artificer 5c, C/M 53168, MPK

YOUNGER, Henry, Stoker 1c, RFR, C/SS 121316, MPK

Duke, illness

BURGE, Harold F, Stoker 2c, D/KX 129483, died

Grebe

CRAIG, George J, Air Mechanic (A) 2c, FAA/FX 77751, missing

JARVIS, Thomas E, Ty/Act/Leading Airman, FAA/FX 78107, missing

JARY, William G, Act/Leading Airman, FAA/SR 645, missing

Gurkha

PERRY, Douglas A H, Cook, D/MX 62154, DOW

London, illness

FLETCHER, Frank, Lieutenant, died

ML.1011

MALCOLM, Arthur, Ordinary Seaman, D/JX 191788, missing

Nile

MATTHEWS, Henry S J, Assistant Steward, D/LX 24157, missing

Penguin, at Sydney, NSW

TRIST, David B, Ordinary Seaman, C/JX 170204, died

Phoenix, Crete

HOLLOWAY, Louis L, Air Mechanic (E) 2c, FAA/FX 77054, missing

JENKINS, Eric E, Leading Air Fitter (E), FAA/FSX 364, missing

JESSOP, Clarence A, Air Mechanic (E) 1c, FAA/FX 76218, missing

RM 1st Battalion

LEE, James, Marine, EX/3543, died

RM 23rd Light AA Battery, MNBDO I, fighting in Crete

GRABHAM, Charles W G, Marine, EX/5635, killed

RM 2nd AA Regt, MNBDO I, fighting in Crete

BARBER, Leslie M, Marine, EX/5149, killed

CLARKE, Arthur H, Marine, EX/5208, killed

CUTLER, Douglas R, Marine, EX/5360, killed

FARRER, Robert J, Marine, EX/563, killed

GILBERT, Charles S, Marine, EX/5187, killed

PACY, Frederick E, Corporal, RM, EX/1433, killed

PHILLIPS, Ronald F, Marine, EX/5241, missing

SPATCHER, Norman, Marine, EX/846, killed

RM MNBDO, fighting in Crete

BARKER, Henry E, Corporal, RM, EX/5150, missing

BARTLETT, John H, Marine, EX/5623, missing

BASSETT, Cyril L, Marine, CH/X 100904, killed

BLUNDEN, Arthur E, Marine, EX/5155, missing

BROWETT, Alex J H, Marine, PO/X 101154, killed

BROWN, James, Marine, PLY/X 100838, missing

BROWN, Sidney G, Marine, EX/5157, missing

BURT, Arthur E, Marine, EX/5162, missing

CAKE, John H, Marine, EX/5163, missing

CARR, Thomas E, Marine, PO/X 101168, missing

CARTER, Roy J, Marine, EX/5341, missing

CHESTERS, Thomas F H, Corporal, RM, EX/1890, missing

CLARK, Cyril W H, Marine, EX/507, missing

COOMBES, John J, Ty/Sergeant, RM, PO/X 1088, missing

CROOK, Ronald E F, Marine, EX/5347, missing

EMERY, Albert C, Marine, EX/5180, missing

FRENCH, Percy H, Marine, EX/5182, missing

FURMSTON, Norman S, Marine, EX/1889, missing

GRAHAM, Robert G, Corporal, RM, EX/1555, missing

GRAY, Harry W, Marine, EX/5325, DOW

GRIDLEY, Cyril B, Marine, CH/X 101372, killed

HATHERLEY, Frederick E, Marine, EX/5609, missing

HOWARD, Sidney C, Corporal, RM, EX/5199, missing

HULMSTON, Joseph, Marine, PO/X 101176, missing

HUMPHREY, Thomas J, Marine, EX/5123, missing

HUNT, Eric G, Ty/Act/Colour Sergeant, RM, PLY/X 814, missing

JACKSON, Fred, Marine, EX/5324, missing

JENKINS, William J, Marine, EX/5593, missing

JENNINGS, John, Marine, EX/1893, missing

KNOWLAND, William H, Marine, PO/X 101446, missing

LEES, George, Ty/Act/Sergeant, CH/X 1169, missing

LUCK, Richard A, Marine, CH/X 100215, missing

MARSH, Charles A, Marine, EX/5215, missing

MCDOWELL, James, Marine, EX/4511, missing

MILLS, Reginald T, Corporal, RM, EX/5221, missing

MILLS, Robert, Marine, CH/X 100508, missing

NEWSTEAD, Joseph G, Quartermaster at Arms, CH/22351, missing

OAKLEY, Bertie F, Marine, PO/X 102190, missing

OSMAN, Walter C, Marine, EX/5227, missing

PARKER, William J, Marine, EX/5110, missing

PLUMMER, Charles J, Marine, CH/X 100498, missing

PRINCE, Marshall, Corporal, RM, EX/5306, missing

PRUDENT, Vivian J, Marine, EX/5309, missing

RANDALL, Royston H, Marine, EX/5248, missing

REID, Thomas E, Marine, PLY/X 100920, missing

RODGERS, Herbert O, Marine, EX/866, missing

SAINTY, Norman R, Corporal, RM, EX/5257, missing

SANDELL, George F, Marine, PLY/X 100863, missing

SANDFORD, Sidney T A, Marine, EX/5612, missing

SAULT, Walter G, Marine, EX/5258, missing

SMITH, Archibald, Marine, EX/5265, missing

STALLARD, Albert, Marine, EX/5267, missing

THOMAS, Joseph E, Marine, EX/5276, missing

TILBURY, Edward G, Marine, EX/5278, missing

TOMKINS, Charles W, Marine, EX/5310, missing

WATTS, Reginald L, Marine, PLY/X 100847, missing

WEBB, Alfred E, Corporal, RM, EX/5292, missing

WELLS, Edward V G, Marine, EX/5293, missing

WHITBREAD, George A A, Marine, EX/1653, missing

WOODHEAD, Joseph E S, Marine, EX/5333, missing

YORK, Walter R V, Marine, EX/5300, missing

Stora

BRUNNING, William R, Seaman, RNR (PS), LT/X 20129 A, killed

2 June 1941

Calcutta , ship loss

FINAN, Thomas, Stoker 2c, P/KX 112005, DOW

KNOWLES, James R, Ty/Act/Petty Officer, RFR, C/J 102177, DOW

TEASDALE, James, Petty Officer Cook, C/MX 46590, DOW

Defiance

JONES, Robert J, Stoker 1c, D/KX 6646, died

Hontestroom, steamship

PROBERT, John W, Act/Able Seaman, D/JX 213422, (President III, O/P), killed

Kelly, ship loss

FINCH, Leonard A, Able Seaman, P/J 100981, DOW

King Alfred

GURNEY, Noel O, Ordinary Seaman, C/JX 181535, died

Michael E, steamship, ship loss

GODDARD, Walter, Gunner, RA, 3598973, (1/1 Maritime Regt, RA, O/P), killed

TURNER, Geoffrey L, Act/Able Seaman, D/JX 248915, killed

Orion , bombing

KNOWLES, Edgar E, Leading Stoker, RFR, C/KX 78571, DOW

Valiant , bombing

JONES, Stanley T, Able Seaman, D/SSX 20442, DOW

Warspite , bombing

OWEN, Leonard F, Marine, CH/X 2934, DOW

Zulu, surface action

DAWE, William F, Leading Seaman, D/SSX 15951, DOW

3 June 1941

Calcutta , ship loss

HUDSPITH, Thomas, Able Seaman, C/SSX 14781, DOW

Daedalus

ATKINS, Arthur J, Leading Airman, FAA/FX 77465, killed

DEMS, Gordon Highlanders

MCLEOD, Angus, Private, Army, 2873558, killed

Eibergen, steamship

THOMAS, Frederick, Act/Able Seaman, P/JX 179183, (President III, O/P), MPK

FAA, 816 Sqn, Daedalus, air crash

ATKIN, Arthur J, Act/Petty Officer Airman, FAA/JX 138039, killed

RICHARDS, Christopher M, Py/Ty/Sub Lieutenant (A), RNVR, killed

Klo, bombing

WARD, James S E, Ty/Skipper, RNR, killed

Rodney

BRAITHWAITE, Harry, Leading Seaman, D/SSX 23450, died

Royal Indian Navy

IDA, Mandu, Topass, 1934 (RIN), died

Southern Maid (SANF)

HOLT, Albert E, Telegraphist, 69576 (SANF), killed

Stag

HOLLINGS, Lionel W A, Ordinary Seaman, D/JX 213452, killed

Warrior (RCN)

ALLEN, Frank G, Chief Blacksmith, 40921 (RCN), died

Warspite , bombing

WARNE, Norman, Ordinary Signalman, C/JX 158796, DOW

4 June 1941

Calcutta , ship loss

GENT, Gordon S S, Leading Stoker, D/KX 85888, DOW

Cochrane II

HAIG, Richard, Leading Stoker, D/K 65336, killed

HAYES, Daniel, Stoker 1c, C/KX 91532, killed

Drake, bombing

Plymouth, WHITTLE, William A, Engineer Lieutenant Commander, Rtd, DOW

Europa

ROSS, William J, Assistant Cook, RNPS, LT/MX 82529, killed

Robert Hughes, ship loss

ADE, James, Shipwright, Nigerian NDF, MPK

ASTAMO, Sawyer, Greaser, Nigerian NDF, MPK

CHUKWURAH, Daniel, Greaser, Nigerian NDF, MPK

COKER, Solly, Driver, Nigerian NDF, MPK

DEKAN, Dominic, Hopper Boy, Nigerian NDF, MPK

DERBY, Tiamiyu E, Driver, Nigerian NDF, MPK

EBIGWE, Dominic, Hopper Boy, Nigerian NDF, MPK

IFANKWE, Paul, Quartermaster, Nigerian NDF, MPK

MARKE-WILLIAMS, Samuel J, Junior Technical Staff Grade 1c, Nigerian NDF, MPK

NWONDI, William, Stoker, Nigerian NDF, MPK

ODUMA, Dennis, Steward, Nigerian NDF, MPK

WARRI, Frederick, Greaser, Nigerian NDF, MPK

Van Meerlant, ship loss

ADAMS, Leslie, Ordinary Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 240290, MPK

ADAMSON, William, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 185757, MPK

ANDREWS, George, Ordinary Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 240148, MPK

BALL, Austin, Ordinary Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 240372, MPK

BERRY, Alexander, Ordinary Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX240169, MPK

BLAIR, Donald I, Ordinary Telegraphist, P/JX 210070, MPK

CASTLE, Ernest A, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 183115, MPK

DICKERSON, Robert W B, Engineman, RNPS, LT/KX 99065, MPK

DOLAN, James P, Ordinary Telegraphist, C/JX 221171, MPK

DORRELL, William R S, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 191697, MPK

FRASER, John I, Leading Steward, RNPS, LT/JX 173462, MPK

GILLAM, Harry G, Ordinary Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 211008, MPK

GREEN, Francis V, Stoker, RNPS, LT/KX 101043, MPK

HAMPSON, William, Engineman, RNPS, LT/KX 101097, MPK

HAWES, Charles F, Stoker, RNPS, LT/KX 111056, MPK

JOHNSON, Basil, Stoker, RNPS, LT/KX 130936, MPK

KEEPER, Cyril A A, Ordinary Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 228707, MPK

LENNON, Thomas, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 194324, killed

MACLEOD, Murdo J, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 173143, MPK

MARSH, Jack E, Signalman, C/JX 160638, MPK

MARSHALL, Samuel E, Ordinary Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 242460, MPK

MARSHALL, William, Stoker, RNPS, LT/KX 115352, MPK

MCNICHOLAS, James, Stoker, RNPS, LT/KX 103795, MPK

MILLER, Samuel, Stoker, RNPS, LT/KX 106729, MPK

MOORE, Nigel, Ty/Sub Lieutenant, RNVR, MPK

MOORING, Harold, Stoker, RNPS, LT/JX 111981, MPK

NEWTON, Albert, Leading Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 197289, MPK

PALMER, Robert C, Ty/Sub Lieutenant, RNVR, MPK

PERRETT, Reginald R G, Ty/Lieutenant (E), RNR, MPK

QUICKFALL, Charles S B, 2nd Hand, RNPS, LT/JX 228137, killed

ROWLAND, Frank J, Leading Seaman, RNR (PS), LT/X 21432 A, MPK

SANGSTER, Alfred, Ordinary Seaman Steward, RNPS, LT/JX 226416, MPK

SHARMAN, William M, Ordinary Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 242495, MPK

SMITH, George E, Stoker, RNPS, LT/KX 130883, MPK

SMITH, John, Stoker, RNPS, LT/KX 107932, MPK

STILL, Thomas W, Stoker, RNPS, LT/KX 107940, MPK

STOKER, George T, Ordinary Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 242494, MPK

THOMSON, Robert A, Ordinary Seaman Steward, RNPS, LT/JX 214213, MPK

THURSTON, James D, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 242068, MPK

WATSON, Andrew, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 185350, MPK

5 June 1941

Anemone

MAITLAND, Ronald, Act/Engine Room Artificer 4c, C/MX 65797, died

Barham , bombing

REES, Edgar, Stoker 2c, P/KX 112476, DOW

Collena

SKINNER, Frank, Chief Petty Officer Stoker, D/K 3091, died

Niagara (RCN)

WALDEN, Richard W, Able Seaman, V/9456 (RCNVR), MPK

Wildfire

FANNING, Francis, Leading Stoker, RFR, C/KX 76125, killed

IDDENTEN, Frederick G, Able Seaman (Pens), C/J 13742, killed

JORDAN, Percival W, Leading Seaman (Pens), C/J 20672, killed

WHITE, Ernest F, Able Seaman (Pens), C/J 24260, killed

6 June 1941

4/2 Maritime Regt, RA

HYNE, Richard E, Gunner, RA, 5123369, killed

6/3 Maritime Regt, RA

BEEDEN, Charles S, Gunner, RA, 5574476, killed

BURTON, Robert H, Gunner, RA, 5574517, killed

Calcutta , ship loss

TAYLOR, Clifford E, Leading Sick Berth Attendant, C/MX 48127, DOW

DEMS, Northamptonshire Regt

STILL, Roy S, Private, Army, 5889122, killed

Drake

STANFORD, Gordon, Stoker Petty Officer, P/KX 85909, died

Falmouth

MCCAULAY, James W, Stoker 1c, D/KX 92848, died

Forfeit, bombing

BUXTON, Reginald A, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 210711, killed

DUNTON, Alfred W, Ordinary Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 231736, DOW

GRIMMER, Benjamin, Ty/Act/Skipper, RNR, killed

LITTLE, Albert C H, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 222655, killed

MCDONNELL, James, Stoker, RNPS, LT/JX 210610, killed

MITCHELL, William J, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 210952, killed

PERKINS, John, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 210989, killed

PICKNETT, John W, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 251917, killed

Glen Head, steamship

MORLEY, Raymond W, Act/Able Seaman, P/JX 203412, (President III, O/P), MPK

SMITH, Sydney, Act/Able Seaman, P/JX 249367, (President III, O/P), MPK

WEAR, Richard, Act/Able Seaman, C/JX 249398, (President III, O/P), MPK

Patia, ship loss

GILLERSTEDT, Robert V, Able Seaman, C/SSX 28742, DOW

Tregarthen, steamship

KNIGHT, John H, Act/Able Seaman, D/JX 249467, (President III, O/P), MPK

7 June 1941

Abdiel

Bombing

COLLINS, Patrick J, Stoker 1c, 191 (RNZN), killed

Air raid ashore

THOMAS, Frederick J, Able Seaman, RNVR, D/BD/X 1771, MPK

WRIGHT, Norman L, Ordinary Seaman, D/JX 237840, killed

Beaver

JONES, Wilfred W, Marine, PO/X 102095, died

Berwick

WADGE, Cecil, Leading Seaman, P/JX 128459, died

Falmouth

FERRIS, Reginald C, Stoker 1c, D/KX 92838, died

Ganges

LUCK, Frank, Stoker Petty Officer, C/K 16675, died

Kingston Hill, steamship

JONES, Charles S, Able Seaman, D/JX 238361, (President III, O/P), killed

MACLACHLAN, William G, Able Seaman, D/JX 226919, (President III, O/P), MPK

Leander , air raid ashore

ZANDER, Desmond W, Stoker 1c, 1727 (RNZN), killed

Vampire (RAN), bombing

FREEMAN, Spencer M, Stoker 2c, S 4605 (RANR), DOW

Victory III

GREEN, Jonathan, Chief Engine Room Artificer, P/M 5708, died

8 June 1941

1/1 Maritime Regt, RA

CROFT, Thomas E, Gunner, RA, 889740, killed

MOTTRAM, Harold, Gunner, RA, 3600568, killed

Adda, steamship

KELLY, William H, Commodore, RNR, (Eaglet, O/P), MPK

Calcutta , ship loss

GRAY, William P, Petty Officer Cook, C/MX 45984, DOW

Dido , bombing

DAVISON, William, Stoker 2c, C/KX 119565, DOW

Drake II

TAYLOR, William J, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 222772, died

Hereward, as POW

FRENCH, Ronald C, Act/Leading Telegraphist, P/JX 137186, DOW

Illustrious

BATTY, Fred, Petty Officer Supply, D/M 37367, died

Trevarrack, steamship

HALL, Robert A, Act/Able Seaman, C/JX 190909, (President III, O/P), MPK

JONES, George, Act/Able Seaman, P/JX 168925, (President III, O/P), MPK

LUCK, Leslie F, Act/Able Seaman, C/JX 213715, (President III, O/P), MPK

SMALL, William, Act/Able Seaman, P/JX 248699, (President III, O/P), MPK

WILSON, Thomas W, Act/Able Seaman, C/JX 249413, (President III, O/P), MPK

9 June 1941

4 Maritime Regt, RA

BUTLER, Ronald G, Gunner, RA, 1483368, killed

PATTERSON, John, Gunner, RA, 1524246, killed

SMITH, Andrew, Gunner, RA, 1548039, killed

SULLIVAN, Frederick W, Gunner, RA, 6286982, killed

4/2 Maritime Regt, RA

HATCHER, Leonard, Gunner, RA, 6286762, killed

7/4 Maritime Regt, RA

CRANE, Arthur D, Leading Bombardier, RA, 1531464, killed

FORREST, Thomas, Gunner, RA, 1548005, killed

JACKSON, Harold G, Gunner, RA, 1483363, killed

TOPHAM, Robert J, Gunner, RA, 1480583, killed

Avondale

ROBINSON, Peter, Ordinary Seaman, D/JX 255441, died

FAA, 803 Sqn, Formidable , air crash

GARDNER, James A, Petty Officer (A), FAA/FX 76489, MPK

PICKERING, Harold, Leading Airman, FAA/FX 79450, MPK

FAA, 803 Sqn, Grebe, air crash

CHRISTIAN, John M, Lieutenant, MPK

CULLEN, Norman, Act/Sub Lieutenant (A), MPK

Janus, surface action

BIRRELL, Theodore D E, Ordinary Signalman, C/JX 156693, killed

BROWN, Thomas, Engine Room Artificer 5c, P/MX 72816, killed

DAVALL, William J, Signalman, C/JX 152438, killed

LE LIEVRE, Clarence A, Stoker 1c, P/KX 81088, killed

LINFIELD, Albert, Able Seaman, P/SSX 19714, killed

O'RAFFERTY, Bernard W, Ty/Petty Officer, C/JX 162332, killed

SPENCER, Charles S, Yeoman of Signals, P/JX 132515, killed

TANSLEY, Charles, Stoker Petty Officer, P/KX 77245, killed

THOMSON, Robert, Leading Seaman, P/SSX 15462, killed

TUCKER, Edward C, Stoker, P/KX 108688, killed

TWYMAN, William J, Ty/Act/Leading Stoker, P/KX 94771, killed

WARDELL, Albert E, Stoker Petty Officer, P/KX 80164, killed

Nazareth

MURRAY, Christopher, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 241811, DOW

Seaborn

MCCULLOCH, William, Act/Leading Airman, FAA/FX 81464, killed

Silverpalm, steamship

EDWARDS, Harry A, Petty Officer, C/J 16845, (President III, O/P), MPK

LEDGARD, Harry, Marine, CH/20224, (President III, O/P), MPK

10 June 1941

Ainderby, steamship

LE COURT, James, Act/Able Seaman, RNVR, D/MD/X 3042, (President III, O/P), MPK

Diana, steamship

SCRIVENER, George, Act/Able Seaman, C/JX 239460, (President III, O/P), killed

Michael E, steamship, ship loss

MOYE, Thomas E, Leading Air Fitter, FAA/FX 76717, DOW

Moonbeam (RCN)

FOWLER, Leonard, Ordinary Seaman, V/7934 (RCNVR), died

Pintail, ship loss

BEAVEN, Alfred J, Able Seaman Q, C/SSX 14725, MPK

BENNINGTON, Frank, Ty/Act/Leading Stoker, C/KX 95445, MPK

BLAND, Francis, Leading Steward, C/LX 22128, MPK

BOLTON, Thomas H W, Stoker 1c, C/KX 93739, MPK

BOWTHORPE, Benjamin D, Stoker 2c, C/KX 105780, MPK

BRUNTON, George, Lieutenant, RNR, MPK

BURNLEY, Victor L, Ty/Act/Stoker Petty Officer, RFR, C/KX 78259, MPK

BUTCHER, Jack B, Telegraphist, C/SSX 21031, MPK

CAREY, William, Ordinary Seaman, C/JX 200539, MPK

CLARK, Francis H, Ordinary Coder, C/JX 211359, MPK

CONYER, Richard H, Signalman, RNSR, C/SR 816, MPK

DAINES, George W T, Stoker 1c, C/KX 85686, MPK

DAY, Robert A D, Able Seaman, RNVR, C/TD/X 1631, MPK

DUFFETT, James T, Stoker 2c, C/KX 108809, MPK

ENGLAND, Herbert E, Ty/Stoker Petty Officer (Pens), C/K 56926, MPK

FIELDS, James J, Stoker 1c, C/KX 97096, MPK

GIBBS, Ralph, Assistant Steward, C/LX 25277, MPK

GRAY, James T, Able Seaman, RNVR, C/TD/X 1915, MPK

HALL, Jesse S, Chief Petty Officer Stoker, C/K 55766, MPK

HALLETT, Terrence A, Ordinary Seaman, C/JX 203943, MPK

HOWELL, James W, Petty Officer, RFR, C/J 37269, MPK

HUGHSON, David J, Ordinary Seaman, C/JX 251597, MPK

IRVINE, Charles, Ty/Act/Leading Stoker, C/KX 86537, MPK

JOHNSON, Philip, Stoker 1c, C/KX 85624, MPK

JOHNSTON, William A, Ty/Sub Lieutenant, RNR, MPK

KENNEDY, Thomas W, Chief Petty Officer, C/J 98168, MPK

KIRK, Adolphus C, Engine Room Artificer 1c, C/M 34475, MPK

LAWSON, Robert H, Ty/Petty Officer Telegraphist, C/J 41949, MPK

LEE, Frederick, Ordinary Seaman, C/JX 188322, MPK

LUCIE, John E, Gunner, MPK

LUNT, William E, Ordinary Seaman, P/JX 239563, MPK

MARTIN, Arthur W, Ordinary Coder, C/JX 211384, MPK

MCCLINTOCK, John L E, Lieutenant, DOW

PACKMAN, Robert G, Stoker 2c, C/KX 103081, MPK

PARIS, Stanley W, Commissioned Engineer, MPK

PAYNE, William J, Stoker 2c, C/KX 103082, MPK

REED, Alexander B, Stoker Petty Officer, C/K 65603, MPK

REEVE, Kenneth, Able Seaman, RNVR, C/LD/X 5144, MPK

ROBSON, Edward, Ty/Act/Leading Seaman, C/JX 127524, MPK

SAUNDERS, James C, Ordinary Seaman, C/JX 226982, MPK

SAVAGE, Charles J, Chief Engine Room Artificer (Pens), C/M 5620, MPK

SCHUELER, Joseph H, Cook (S), C/MX 54100, MPK

SHARP, Joseph, Stoker Petty Officer, RFR, C/KX 78044, MPK

SMITH, Gordon H, Able Seaman, RNVR, C/LD/X 5223, MPK

STIRZAKER, William E, Stoker 2c, C/KX 108793, MPK

SUMMERSCALES, Joseph C, Ordinary Seaman, C/JX 253522, MPK

TEMPLEMAN, George, Able Seaman, C/JX 154189, MPK

TYLER, Norman, Stoker 1c, C/KX 84246, MPK

WALLIS, Thomas P, Ordinary Telegraphist, C/JX 208122, MPK

WEBBER, Raymond H, Act/Engine Room Artificer 4c, C/MX 58983, MPK

WELLER, Cecil W H, Yeoman of Signals, C/JX 125422, MPK

WINGATE, Harold W, Cook (O), C/MX 58931, MPK

WOODFIN, George, Ordinary Seaman, C/SSX 24423, MPK

RM Coast Artillery Regiment

WOOD, Fred, Marine, EX 2397, as POW, Athens , DOWS

RM MNBDO

BRADFORD, Charles, Marine, PO/X 101259, killed

Royal Scot, steamship

PINCHBECK, Frank, Act/Able Seaman, P/JX 191297, (President III, O/P), MPK

Stadacona (RCN)

STREDDER, Frederick O, Paymaster Commander, RCNVR, died

York

TINDAL, Stephen W, Sick Berth Chief Petty Officer, C/M 37775, died

11 June 1941

1/1 Maritime Regt, RA

CARBO, John, Gunner, RA, 1467037, killed

5/3 Maritime Regt, RA

THURSTON, Jonathen W, Bombardier, RA, 3966502, killed

6/3 Maritime Regt

RA, NOLAN, Henry A, Gunner, RA, 3971952, killed

Empire Dew, steamship

BRYAN, Joseph W, Able Seaman, P/JX 136557, (President III, O/P), MPK

THOMAS, William G, Act/Able Seaman, C/JX 248844, (President III, O/P), MPK

FAA, 800 Sqn, Daedalus, air crash

O'DONOVAN, Terence P, Act/Sub Lieutenant (A), killed

MORRIS, Henry, Sub Lieutenant (A), killed

ROOPER, John A, Lieutenant, killed

FAA, 805 Sqn, Grebe, air crash

MUSSON, John B, Py/Ty/Sub Lieutenant (A), RNVR, killed

FAA, 880 Sqn, Condor, air crash

BUNCH, Samuel H, Sub Lieutenant (A), killed

Forth

SMITH, Idris J, Petty Officer Cook, D/MX 49114, died

President III

ARTHUR, William, Act/Able Seaman, P/JX 234549, MPK

Stuart (RAN), accident

WEIR, Clyde H, Leading Seaman, 19925 (RAN), killed

12 June 1941

4/2 Maritime Regt, RA

ANDERSON, Frederick G, Gunner, RA, 3768287, killed

HODSON, Harold, Leading Bombardier, RA, 3535791, killed

Ajax

GOODFELLOW, John, Musician, RMB/X 1453, died

Kanimbla (RAN), illness

DICK, Archibald H, Petty Officer Stoker, PM 1160 (RANR), died

Serula, steamship

WALLBANK, Jack, Act/Able Seaman, P/JX 196180, (President III, O/P), died

13 June 1941

1/1 Maritime Regt

RA, ANGUS, Thomas, Gunner, RA, 13023503, killed

GASCOYNE, Ben H, Gunner, RA, 4757900, killed

Avonwood, steamship

MILLER, John M, Ordinary Signalman, C/JX 172979, (President III, O/P), DOW

Calcutta , ship loss

WILLARD, Thomas, Petty Officer, C/JX 133263, DOW

Dalemoor, steamship

CASHMORE, Howard S, Act/Commander, RNR, (Spartiate, O/P), killed

MILLER, John McM, Ordinary Signalman, C/JX 172978, died

Drake

O'BRIEN, Joseph, Stoker 1c, D/KX 91605, MPK

FAA, 759 Sqn, Daedalus, air crash

WESTERMAN, Magnus, Py/Ty/Act/Sub Lieutenant (A), RNVR, killed

Jade

CREASEY, John C, Midshipman, RNR, DOW

St Lindsay, steamship

BURLETSON, Bryan, Py/Ty/Sub Lieutenant (A), RNVR, (752 Sqn Goshawk, O/P), MPK

CHANDLER, Ernest T, Act/Able Seaman, D/JX 239452, (President III, O/P), missing

CHRISTISON, James, Act/Able Seaman, D/JX 249121, (President III, O/P), missing

CLARKE, Fred, Able Seaman, RFR, P/SS 11715, (President III, O/P), missing

CLIFF, Pearse G, Py/Ty/Sub Lieutenant (A), RNVR, (752 Sqn Goshawk, O/P), MPK

CRANE, John A, Ty/Lieutenant (A), RNVR, (793 Sqn Goshawk, O/P), MPK

GORDON-CANNING, Cecil J, Ty/Act/Lieutenant Commander, RNVR, (Benbow, O/P), MPK

OULTON, Joseph, Act/Able Seaman, D/JX 239885, (President III, O/P), missing

ROBINSON, Geoffrey F, Py/Ty/Sub Lieutenant (A), RNVR, (752 Sqn Goshawk, O/P), MPK

St Patrick, steamship

COCKLIN, Matthew, Act/Able Seaman, P/JX 217663, (President III, O/P), MPK

EWART, Archibald R, Commander Surgeon, (HM Dockyard, O/P), killed

Vesuvius

GREET, George, Stoker Petty Officer, P/K 3362, died

14 June 1941

Hornet

STALDER, David W, Ordinary Seaman, C/JX 212271, DOW

Montclare

LOWES, Thomas H, Assistant Steward, NAP 1137678, died

Raleigh

BETTS, Robert H, Ordinary Seaman, D/JX 253286, died

Rowan

SHARP, Henry, Able Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 176384, died

Tehana

MCLEOD, John R, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 210960, DOW

Unbeaten

STURMAN, Thomas G, Leading Stoker, P/KX 82991, DOW

15 June 1941

Cyclops

HART, George H, Able Seaman, C/J 88158, died

Daedalus

TOLLADY, John W, Air Fitter (E), FAA/FX 79028, died

Dauntless , collision

PENROSE, Clarence J, Leading Writer, D/MX 58726, killed

Emerald , collision

BOWSKILL, Joseph J, Able Seaman, P/J 43307, DOW

CROWTHER, Ernest, Supply Assistant, C/MX 65075, DOW

DALE, Laurence W F, Marine, RFR, PO/213453, DOW

DORMAN, Charles L, Stoker 1c, C/K 63359, DOW

FRANCIS, Albert, Steward, P/LX 23978, DOW

HELSDON, Frederick E, Officer's Cook, P/MX 69017, DOW

LAWSON, John J, Stoker 1c, P/KX 97164, DOW

LONGBOTTOM, John S, Supply Assistant, P/MX 66798, DOW

MORRISON, Gordon D, Leading Supply Assistant, P/MX 58044, DOW

PAGRAM, Arthur W, Leading Steward, P/LX 22889, DOW

PALLOTT, Cecil F K, Act/Leading Stoker, P/KX 90809, DOW

POWELL, Edwin C, Petty Officer, C/K 19547, DOW

SALKELD, Joseph N, Supply Assistant, P/MX 70887, DOW

SHORT, Ronald L H, Stoker, P/KX 97167, DOW

TAYLOR, Norman, Supply Assistant, P/MX 70889, DOW

VEALE, Herbert J, Supply Assistant, P/MX 69406, DOW

Malaya , illness

CRAGG, George H, Musician, P/3068, died

Mutin (Fr)

PIROIS, Jean, Leading Seaman, D/JX 207891, (Frenchman, served as John Brooks), killed

Southern Pride

KIRBY, Samuel, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 205645, died

Valse

EAGLETON, Frederick G, Ordinary Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 218454, died

16 June 1941

Acadia (RCN)

DOWNES, Allan, Engine Room Artificer 4c, V/6613 (RCNVR), died

Calliope, illness

GOODINGS, Abraham, Skipper, RNR, died

Elfin, illness

HOOK, Doris, WRNS, R/WRNX 9181, died

Malaya

MUNDAY, James, Stoker 1c, P/KX 106728, died

17 June 1941

2/1 Maritime Regt, RA

FOWLER, John W, Gunner, RA, 3196431, killed

STORRIE, Edward P, Gunner, RA, 3196568, killed

Boscawen

BELL, Ernest J, Petty Officer, P/239558, died

Dolphin

KNOWLES, Joseph, Stoker 2c, C/KX 118541, died

FAA, 773 Sqn, Goshawk, air crash

BLATCHFORD, Stanley G, Petty Officer Airman, FAA/FX 76302, killed

FYNN, Gerald H, Petty Officer Airman, FAA/FX 79757, MPK

Rockingham

SMITH, Kenneth A, Leading Seaman, P/JX 149983, died

Stadacona (RCN)

RESNIK, Harold, Ordinary Telegraphist, V/5921 (RCNVR), MPK

Warspite , bombing

BLENKINS, William, Leading Stoker (Pens), C/K 179321, DOW

18 June 1941

Calcutta , ship loss

WILLIAMS, Frank B, Chief Petty Officer, C/MX 46466, DOW

Forte IV, illness

HELYAR, Kenneth C, Commander, died

Glasgow , illness

CHIVERTON, Basil B, Boy 1c, P/JX 160829, died

RM Lympstone

SAWYER, Thomas, Marine, EX 762, died

19 June 1941

Vanessa, bombing

ANTHONY, Eric G, Engine Room Artificer 4c, P/MX 50368, killed

BULLEN, Josiah, Stoker Petty Officer, RFR, P/K 59604, killed

BURTENSHAW, Alfred T, Petty Officer, P/J 103959, killed

CRAIG, Herbert A, Stoker 2c, P/KX 112000, killed

FRY, Edgar S, Act/Stoker Petty Officer, P/KX 81989, killed

JONES, Ernest E, Stoker, P/SS 121638, killed

LOWE, George E, Able Seaman, P/JX 129022, killed

NEWTON, Matthew B, Chief Petty Officer Stoker, P/K 61801, killed

WATTS, Richard, Able Seaman, P/J 109274, killed

20 June 1941

Bridlington

MCGUFFIE, Alexander, Stoker 1c, P/KX 97163, DOW

Caroline, illness

DOLAN, Victor F D, Able Seaman, P/JX 142717, died

Drake, accident

CALDERWOOD, Robert S, Assistant Steward, D/LX 28050, killed

Falmouth

WOOLEY, Frederick A, Act/Stoker Petty Officer, D/KX 80194, died

Mauritius

MCCRACKEN, Cyril R, Telegraphist, C/JX 183618, died

President III

RUNAGHAN, Terence, Act/Able Seaman, D/JX 214459, died

Vanessa, bombing

SCHOFIELD, John, Ordinary Telegraphist, P/JX 201963, DOW

21 June 1941

6/3 Maritime Regt, RA

BOOTH, Eric W, Gunner, RA, 1572590, killed

Landrail

COUTTS, John A, Petty Officer, C/234819, died

Matabele

EFFORD, Robert W, Stoker 1c, D/K 57492, died

Paragon, motor accident

HARRISON, Edmund W, Act/Commander, died

Royal Sovereign

HUGHES, Edward W, Stoker 2c, C/KX 114559, died

22 June 1941

Beech, ship loss

BROAD, Ronald V, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 205678, MPK

BRODIE, John, 2nd Hand, RNR (PS), LT/X 1795 A, MPK

COCKS, Arthur P, Ty/Lieutenant, RNVR, killed

GALE, Thomas G, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 170716, MPK

JENKINS, Glyndwr M, Stoker, RNPS, LT/KX 242678, MPK

MACDONALD, William G L, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 207672, MPK

MAIN, James, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 206411, MPK

O'NEIL, Arthur, Stoker, RNPS, LT/KX 107814, MPK

SIMPSON, William L, Stoker, RNPS, LT/KX 104106, MPK

STEPHEN, Charles, Engineman, RNR (PS), LT/X 10355 A, MPK

WINES, Simeon J, Able Seaman, RFR, C/J 32208, MPK

MTB.71, surface action

MARCHANT, Jessie, Act/Stoker Petty Officer, P/KX 82715, DOW

Shoreham

LAMBIE, William, Act/Engine Room Artificer 4c, D/MX 60529, (CWGC - 22 June 1941 Admiralty Ledger - 22 August 1941), died

Visenda

WINDER, Ralph S, Lieutenant, RNR, killed

23 June 1941

1 Maritime Regt, RA

SHAW, James, Gunner, RA, 1560446, killed

Arakaka, steamship

ROOKE, James G, Act/Able Seaman, D/JX 168650, (President III, O/P), missing

Daedalus

PEARCE, Stanley J F, Air Fitter (E), FAA/X 78417, died

Hull Trader, steamship

READ, Alfred R, Act/Able Seaman, C/JX 249987, (President III, O/P), MPK

SELLARS, John T, Act/Able Seaman, C/JX 239354, (President III, O/P), MPK

RM 1st AA Reg, as POW

BLACKER, Alexander, Marine, EX/1756, DOWS

St Vincent

MARSHALL, James N, Able Seaman, P/216706, died

Visenda

QUINE, Albert H, Able Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 174512, DOW

24 June 1941

4/2 Maritime Regt, RA

GLOVER, George W, Leading Bombardier, RA, 841133, killed

Auckland, ship loss

BOWSHER, Charles J, Able Seaman, RFR, P/J 44141, killed

BROOKS, Cecil, Ordinary Seaman, P/JX 212128, killed

BURDEN, Maurice R H, Stoker 1c, P/KX 83670, MPK

CHALMERS, John, Able Seaman, P/SSX 17095, MPK

DAVIES, Arthur, Able Seaman, P/JX 176189, MPK

DINES, James H, Cook (O) 1c, P/L 14276, MPK

DONNELLY, Hugh, Able Seaman, C/SSX 20366, DOW

GRANT, Henry A H, Able Seaman, D/JX 145064, killed

GRANT, Jack, Leading Steward, P/LX 22360, MPK

HALLAS, Uriah, Stoker Petty Officer, P/KX 78803, MPK

HARVEY, Edwin, Able Seaman, D/JX 187955, MPK

HAYWARD, Thomas E, Cook, P/MX 56899, MPK

HEATH, Frederick W, Able Seaman, C/JX 169057, MPK

HOUSE, Harry N, Stoker 1c, P/KX 83487, MPK

HUNTER, Thomas, Able Seaman, RNVR, P/CD/X 2794, MPK

KELLY, John A, Leading Stoker, P/KX 84559, MPK

MAY, William F, Stoker 1c, P/KX 97347, MPK

MCKELVIE, David C, Stoker 1c, P/KX 93398, MPK

MCKINLAY, George P, Able Seaman, P/SSX 18304, MPK

MEADLEY, Cecil L, Lieutenant (E), killed

MERRITT, William A, Stoker Petty Officer, P/K 64970, MPK

O'BRIEN, William, Stoker 1c, P/K 59853, MPK

RAMSEY, Edward, Stoker 1c, P/KX 93359, MPK

RATCHFORD, William R, Stoker 1c, C/KX 96588, killed

ROBARTS, Charles J, Surgeon Lieutenant, MPK

SCARLETT, George E, Able Seaman, P/JX 174206, MPK

SIDEY, George S, Able Seaman, RNVR, P/CD/X 2618, DOW

SMITH, Herbert H, Stoker 1c, P/KX 93362, MPK

SMYTH, Arthur P, Act/Engine Room Artificer 4c, D/MX 52272, MPK

SOPPITT, Robert, Stoker 1c, P/KX 97628, killed

SOUTHALL, Henry T, Act/Leading Seaman, P/JX 142300, DOW

STEPHEN, George, Able Seaman, RNVR, P/CD/X 2901, killed

STURGESS, David A, Able Seaman, P/JX 171092, MPK

SWEENEY, Daniel, Able Seaman, RNVR, P/CD/X 2714, killed

SWEENEY, John, Stoker 2c, C/KX 108672, killed

WALLACE, Johannes P, Stoker 1c, P/KX 93393, MPK

WILBY, William H, Able Seaman, D/JX 165233, MPK

WILSON, Robert H D, Canteen Assistant, NAAFI, MPK

President, illness

PHILLIPS, Harold J, Lieutenant, RNR, died

Vanessa, bombing

BEACOCK, Harold, Stoker, P/SS 125775, DOW

25 June 1941

FAA, 830 Sqn, St Angelo, air operations

HOLMES, Dion A R, Sub Lieutenant (A), MPK

SMITH, John R, Leading Airman, FAA/FX 77523, missing

Fennel (RCN)

COLES, Frederick J, Telegraphist, V/7700 (RCNVR), died

Indus (RIN)

PANNA, (other name not given), Topass, 5947 (RIN), died

Moreton Bay (RAN), illness

PHILLIPS, Bryan O, Signalman, H 914 (RANR), died

Nonsuch (RCN)

BARTON, William H, Able Seaman, A/3318 (RCNR), died

Sitkahoond (RIN)

ANWAR, Ullah, Fireman, 72362 (RIN), died

St Angelo

SMITH, John R, Leading Airman, FAA/FX 77522, died

Victory

MOORE, William J, Officer's Cook, P/MX 70305, killed

26 June 1941

1/1 Maritime Regt, RA

O'REILLY, Patrick A, Gunner, RA, 4465301, killed

Barrie (RCN)

COOK, Thomas A, Ordinary Seaman, V/24177 (RCNVR), died

Burnham

WOODING, Harold S, Stoker 1c, C/KX 107681, died

FAA, 805 Sqn, Grebe, air operations 17 June 1941

KEITH, Kenneth L, Lieutenant (A), DOW

Lonsdale (RAN), accident

LOVELL, Norman, Stoker 2c, W 2095 (RANR), died

Malaya II, steamship

MANNING, Roy, Act/Able Seaman, D/JX 172667, (President III, O/P), MPK

SHARP, Eric, Act/Able Seaman, D/JX 240119, (President III, O/P), MPK

River Lugar, steamship

MCBRIDE, George, Act/Able Seaman, D/JX 248672, (President III, O/P), MPK

WHITE, Alfred W, Seaman, RNR, P/X 18908 A, (President III, O/P), MPK

WILKINSON, George, Act/Able Seaman, P/JX 223883, (President III, O/P), MPK

WILLIAMS, Cecil, Act/Able Seaman, D/JX 227946, (President III, O/P), MPK

Skirmisher

REGNART, Cornelius O, Commander, died

27 June 1941

FAA, 700 Sqn, Exeter, air crash

BROADWOOD, Michael S T, Lieutenant (A), killed

FINAN, Thomas G, Act/Air Artificer 4c, FAA/FX 75140, killed

MILLINGTON, Harry D, Act/Petty Officer Airman, FAA/FX 76606, killed

PETERS, Wallace A H, Petty Officer Airman, FAA/FX 76515, killed

Force, fire, ship loss

BACKHOUSE, William A H, Ordinary Telegraphist, D/JX 165427, MPK

GIBBS, Thomas H, Stoker, RNPS, LT/KX 116205, MPK

HOWELL, George H, Stoker, RNPS, LT/KX 117060, MPK

KENDALL, Walter S, Engineman, RNPS, LT/KX 106131, MPK

MAYNARD, John, Stoker, RNPS, LT/KX 106811, MPK

MCEUNE, John F, Engineman, RNPS, LT/KX 107954, MPK

MORRISON, Alexander, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 217792, MPK

SAYERS, Oliver T B, 2nd Hand, RNR (PS), LT/X 302 SA, MPK

TEAGUE, Norman, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 180337, MPK

WILLIAMS, John, Ordinary Seaman Cook, RNPS, LT/JX 214264, MPK

WILSON, Arthur N, Stoker, RNPS, LT/KX 105619, MPK

Hornet

GUSTAR, William A, Stoker 1c, P/KX 95141, died

28 June 1941

1/1 Maritime Regt, RA

NUGENT, James J, Leading Sergeant, RA, 3532948, killed

3/2 Maritime Regt, RA

O'SULLIVAN, Gerard M, Gunner, RA, 6147455, killed

SIMMONS, George E, Gunner, RA, 6147493, killed

Auris, steamship

CLENTON, Harry, Act/Able Seaman, D/JX 191060, (President III, O/P), MPK

Barrhill, steamship

HOWARD, Edwin A, Ordinary Signalman, C/JX 232568, (President III, O/P), MPK

Clyde, illness

GREENWOOD, Samuel C, Lieutenant, RNR, died

Grebe

LOCK, Alfred V, Leading Air Fitter, FAA/SFX 139, DOW

29 June 1941

2/1 Maritime Regt, RA

MCINTOSH, William, Gunner, RA, 3194717, killed

4 Maritime Regt, RA

CRICKMORE, Robert F, Leading Bombardier, RA, 1548625, killed

7/4 Maritime Regt, RA

BRADFORD, William, Gunner, RA, 3450926, killed

COGHLAN, Patrick F, Gunner, RA, 6897739, killed

KNIGHTS, Ronald W, Gunner, RA, 6897800, killed

Canberra (RAN), illness

BRYANT, Reginald, Able Seaman, RANR, PM 2227, died

Drake

MCELBURGH, Jessica M, WRNS, D/WRNS 1544, died

Eaglet, bombing

ELLIS, John T, Ty/Lieutenant, RNVR, DOW

Fowey, motor accident

KAINES, Edward O, Lieutenant, RNR, died

Grayburn, steamship

MULLIN, William T, Act/Able Seaman, D/JX 237991, (President III, O/P), MPK

SMITH, Harold W P, Act/Able Seaman, P/JX 185570, (President III, O/P), MPK

WITTON, Alec G, Gunner, RA, 1522935, (7/4 Maritime Regt, RA, O/P), killed

Maritime Regt

RA, SALMON, Lewis, Gunner, RA, 6898533, killed

Prince of Wales, accident

PARNELL, Kirwen, Musician, RMB X 816, DOI

Warrior

RHODES, William F, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX189063, died

Wildfire

COCKRILL, Franklin R, Stoker 2c, R/KX 114536, DOW

30 June 1941

A.20, LCT

FINNEY, Thomas, Ordinary Seaman, C/JX 217166, missing

Cricket , bombing

TAIT, James, Able Seaman, C/SSX 20133, MPK

Furious , deck accident and fire

FAA, 807 Sqn, flight crew

BIDDLE, John G, Act/Sub Lieutenant (A), killed

HALLETT, Anthony F, Py/Ty/Sub Lieutenant (A), RNVR, killed

LIVINGSTONE, Charles D, Sub Lieutenant (A), killed

WIGHTMAN, Owen M, Act/Sub Lieutenant (A), killed

Deck crew

BACKHOUSE, John, Ordinary Signalman, D/JX 225312, killed

BOOTHMAN, William, Signalman, D/SSX 31428, killed

KINGHAM, Albert E, Ordinary Signalman, D/JX 236872, killed

STEVENS, Victor, Able Seaman, D/SSX 30558, killed

Glengyle, steamship, illness

BROWN, Tomas S, Stoker 1c, P/KX 56095, died

Imperial

MISSETT, Joseph, Able Seaman, D/SSX 327734, died


Contents

In 1918, Lithuania achieved independence in the aftermath of the First World War and the Russian revolution and secured its statehood during the Lithuanian Wars of Independence. Initially prior to World War II, Lithuania declared neutrality and its Seimas passed the neutrality laws. [6]

In June 1940, the Lithuanian government unconditionally accepted the Soviet ultimatum. Lithuania was occupied, transformed into the Lithuanian SSR, and incorporated into the Soviet Union. The Soviets began implementing various Sovietization policies, including nationalization of private property, and mass arrests of political activists and others dubbed "enemies of the people". These arrests targeted many prominent politicians (e.g. Aleksandras Stulginskis, Juozas Urbšys, Leonas Bistras, Antanas Merkys, Pranas Dovydaitis, Petras Klimas), government officials, military officers, members of the Lithuanian Riflemen's Union. The Lithuanian Army was reorganized as the 29th Rifle Corps of the Red Army. The Soviets also closed all non-communist cultural, religious and political organizations. The economic situation steadily worsened and the standard of living decreased. A year later, just a week before the uprising, some 17,000 Lithuanians, mainly the intelligentsia, were taken with their entire families and deported to Siberia, where many perished due to inhumane living conditions (see the June deportation). It was the single major event that incited popular support for the uprising. That tragedy initially also garnered a positive predisposition toward the German invasion. People who escaped the deportations or arrests spontaneously organized themselves into armed groups, hid in the forests, and waited for a wider uprising. [7]

The ultimate goal of the Lithuanian Activist Front (LAF), formed in the fall of 1940, was to re-establish Lithuania's independence. Commanded by Kazys Škirpa in Berlin, the LAF sought to unify Lithuanian resistance, and organize and conserve resources for the planned uprising against the Soviets. [8] It acted as an umbrella organization [9] and many groups used the name of LAF even though they were not connected with the LAF in Berlin. [10] The LAF established its military–political headquarters in Vilnius and organizational headquarters in Kaunas. [8] The communication and coordination between these centers in Berlin, Kaunas, and Vilnius was rather poor. The headquarters in Vilnius suffered heavily from Soviet arrests, especially in early June 1941, and became largely defunct. [11] Most of those arrested activists were executed in December 1941, in Russia.

In March 1941, the LAF in Berlin published a memorandum, titled Brangūs vergaujantieji broliai (Dear Enslaved Brothers), with instructions on how to prepare for the upcoming war between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. [12] The rebels were asked to secure strategic objects (prisons, railroads, bridges, communication hubs, factories, etc.), guarding them from potential sabotage by the retreating Red Army, while Central Headquarters would organize a Provisional Government and declare independence. [13] In April, a list of the members of the Provisional Government, which would declare Lithuanian independence, was compiled. [14] The Prime Minister's post was reserved for Škirpa, four ministers were from Vilnius, six from Kaunas, and one from Berlin. The members represented a wide spectrum of pre-war political parties and, as such, claimed to represent a majority of the Lithuanian people. [15] It has been suggested that not all of the designated Ministers knew about their proposed appointments in the Provisional Government. [16] On June 14, the Nazi authorities in Berlin insisted that Škirpa and his activists not form any government or make any public declarations without their prior approval. [16] Škirpa agreed to this, but he had very little control over the activists in Lithuania itself.

German advances and Soviet retreat Edit

At 3:15 am on June 22, the territory of the Lithuanian SSR was invaded by two advancing German army groups: Army Group North, which took over western and northern Lithuania, and Army Group Centre, which took over most of the Vilnius Region. The Germans amassed some 40 divisions, 700,000 troops, 1,500 tanks, and 1,200 airplanes for the attack on the Lithuanian SSR. [17] The Soviets had about 25 divisions, 400,000 troops, 1,500 tanks, and 1,344 airplanes in the Baltic Military District. [18] 7 rifle and 6 motorized divisions from the 8th and 11th Armies were located within the Lithuanian territory. [17]

The first attacks were carried out by Luftwaffe against airports, airfields, and Lithuanian cities (Kėdainiai, Raseiniai, Karmėlava, Panevėžys, Jurbarkas, Ukmergė, Šiauliai, and others). These attacks claimed the lives of some 4,000 civilians. [18] Most of the Soviet aircraft were destroyed on the ground (322 airplanes were lost in air versus 1,489 destroyed on ground). [18] The Germans rapidly advanced forward encountering only sporadic resistance from the Soviets near Kaltinėnai, Raseiniai, Šiauliai and assistance from the Lithuanians. In the Battle of Raseiniai, the Soviets attempted to mount a counterattack, reinforced by tanks, but suffered heavy losses. [19] Within a week, the Germans sustained 3,362 casualties, but controlled the entirety of Lithuania. [1] Soviet losses were heavy and not known precisely the estimates put them at 12–15 divisions. [1] The Red Army also lost numerous aircraft, tanks, artillery, and other equipment. [19]

Despite the generally friendly Lithuanian attitude, the Germans carried out several punitive executions. For example, 42 civilians from Ablinga village were murdered in response to German deaths. [20] After two German guards in Alytus were shot by unknown perpetrators, the Nazis shot 42 Lithuanian rebels. [21] The terror in Alytus continued to the next day: the Germans selected men, age 15–50, and executed them in groups of 20–25. [12] More atrocities were carried out by the retreating Red Army. About 4,000 political and criminal prisoners, arrested during the first Soviet occupation, were to be transported to Russia. [22] NKVD organized prisoner massacres in Rainiai, Pravieniškės, Panevėžys. A total of 40 locations of mass killings have been identified in Lithuania. [23] Many others were killed en route to Soviet prisons. The largest such massacre took place near Chervyen in present-day Belarus. A list of NKVD victims in Lithuania, compiled during the Nazi occupation, includes 769 people that did not participate in the uprising. [24]

Lithuanian revolt Edit

In Kaunas Edit

— Leonas Prapuolenis, the first announcement of the Provisional Government through the recently captured Kaunas' radio. [25] [26] The Lithuanian rebels liberated the territory of Lithuania before arrival of the Nazis and rescued over 300 political prisoners who would have been murdered by Cheka. [27] Also, the June Uprising laid the foundations for anti-Nazi resistance which later transformed into an anti-Soviet resistance. [27]

The uprising began in early morning of June 22, 1941, the first day of the war. The main forces of the LAF were concentrated in Kaunas. At 10 am LAF held a meeting in Žaliakalnis, dividing the responsibilities. It was decided that the main goal is not to fight with the Russians, but to secure the city from inside (secure organizations, institutions, enterprises) and declare independence. [28] By the evening of June 22, the Lithuanians controlled the Presidential Palace, post office, telephone and telegraph, radio station and radiophone. [28] Control of the telephone allowed Lithuanians to disconnect all known communist numbers and talk to each other without passwords or codes. [29] The radio station was sabotaged by the Russians, therefore repair works were carried out during the night from June 22 to 23. Spare parts were delivered by medical students, driving an ambulance. [30] Despite fears of inadequate Lithuanian forces guarding the radio, in the morning of June 23, Leonas Prapuolenis read the declaration of Lithuanian independence and the list of members of the Provisional Government. The broadcast was repeated several times in Lithuanian, German, and French. [30]

In the morning of June 23, 1941, the rebels raided Soviet armories in Šančiai, [31] Panemunė, and Vilijampolė. [32] Now armed, Lithuanians spread throughout the city. The Vilijampolė Bridge across the Neris River received special attention from the rebels as they expected the Germans to enter the city using this bridge. [29] When the Lithuanians got to the bridge, it was already wired with explosives. 40 Soviet troops and three armored vehicles protected the bridge and waited for the right moment to detonate. [33] When the Soviets retreated a bit after facing Lithuanian fire, Juozas Savulionis ran to the middle of the bridge, cut the wires, and thus saved it from destruction. On his way back Savulionis was shot and killed by Soviet fire, becoming one of the first victims of the uprising. [33]

The bridges across the Neman River were prematurely destroyed by the retreating Soviets. This forced units of the Red Army in Suvalkija to bypass Kaunas and possibly saved the rebels in the city. The Metalas Factory became the headquarters of the Šančiai rebels, who attempted to stop Russian soldiers from crossing the Neman River by boats or building a pontoon bridge. During these fights about 100 rebels were killed, 100 Soviet troops (including several officers) were taken prisoner, [31] and a large booty of equipment (including three tanks but no one knew how to operate them) was captured. [34] Other groups secured police stations, shops, warehouses, attempted to re-establish general order in the city. The rebels hastily organized their own police and freed some 2,000 political prisoners. [34] They also organized publication of daily Į laisvę (Towards Freedom). Commander of the Red Army's 188th Rifle Division colonel Piotr Ivanov reported to the 11th Army staff that during the retreat of his division through Kaunas "local counterrevolutionaries from the shelters purposefully and severely fired to the Red Army, the flocks suffered heavy losses of soldiers and military equipment". [35] [36]

On June 24, 1941, tank units of the Red Army in Jonava were ordered to retake Kaunas. The rebels radioed the Germans for assistance. The units were bombed by Luftwaffe and did not reach the city. It was the first coordinated Lithuanian–German action. [37] The first German scouts, lieutenant Flohret and four privates, entered Kaunas on June 24 and found it in friendly hands. [38] A day later the main forces marched into the city without obstruction and almost in a parade fashion. [39] On June 26, German military command ordered to disband and disarm the rebel groups. [40] Two days later Lithuanian guards and patrols were also relieved of their duties.

According to self-registration in July, there were about 6,000 rebels, [41] spontaneously organized into 26 groups in Kaunas. [42] The largest groups numbered 200–250 men. Total Lithuanian casualties in Kaunas are estimated at 200 dead and 150 wounded. [41]


Did Stalin Plan to Attack Hitler in 1941? The Historiographical Controversy Surrounding the Origins of the Nazi-Soviet War

The controversy surrounding the origins of the Nazi-Soviet War in 1941, namely over the issue of whether or not Stalin intended to launch an offensive against Nazi Germany that year, has produced a contentious debate between revisionist (i.e. those who believe that Stalin was preparing for an offensive) and orthodox historians (i.e. those who reject the notion of a soviet offensive in 1941). First popularized by Victor Suvorov, the ensuing debate between orthodox and revisionist historians over Stalin&rsquos intentions in 1941 has produced an abundance of scholarly literature, and it is the purpose of this paper to survey the historiography of this controversy.

The debate itself centers around a number of controversies: the nature of soviet foreign policy and ambitions in Eastern Europe prior to 1941 the defensive or offensive character of soviet military preparations from 1939-41 (principally concerning the mobilization and deployment of the Red Army along the German frontier) Stalin&rsquos alleged declarations about the desirability of war against Nazi Germany and most significantly, the reliability of the various sources that are used by both orthodox and revisionist historians to defend their respective positions.

These debates are surveyed in an attempt to show the evolution of the historiography of the origins of the Nazi-Soviet War. In general, I do not subscribe to Suvorov&rsquos thesis, as I believe Suvorov&rsquos premise is founded on a flawed understanding of the nature of soviet foreign policy and on Joseph Stalin&rsquos own ambitions in Eastern Europe.

Above all, this paper demonstrates that although the debate over Stalin&rsquos military intentions in the spring of 1941 remains unresolved, it has helped to clarify and expand our understanding of various aspects of soviet history, particulary the nature of soviet foreign policy in the interwar period.

Origins of the Controversy

The controversy over whether Stalin intended to attack Hitler in 1941 was first popularized by Victor Suvorov in 1985. 1 That Suvorov was able to publish such an interpretation at all is itself extraordinary considering the heritage of soviet historiography. The soviet version of the origins of the Nazi-Soviet War (known in soviet historiography as the Great Patriotic War 2 ) was largely outlined by Joseph Stalin in his radio broadcast to the soviet people on July 3, 1941.

In his speech, Stalin asserted that the Soviet Union, a peace loving nation was the victim of a treacherous act of aggression on the part of Nazi Germany, declaring it to be a &ldquoperfidious military attack by Hitlerite Germany on our Fatherland.&rdquo 3 He defended the Soviet Union&rsquos previous policy of friendship with Nazi Germany, declaring that &ldquonot a single peace-loving state could decline a peace treaty with a neighbouring state even though the latter were headed by such monsters and cannibals as Hitler and Ribbentrop.&rdquo 4 The Soviet Union, which had sought merely to maintain friendly relations with Nazi Germany, had been betrayed by Hitler in an attempt to,

&ldquorestore the rule of the landlords, to restore tsarism, to destroy the national culture and the national existence as states of the Russians, Ukrainians, Byelorussians&hellip.and the other free peoples of the Soviet Union, to Germanize them, to turn them into the slaves of German princes and barons.&rdquo 5

Stalin&rsquos monopoly on political and intellectual thought, itself assured by Stalin&rsquos autocratic rule within the Soviet Union, ensured intellectual compliance within the soviet historical community. 6 Stalin&rsquos pronouncements, no matter how simplistic or crude, became the &lsquoleading light of history&rsquo. 7 Additionally, Stalin and other soviet leaders (such as Zhdanov) intervened directly in the production of historical texts, providing &lsquocomments&rsquo to guide the study of soviet history. 8

The indoctrination of soviet history behind &lsquoStalin&rsquos mass-line&rsquo was itself a product of socialist realism. Socialist realism, as defined by Maxim Gorky and implemented by Stalin, viewed &lsquoculture as coercion&rsquo, with writers merely &lsquoengineers of human souls&rsquo. 9 The result of this Stalinist interpretation of history was a decline in the standards of soviet scholarship, in which, &ldquothe authorities tried to subordinate everything to themselves, and the historians sought to subordinate themselves to the authorities in everything.&rdquo 10

Revisionist scholars interpret Stalin&rsquos appeasement of Hitler in the early summer of 1941 as part of an elaborate plot to conceal his intentions to launch a pre-emptive strike against him.

Suvorov and the Icebreaker Controversy

No discussion on the historiography of the Nazi-Soviet War, and in particular on the controversial issue of whether or not Stalin intended to attack Hitler in the summer of 1941, can be made without first considering the arguments of Victor Suvorov. More than any individual in this debate, Suvorov was responsible if not for originating the claim 11 , then for popularizing it and giving it the credence as a sound, scholarly alternative interpretation to the orthodox narrative which prior to the mid-1980s dominated the literature on the subject. 12 His writings emerged in the context of Gorbachev&rsquos program of perestroika, which freed soviet historians from the shackles of Stalinist ideology. 13

Besides allowing soviet historians greater (though far from complete access) to archival documents, perestroika also allowed them greater freedom of interpretation, which was eagerly seized upon by historians such as Suvorov as a chance to deconstruct the soviet myth of the Great Patriotic War. Suvorov&rsquos thesis was simple Stalin intended to attack Nazi-Germany in the summer of 1941, and therefore rejected the dominant view in western and soviet scholarship on the subject that the Soviet Union was a defenseless victim of German aggression. 14

The academic response was swift. Throughout the 1990s numerous conferences, including those hosted by the World History Institute of the Russian Academy of Science and the U.S. Army&rsquos Foreign Military Studies Office, were dedicated to exploring Suvorov&rsquos revisionist thesis. 15 Even the journal, Russian Studies in History devoted an entire issue to exploring the controversy in 1997. 16 Given his centrality to the whole controversy, and the ferocity of the debate it has unleashed, it is necessary to consider Suvorov&rsquos main arguments at length before proceeding to more specific studies which either critique or support Suvorov&rsquos positions.

Suvorov focuses on the mobilization of the Red Army in the months immediately preceding the German attack as evidence of Stalin&rsquos intention to launch a pre-emptive offensive against Nazi-Germany. He points to the movement of numerous Red Army units from the Ural Mountains to the Ukrainian and Belorussian frontier regions. 17 Suvorov views June 13, 1941 as being the point at which the Soviet Union effectively decided on war, as he argues that the deployment of troops and material could not be reversed without resulting in serve economic disruption. 18

In addition, Suvorov rejects the view that this deployment of soviet reserves along the frontier was a purely precautionary measure. He cites a lack of defensive preparations, such as the construction of fortified lines and anti-tank ditches, and notes their deployment in hidden areas (such as woods) as evidence of the intention of the soviet leadership to conceal an imminent offensive operation. 19

Additionally, Suvorov interprets Stalin&rsquos appeasement of Hitler during this period as part of an elaborate plot to conceal his intentions to launch a pre-emptive strike against Hitler, and focuses on the Telegram Agency of the Soviet Union (TASS) directive of June 13, 1941 as indicative of Stalin&rsquos wider campaign of deception. 20 Suvorov saw Stalin&rsquos foreign policy as fundamentally rooted to Marxist-Leninist ideology. Viewed from this perspective, Stalin aimed at pursuing &lsquoworld revolution&rsquo and further contended that Hitler was merely an &lsquoice-breaker&rsquo in Stalin&rsquos wider plan of spreading soviet rule throughout Europe. 21 For Suvorov, this emphasis on soviet expansion can be seen in Red Army military doctrine, which emphasized offensive, rather than defensive, military operations.

Soviet Military Planning: Offensive or Defensive?

Suvorov is quite right when he notes that soviet military doctrine was predicated on offensive, rather than defensive operations. 22 However, I would argue that such a development was not predicated entirely on ideological considerations. True, Marxist-Leninist ideology emphasized human and social agency in history over purely technological developments. 23 As such, the soviet high command placed greater emphasis on the rise of mass armies rather than the development of aircraft and tanks as the most revolutionary change in modern warfare. 24

In this respect, soviet operational planning developed in opposition to German military doctrine whereas the latter stressed the necessity of securing a decisive battle through blitzkrieg operations during the opening stages of a campaign, the soviet high command developed the concept of deep-battle, where an enemy would be annihilated in a series of successive offensive operations over potentially a prolonged period of time. 25 However, soviet military theorists were also influenced by their own analysis of the battles of the First World War (principally those on the western front), and concluded that the rise of mass-national army&rsquos necessitated a series of decisive battles in order to defeat a modern and industrialized nation. 26 As such, it would be incorrect to view soviet military doctrine as simply a reflection of Marxist-Leninist ideology and to conclude that soviet offensive theory necessitated a pre-emptive strike against Nazi-Germany.

Most orthodox and revisionist historians of the debate generally agree that the Red Army was mobilized in the months prior to the commencement of Operation Barbarossa, and that roughly 800,000 reservists were called up during this period. 27 However, it is the nature (i.e. whether it was primarily defensive or offensive in character) of the Red Army mobilization which is another source of contention between orthodox and revisionist proponents of the debate. Scholars such as Sokolov point to the existence of a concrete plan for offensive operations against Nazi Germany, which stipulated that the, &ldquoplans for the defense of the state border', was to be completed by 1 June 1941, in accordance with instructions by the leadership of the People's Commissariat of Defense.&rdquo 28

Sokolov contextualizes his argument by drawing explicit comparisons between the soviet troop deployments in 1941 with those prior to the &lsquoWinter War&rsquo with Finland in 1939. In particular, he notes the creation of so-called &lsquoPolish units&rsquo, (which he argues were to be used to &lsquolegitimize&rsquo the Red Army attack by displaying it as an act of Polish liberation against German rule), in the months prior to the start of Operation Barbarossa. 29 Significantly, he draws an explicit comparison to the creation of &lsquoFinnish units&rsquo in the months prior to the invasion of Finland. 30 Sokolov&rsquos also notes the deployment of these &lsquoPolish units&rsquo along the border regions during the spring of 1941, comparing them to the deployment of the German Wehrmacht along the soviet border, as evidence in support Suvorov&rsquos date of the planned soviet offensive of July 6, 1941. 31

More orthodox scholars, such as Glantz and Roberts, concur that the Soviet Union had partially mobilized its forces and had begun to concentrate them along the frontier. However, they view these moves as purely defensive, a precautionary measure on the part of Stalin to guard against the possibility of a German attack and demonstrate soviet strength, but which were ultimately of secondary importance to Stalin&rsquos continued efforts to appease Hitler to buy time for the Soviet Union to rearm. 32

Central to this interpretation is their understanding of the incomplete nature of the Red Army&rsquos reform program in the summer of 1941, which orthodox scholars argue inevitably precluded the possibility of an offensive on the part of the Soviet Union that year. 33 However, such an argument is predicated on two assumptions first that Stalin realized that the Red Army was not in a position to launch an offensive, and second that he cared whether or not the Red Army was ready to launch such an attack. Therefore, caution must be applied when attempting to discern Stalin&rsquos thoughts or opinions on the subject of soviet military preparedness.

Stalin&rsquos &lsquoAlleged&rsquo War Speeches and the TASS Communique

Revisionist historians cite two speeches allegedly given by Stalin on August 19, 1939 and May 5, 1941 as evidence of Stalin&rsquos expansionist intentions and his desire to &lsquosovietise&rsquo Germany and the rest of Europe. 34 Both speeches pose a number of problems for historians engaged in the debate given that there is no extant text of either speech (indeed, some witnesses present on May 5, 1941 claimed that Stalin spoke &ldquowithout a written text&rdquo). 35 Historians have therefore had to rely on oral recollections of the meetings as well as summarizes of their alleged contents in both the soviet and foreign presses. This is particularly problematic considering the hostility towards oral testimony and memory in the study of history, a product of the professionalization of the discipline during the 19 th century in which written sources became privileged as historical evidence. 36

As such, there are numerous conflicting accounts of what Stalin actually said and an ever greater number of possible interpretations. There is however, a broad consensus that Stalin spoke of the need to adopt an offensive posture in the near future. 37 Uldrick, for instance, believes that Stalin&rsquos May 5 th speech was intended to be &lsquoleaked&rsquo to the press in order to deter a possible German attack. 38 Roberts contends that Stalin stressed that there would be no German attack in the immediate future, given that Germany would never repeat the disastrous mistake of fighting a two front-war (in this case against Britain and the Soviet Union) as it had in the First World War. 39 Erickson, stresses that Stalin spoke of the possibility of war erupting between the Soviet Union and Germany only in 1942. 40 However, revisionist historians such as Weeks argue that Stalin&rsquos speech is evidence of his intentions to launch a pre-emptive attack against Nazi Germany. He noted Stalin&rsquos alleged call for the Red Army to move onto an offensive war footing, while arguing that the &lsquoleaking&rsquo of the speech was meant to deceive the Germans into a false sense of complacency, rather than as a call to open negotiations. 41

A similar problem of interpretation arises when one considers the TASS communique of June 13, 1941. The statement denied that there was any imminent threat of a German invasion of the Soviet Union, and rejected the rumour that Germany was demanding immediate territorial concessions. 42 Generally, the TASS communique has been interpreted as indicative of at best the naiveté of Stalin, and at worst his complete incompetence in handling soviet foreign relations during the period immediately preceding Operation Barbarossa. 43 Suvorov, however, offers a different interpretation. For him, the TASS communique was merely a rouse designed to lull the Germans into a false sense of complacency while the Red Army completed its preparations for an imminent offensive in the summer of 1941. 44 A third alternative interpretation is provided by Roberts. He rejects Suvorov&rsquos interpretation and instead contends that the statement was intended to be an invitation to Hitler to open negotiations with the Soviet Union. 45

The issue of interpretation over these two speeches and the TASS communique are but a small sampling of the various opinions regarding the &lsquocorrect&rsquo interpretations of countless texts among scholars involved in this debate. It therefore raises the question even if the former soviet archives are opened completely, would such access to hitherto classified documents settle the debate definitively? My suspicion is no. Though ultimately speculative, I am inclined to believe that the revelation of further archival materials would serve to merely reinforce, rather than eliminate, both the orthodox and revisionist interpretations of this particular controversy.

Such a conclusion is based upon my own conceptualization of the discipline of history, for I view history as essentially an act of interpretation. Facts are only significant when they are given meaning by an individual or by a group. It is the act of linking such facts together into a coherent narrative or argument, and in the process giving such a progression a certain significance, which is at the root of historical inquiry. Carr put the issue quite succinctly when he stated that,

&ldquothe facts speak only when the historian calls on them: it is he who decides to which facts to give the floor, and in what order or context.&rdquo 46

The Nature of Stalin&rsquos Foreign Policy: The Pursuit of World Revolution?

Suvorov and other revisionist historians contextualize their claim of Stalin&rsquos desire to attack Nazi Germany in 1941 with an analysis of soviet foreign policy during the 1930s. They contend that Stalin believed in the concept of world revolution, and that the Second World War provided Stalin an opportunity to extend soviet influence throughout Europe. Mel'tiukhov, for instance, asserts that, &ldquothe USSR&rsquos principal aim was to expand the &ldquofront of socialism&rdquo across as much territory as possible.&rdquo 47 However, this view is rejected, especially by more western historians, who rightly point out that this line of thinking completely ignores the debates over the trajectory of foreign policy within the soviet leadership during this period.

It is useful to view this debate within the framework of Zubok and Pleshakov&rsquos framework of a revolutionary-imperial paradigm. 48 Though formulated to contextualize soviet aggrandizement in the period after the Second World War, it nevertheless can be applied to earlier periods of soviet diplomacy. Viewed from this perspective, soviet diplomacy was not simply an attempt to initiate world revolution by carrying the Marxist understanding of class struggle outside the borders of the Soviet Union. Rather, it also inherited the legacy of Tsarist imperialism, and should therefore also be seen as an attempt to expand the Soviet Union&rsquos influence and to ensure its security through traditional patterns of great-power diplomacy. 49 The question then is not whether Marxist ideology was the dominant force in the soviet diplomacy, but rather in what periods did either revolutionary or imperialist objectives exercise preponderance in the thinking of the Kremlin leadership.

On the whole, it must be judged that Stalin&rsquos foreign policy was largely framed around realistic, rather than ideological considerations. This of course is dependent upon the individual scholar&rsquos interpretation of Joseph Stalin. Was Stalin a cold-hearted realist or a radical Marxist-Leninist driven largely by ideology? My own sympathies lie with the former interpretation. That is not to say that Stalin was never motivated by ideological considerations indeed quite the opposite. Roberts, for instance, in his analysis of the origins of the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact of 1939, notes Stalin&rsquos intense suspicion of Britain and France which he attributes to the influence of Marxist-Leninist dogma which viewed capitalism and imperialism as a constant threat to the existent of a socialist state. 50

And yet, as Gorodetsky notes, Stalin supported Litvinov&rsquos strategy of collective security in Europe through cooperation with Britain and France throughout most of the 1930s. 51 Viewed from this perspective, Stalin was an opportunist par-excellence. This is further evidenced by Stalin&rsquos constant attempts to secure limited spheres of influence for the Soviet Union, either from Nazi Germany or later from the western allies, rather than attempting to extend soviet influence throughout Europe as a whole. 52 On the whole, Stalin&rsquos foreign policy can be said to have been motivated primarily by interests of realpolitik, rather than by Marxist-Leninist notions of world revolution. Stalin viewed such blatant aggrandisement as counterproductive, since to do so would deprive the Soviet Union of the assistance and the goodwill of other powers whose cooperation was essential to its own development and security in a hostile world. 53

Sources and Political Implications

The nature of the existing sources is another factor to consider when considering the historiography of the origins of the Nazi-Soviet War. Indeed, the harshest criticisms directed against Suvorov&rsquos thesis by orthodox scholars are aimed at the sources that he utilizes. In particular, Suvorov is harshly criticized for his reliance on only soviet sources, to the complete exclusion of German documents. 54 Even within this more limited confine, Suvorov relied mostly on published memoirs of former members of the soviet leadership and Red Army general staff, while admitting his omission of official soviet archival material (of which he would not have had much access to at any rate). 55 In contrast, proponents of the revisionist school attack orthodox historians with utilizing their sources, in particular soviet publications and archival documents, too literally and pride themselves on a more subtle reading of these texts. 56

The controversy surrounding the origins of the Nazi-Soviet War is all the more problematic given the distinct political, rather than simply scholarly, nature of the debate. Koch, in his article focusing on the West-German historiography of the debate, notes this development with barely concealed irritation. In one instance, Koch analyses the work of Gillessen who asserted that Hitler&rsquos attack on the Soviet Union, and more particularly the orthodox interpretation of that attack, allowed Stalin and his successors to paint the conflict as originating purely from German aggression. The ramifications of such an interpretation, at least according to Gillessen, was that the soviet leadership was able to argue that East and West Germany (DDR) owed a special debt to the Soviet Union as a result of the catastrophic losses that it suffered during the war. 57

The implication, of course, is that the DDR must cooperate with the Soviet Union to atone for its crimes against a defenceless nation during the Second World War. 58 On the other hand, Suvorov&rsquos theory of a Soviet plan for a pre-emptive attack on Germany has been used by some scholars (particularly within the DDR, and after 1990, a reunified Germany) to absolve Germany of its &lsquowar guilt&rsquo. 59 Suvorov&rsquos theory has also been embraced by a growing number of Russian historians who utilize it to &ldquocleanse totally the post-communist Russian soul,&rdquo by placing the blame for the Great Patriotic War squarely on the shoulders of Stalin and his associates. 60 The notion of a Soviet pre-emptive is especially popular in contemporary Russian society, who as Menning notes, &ldquolong starved for the truth, believe anything, especially if it seems critical of the former regime and its supporters.&rdquo 61 However, large segments of former soviet society view such an interpretation as akin to &lsquoblasphemy&rsquo. 62 Evidence of the sensitive nature of the debate can be seen in the writings of Mel'tiukhov, who in a preface to one of his articles felt compelled to state that,

&ldquoThe people&rsquos heroic deeds in the war have been and always will remain a symbol of our patriotic pride, but the actions of the leaders, commanders, officers, and enlisted men must become topics of scholarly research, free of any consideration except the search for the truth.&rdquo 63

The personalized nature of the debate is also evident in the language employed by both orthodox and revisionist historians to critique each party&rsquos respective arguments. By far the harshest lexicon is employed by historians of the orthodox school of thought. Erickson described Suvorov&rsquos thesis as &lsquodeliberately sensational&rsquo, while Menning derided the entire notion of a soviet pre-emptive attack as &lsquopreposterous&rsquo. 64 The notion of a Soviet pre-emptive strike is also attacked on the basis that such a concept was originally used by Hitler to justify his attack on the Soviet Union. 65 As such, Suvorov&rsquos thesis is attacked as being too politically motivated, and is seen by some historians as merely an attempt to &ldquorelieve Nazi-Germany of a significant portion of responsibility for bringing about the Soviet-German War.&rdquo 66 Continued on Next Page »


The 1941 Battle of Smolensk In 20 Stunning Pictures

The Battle of Smolensk was a large-scale battle during the opening stages of the Nazi German invasion of the Soviet Union, Operation Barbarossa, in World War II.

It was the first battle where the Soviet Union was able to significantly delay the whole German Wehrmacht offensive which attacked toward Smolensk. The German Force consisted of the 2nd Panzer Army, commanded by Heinz Guderian, and the 3rd Panzer Army of Hermann Hoth.

The Soviets deployed against the invaders under the command of Semyon Timoshenko, the Reserve Front of Georgy Zhukov, the Central Front of Fyodor Kuznetsov and the Bryansk Front of Andrey Yeryomenko.

In the end, the entire soviet 16th, 19th, and 20th armies became encircled from the East and the North of Smolensk, even though a significant amount of soldiers managed to escape the pocket.

Some historians have asserted that the losses in terms of men and materiel incurred by the Wehrmacht during this drawn-out battle, together with the 2-month delay in their march towards Moscow, were one of the reasons they were defeated by the Red Army in the Battle of Moscow three months later.

According to German reports, casualties reached 250,000 during the Battle of Smolensk. The Soviet defenders paid a high price for the resistance as well. The majority of the city lay in ruins when the Germans finally occupied it.

In 1985, Smolensk was awarded the title Hero City for the fierce resistance.

A pair of German Messerschmitt BF-109E in flight over Smolensk [Via]. Aerial view of the Smolensk area. Photo made by a German aerial reconnaissance [Via]. Battle of Smolensk. T-26 tanks during the advance. August 1941 [Via]. Soviet soldiers near Smolensk, July 1941 [Via]. Anti-Aicraft crew in the city of Smolensk [Via] Red Army artillery crew attacking German tanks on their way to Smolensk [Via]. Soviet soldiers during fights at the railway station [Via]. Crew of the Soviet tank BT-7 before the Battle of Smolensk. July 1941 [Via]. Infantry observes an advance of Soviet tanks T-26 near Smolensk. [Via] Soviets during an attack against Wehrmacht. July 1941 [Via] A Soviet soldier teaching partisan fighters how to operate a Browning Hi-Power handgun, near Smolensk. 23 August 1941 [Via]. The headquarters of the 16th Army near Yartsevo area [Via] German troops in a town near Mogilev at the Dnieper, on their way to Smolensk [Bundesarchiv, Bild 101I-137-1032-14A / Kessler, Rudolf / CC-BY-SA 3.0] German motorized division during the advance to Smolensk. Note German anti-armour gun PaK 36 [Bundesarchiv, Bild 101III-Cantzler-026-11 / Cantzler / CC-BY-SA 3.0] German motorized troops during the advance. 1 June 1941 [Bundesarchiv, Bild 101st-136-0883-29A / Cusian, Albert / CC-BY-SA 3.0] Field Marshal Fedor von Bock, commander of the Army Group Centre (left) in conversation with General Hermann Hoth, commander of 3rd Armoured Group and General Wolfram von Richthofen. 8 July 1941 [Bundesarchiv, Bild 101st-265-0048A-03 / Moosdorf [Mossdorf] / CC-BY-SA 3.0] Soviet POWs after the Battle of Smolensk [Via] Soviet POWs are transported to Nazi Germany. Most of them did not survive. [Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-267-0124-20A/ CC-BY-SA 3.0]. Hitler met with von Bock at Army Group Centre’s headquarters on 4 August 1941. [NARA].

German Soldiers in burning Smolensk


1 June 1941 - History

Entry from the diary of an anonymous writer from June 11, 1944, in which he reflects on his life in the Łódź ghetto.

11/6 Litzmannstad-Getto 1944 [in English]

And still Getto, and still subject to infernal sufferings. and still far from being able to even to dream about a human life, nay, a piggish life, even that is unattainable for us. Pigs eat and don’t and we eat not, and worry much and work like asses. I am just past my “supper.” It consiste[d] of a few coffee-surrogate “cakes” (in bitterness able to compete with our existence) and some raw carrot leaves. In spite of this all I am still dreaming, thank heavens that I’m no realist, for to be a realist is to realise, and realising the whole horror of our situation would have been more tha[n] any human being could endure. I go on dreaming, dreaming, about survival and about getting fame, in order to be able to tell the “the world”. . . to tell and “remember,” to “tell and to protest,” both seem at [the] present moment remote and unbelievable - but who knows maybe, perhaps. I dream about telling to humanity but should I be able? Should Shakespeare be able? And what yet I who am only a little proud of understanding Shakespeare? 1


1 June 1941 - History

During air attack on British force off Malta, carrier HMS Illustrious is bombed and damaged by Luftwaffe JU 87s Lieutenant Commander Frederick P. Hartman, U.S. Naval Observer on board, is consequently commended for gallantry in action.

Battle of Koh Chang: Vichy French retaliate against Thai moves against Cambodia. French squadron (Rear Admiral Jules Terraux) consisting of light cruiser Lamotte-Picquet, colonial sloops Amiral Charner and Dumont D'Urville and sloops Tahure and Marne, decisively defeats a Thai Navy force in a surface gunnery and torpedo action fought in the Gulf of Siam, sinking coast defense ship Dhonburi and torpedo boats Cholbury and Songkhla and damaging coast defense ship Sri Ayuthia and torpedo boat Trat in about two hours.

Vice Admiral Walter S. Anderson becomes Commander Battleships Battle Force.

West Base, U.S. Antarctic Service, is closed.

February

  • Feb 1, Sat.
    Navy Department announces reorganization of U.S. Fleet, reviving old names Atlantic Fleet and Pacific Fleet Asiatic Fleet remains unchanged.

Marine Corps expansion occurs as the 1st and 2d Marine Brigades are brought up to division strength.

Rear Admiral H. Fairfax Leary relieves Rear Admiral Husband E. Kimmel as Commander Cruisers Battle Force.

Admiral Husband E. Kimmel relieves Admiral J.O. Richardson as Commander in Chief U.S. Fleet in battleship Pennsylvania (BB-38) at Pearl Harbor, T.H.

Vice Admiral Wilson Brown Jr. relieves Vice Admiral Adolphus Andrews as Commander Scouting Force.

Rear Admiral John H. Newton relieves Rear Admiral Gilbert J. Rowcliff as Commander Cruisers Scouting Force.

Auxiliary Bear (AG-29) and Interior Department motorship North Star depart Bay of Whales they will proceed via different routes to rendezvous off Adelaide Island to evacuate Antarctic Service's East Base (see 24 February).

During routine exercises in Hawaiian Operating Area off Oahu, destroyers Dale (DD-353) and Hull (DD-350) contact what they believe is a submarine. With all U.S. boats accounted for, Commander Destroyers Battle Force orders Lamson (DD-367) to join Dale and Hull. The ships are to maintain contact and to take offensive action only if attacked. Mahan (DD-364) joins in search as well. With speculation that the only possible reason a submarine would be in those waters would be to obtain supplies or land agents, Lamson accordingly searches the shoreline east of Diamond Head (see 4 February).

Search for submarine off Oahu, begun the previous day, continues. After destroyers Dale (DD-353) and Hull (DD-350) return to Pearl Harbor, destroyers Flusser (DD-368) and Drayton (DD-366) join Lamson (DD-367) in the hunt. Ultimately, however, the search is called off.

Coast Guard Reserve is established.

March

  • Mar 1, Sat.
    Support Force Atlantic Fleet (Rear Admiral Arthur L. Bristol) composed of destroyers and patrol plane squadrons and supporting auxiliaries is established for protection of convoys in North Atlantic.

Europe
Bulgaria joins the Axis as German troops occupy the country.

Pacific
Transport William P. Biddle (AP-15), escorted by light cruiser Concord (CL-10), arrives at Pago Pago, Samoa, and disembarks the Seventh Defense Battalion, the first unit of the Fleet Marine Force deployed to the Southern Hemisphere in World War II.

Rear Admiral Edward J. Marquart is detached as Commander Minecraft Battle Force.

Light cruisers Brooklyn (CL-40) and Savannah (CL-42), and destroyers Case (DD-370), Shaw (DD-373), Cummings Auckland, New Zealand (see 17 March).

Oiler Sangamon (AO-28), that had accompanied the aforementioned cruisers and destroyers from Pearl Harbor, sails to return to Hawaiian waters.

United States
Naval Air Station, Corpus Christi, Texas, is established.

Atlantic
Heavy cruiser Vincennes (CA-44) arrives at Pernambuco, Brazil, en route to her ultimate destination of Simonstown, South Africa (see 20 March).

Coast Guard cutter Cayuga departs Boston, Massachusetts, with South Greenland Survey Expedition, composed of State, Treasury, War, and Navy Department representatives, embarked. The expedition's mission is to locate sites of airfields, seaplane bases, radio and meteorological stations and aids to navigation on Greenland's soil (see 31 March).

TG 9.2 (Captain Ellis S. Stone), comprising light cruiser Brooklyn (CL-40) and Savannah (CL-42) and destroyers Case (DD-370) and Shaw (DD-373), and Tucker (DD-374), concludes its port visit to Auckland, New Zealand and sails for Tahiti (see 25 March).8

Atlantic
Heavy cruiser Vincennes (CA-44) departs Pernambuco, Brazil, for Simonstown, South Africa (see 20 March).

TG 9.2 (Captain Ellis S. Stone), comprising light cruisers Brooklyn (CL-40) and Savannah (CL-42) and destroyers Case (DD-370), Shaw (DD-373) and Tucker (DD-374), arrive at Tahiti.

Pacific
TG 9.2 (Captain Ellis S. Stone), comprising light cruisers Brooklyn (CL-40) and Savannah (CL-42) and destroyers Case (DD-370), Shaw (DD-373) and Tucker (DD-374), depart Tahiti for Pearl Harbor.

Pacific
Heavy cruisers Chicago (CA-29) (Rear Admiral John H. Newton, Commander Cruisers Scouting Force) and Portland (CA-33) and destroyers Clark (DD-361), Conyngham (DD-371), Reid (DD-369), Cassin (DD-372) and Downes (DD-375), depart Brisbane, Australia, for Suva, Fiji Islands (see 1 April).

Coast Guard receives report that crew of Italian merchantman Villarperosa, interned at Wilmington, North Carolina, is sabotaging the ship. The Coast Guard investigates reports that the crews of Italian and German vessels in American ports had received orders to "sabotage and disable" them (see 30 March).

As the result of Coast Guard investigation of report that crew of Italian merchantman Villarperosa was sabotaging their ship, United States takes protective custody of two German, 26 Italian, and 35 Danish ships in American ports Coast Guardsmen take over the vessels. Executive order consequently imprisons 850 Italian and 63 German officers and men.

Pacific
Element of the First Defense Battalion (5-inch artillery, Detachment "A") arrives at Palmyra Island in stores issuing ship Antares (AKS-3) to begin construction of defenses.

Elements of the First Defense Battalion (5-inch artillery, Detachment "B", and Machine Gun Battery, Detachment "A") arrive at Johnston Island in high speed minesweeper Boggs (DMS-3) to begin construction of defenses.

April

Heavy cruisers Chicago (CA-29) (Rear Admiral John H. Newton, Commander Cruisers Scouting Force) and Portland (CA-33) and destroyers Clark (DD-361), Conyngham (DD-371), Reid (DD-369), Cassin (DD-372) and Downes (DD-375) arrive at Suva, Fiji Islands (see 3 April 1941).

Antarctic
Interior Department motorship North Star and auxiliary Bear (AG-29) of the U.S. Antarctic Service, depart Punta Arenas, Chile the former will proceed back to the United States via the west coast of South America, the latter via the east coast (see 5 and 18 May, respectively).

Secretary of State Cordell Hull and Danish Minister to the United States Henrik de Kauffman sign Agreement Relating to the Defense of Greenland.

Pacific
Heavy cruisers Chicago (CA-29) and Portland (CA-33) and destroyers Clark (DD-361), Conyngham (DD-371), Reid (DD-369), Cassin (DD-372) and Downes (DD-375) arrive at Pearl Harbor, thus winding up the Australia-New Zealand good-will cruise.

Atlantic
Destroyer Niblack (DD-424), while rescuing survivors of Dutch freighter Saleier (torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-52 the day before at 58°04'N, 30°48'W, after the dispersal of convoy OB 306) depth charges what is believed to be a German U-boat off Iceland. A thorough investigation by the German navy, however, will conclude that none of their submarines are in the vicinity at the time of Niblack's attack. The U.S. Navy's conclusion is that Niblack has depth-charged a false contact.

Atlantic
Egyptian steamship Zamzam is shelled and sunk by German auxiliary cruiser Atlantis (Schiffe 16, aka "Raider C") in South Atlantic 138 Americans (including 24 British-American Ambulance Corps drivers) are among rescued passengers. Even U.S. citizens travelling in ostensibly neutral ships find themselves at risk. [Zamzam was en route from New York to Mombasa, Kenya. After debarking, theambulance unit was to travel by rail to Kisumu, Uganda and then overland towards Lake Chad, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, and link up with Free French elements in the East African campaign. They carried enough supplies and spare parts (including 600,000 Lucky Strike cigarettes) to remain in the field for a year.)

Purportedly, the surreptitious photographs snapped of Atlantis by Life magazine photographer Carl Mydans, who is serendipitously among the passengers, will prove helpful in providing the Royal Navy with a record of the auxiliary cruiser's appearance. [Note: The Life Magazine photographer aboard the Zamzam was not Carl Mydans. Embarking Zamzam in Recife, Brazil was Life Magazine photographer David E. Scherman and Charles J.V. Murphy, a reporter for Fortune Magazine. Murphy had been with the Admiral Byrd expedition to Antarctica in 1932-33 as a media reporter. Zamzam had been scheduled to arrive in Recife via Port au Spain on 1 April 41, but was delayed due to heavy weather during the passage of the Caribbean Sea until 08 April. Murphy and Scherman had flown into Recife from New York via San Juan and Para' (Belem) in hopes of catching up with Zamzam which had departed New York on 20 March.]

  • May 1, Thu.
    United States
    Office of Public Relations is established as an independent office directly under the Secretary of the Navy, "to serve as liaison between the people and their Navy and, within the limits of military security, to keep the public informed of the activities of the Navy."

Fifth "Lake"-class Coast Guard cutter, authorized for transfer on 10 April under Lend-Lease, is turned over to the Royal Navy. Chelan becomes HMS Lulworth (see 12, 20 and 30 May).

German submarine U-110 is damaged in action with British destroyers HMS Bulldog and HMS Broadway [ex- U.S. destroyer Hunt (DD-191)] and corvette HMS Aubretia. Boarding party from Bulldog recovers a veritable cryptanalysis windfall, including an intact enigma machine and important current codes. Broadway is damaged in the encounter by collision with U-110, which sinks the following day. U-110's commanding officer, Kapitanleutnant Fritz-Julius Lemp (who had been in command of U-30 when she had sunk British liner Athenia on 3 September 1939) is not among the survivors rescued.

Three "Lake"-class Coast Guard cutters, authorized for transfer on 10 April under Lend-Lease, are turned over to the Royal Navy. Champlain becomes HMS Sennen Sebago becomes HMS Walney, and Cayuga becomes HMS Totland (see 20 and 30 May).

Atlantic
TG 2 (Rear Admiral Robert C. Giffen), comprising carrier Wasp (CV-7) (VF 71, VS 72, VMB 2), heavy cruiser Quincy (CA-39) and destroyers Livermore (DD-429) and Kearny (DD-432), departs Bermuda to conduct a 4,170-mile neutrality patrol that will conclude at Bermuda on 3 June.

Ninth "Lake"-class Coast Guard cutter, authorized for transfer on 10 April under Lend-Lease, is turned over to the Royal Navy: Shoshone becomes HMS Languard (see 30 May).

Atlantic
Battle of Denmark Strait: British battle cruiser HMS Hood is sunk, and battleship HMS Prince of Wales damaged, by German battleship Bismarck (which is damaged by a shell from the latter capital ship) and heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen. British Home Fleet elements at sea then pursue the German battleship carrier HMS Victorious launches FAA Swordfish that in the prevailing poor visibility conditions almost attack Coast Guard cutter Modoc, which is in the vicinity searching for survivors of ships sunk in convoy HX German submarine torpedoes had wreaked great destruction against the ships in HX 126: U-94 had sunk British steamers Harpagus and Norman Monarch and Norwegian motor tanker John P. Pederson U-556 had damaged British motor tanker San Felix and sunk British motor tanker British Security and motorship Darlington Court U-111 had sunk British steamer Cockaponset U-98 had sunk British steamer Rothermere U-109 had sunk British steamer Marconi and U-93 had sunk Dutch motor tanker Elusa. Bismarck, although damaged by an aerial torpedo, eludes her shadowers and disappears, while detaching her consort, Prinz Eugen, to conduct independent operations. One of the pursuing ships is British battleship HMS Rodney, en route to the United States for a refit at Boston when she is rerouted to participate in the hunt for Bismarck on board is U.S. Naval Observer Lieutenant Commander Joseph H. Wellings, who witnesses the ensuing battle from that unique vantage point.

PBYs (VP 52) operating from seaplane tender Albemarle (AV-5) at Argentia, Newfoundland, and braving foul weather and dangerous flying conditions, search for Bismarck in the western Atlantic.

German battleship Bismarck is overwhelmed and sunk by British naval force, 300 nautical miles west of Ushant, France, 48°10'N, 16°12'W.

TG 3, comprising carrier Ranger (CV-4) (VB 5, VF 5, and VS 5), heavy cruiser Tuscaloosa (CA-37), and destroyers McDougal (DD-358) and Eberle (DD-430), departs Bermuda for a 4,355-mile neutrality patrol that will conclude there on 8 June.

  • Jun 1, Sun.
    Atlantic
    South Greenland Patrol (Commander Harold G. Belford, USCG), is established to operate from Cape Brewster to Cape Farewell to Upernivik Coast Guard cutters Modoc,

Comanche and Raritan, together with unclassified auxiliary vessel Bowdoin (IX-50) make up the force.

Crete capitulates to the Germans.

Atlantic
Aircraft escort vessel Long Island (AVG 1) is commissioned at Newport News, Virginia. Converted from Maritime Commission C-3 type freighter Mormacmail in just 67 working days, Long Island is the first of a type of what come to be classified as "escort carriers" that will prove invaluable in the prosecution of the war in both Atlantic and Pacific theaters.

Naval Air Station, Balboa, Canal Zone, is established.

Naval Air Station, Kodiak, Alaska, is established.

Atlantic
TF 3 (Rear Admiral Jonas H. Ingram) begins patrol operations from Brazilian ports of Recife and Bahia the force consists of four Omaha (CL-4)-class light cruisers and five destroyers.

Rear Admiral Joseph K. Taussig is detached as Commandant Fifth Naval District and Commander Naval Operating Base, Norfolk, Virginia.

Undersecretary of State Sumner Welles sends this message to the German Embassy for the information of the German government (see 24 June, 19 and 26 September and 3 November).

Battleship Texas (BB-35) and destroyers Mayrant (DD-402), Rhind (DD-404), and Trippe (DD-403) are sighted by German submarine U-203 within what the German navy regards as the war, or "blockade" zone in the Atlantic. The American force, however, unaware of the U-boat, outdistances the submarine and frustrates its attempted attack. In the wake of this incident, the commander in chief of the German navy (Grossadmiral Erich Raeder) orders that American warships can only be attacked if they cross the western boundary of the blockade area by 20 or more miles, or within the 20-mile strip along the western edge of the blockade zone.

TG 2.6, comprising carrier Wasp (CV-7) (VF 71, VS 72, and VMB 1), heavy cruiser Tuscaloosa (CA-37), and destroyers Anderson (DD-411) and Rowan (DD-405), departs Hampton Roads for a 4,320-mile neutrality patrol that will conclude at Bermuda on 4 July.

Submarines O 6 (SS-167), O 9 (SS-170) and O 10 (SS-171) conduct deep submergence trials out of Portsmouth, N.H. while O 6 and O 10 conduct their test dives without incident, O 9, the last boat to make the test dive, accidentally sinks (cause unknown) off the Isles of Shoals, southeast of Portsmouth, 42°59'48"N,

Atlantic
After all hopes of finding any survivors from the sunken submarine O 9 (SS-170) are lost and continued diving operations in the vicinity deemed hazardous, Secretary of the Navy Knox personally conducts memorial ceremony, held on board submarine Triton (SS-201), over last known location of the lost boat.

Atlantic
TG 2.7, comprising light cruisers Philadelphia (CL-41) and Savannah (CL-42) and destroyers Lang (DD-399) and Wilson (DD-408), depart Hampton Roads for a 4,762-mile neutrality patrol that will conclude on 8 July at Bermuda.

During German submarine attacks on convoy HX 133, Dutch steamship Maasdam is torpedoed and sunk by U-564 approximately 300 miles south of Iceland among the survivors are marines under Major Walter L. Jordan, USMC, the advance detail for the Marine Detachment at the American Embassy in London.

President issues executive order creating the Office of Scientific Research and Development (Dr. Vannevar Bush, chairman) which will replace the National Defense Research Committee. The new office will coordinate and supplement scientific research relating to the defense effort.

Atlantic
Destroyer Madison (DD-425) is damaged when she runs aground on the southeast tip of Moratties Shoal, Placentia Harbor, Argentia, Newfoundland.

Vichy France severs relations with the Soviet Union.

  • Jul 1, Tue.
    Naval Coastal Frontiers are established: North Atlantic, Southern, Caribbean, Panama, Pacific Southern, Pacific Northern, Hawaiian, and Philippine. Their commanders are responsible for the direction of local patrol, convoy escort, and antisubmarine warfare operations. Mobilization of all Organized, Fleet, and local defense divisions of the Naval Reserve is completed on this date.

Atlantic
Task Forces are organized by Commander in Chief Atlantic Fleet (Admiral Ernest J. King) to support defense of Iceland and to escort convoys between the U.S. and Iceland. TF 1 (Rear Admiral David M. LeBreton) based at Narragansett Bay and Boston TF 2 (Rear Admiral Arthur B. Cook) based at Bermuda and Hampton Roads TF 3 (Rear Admiral Jonas H. Ingram) based at San Juan, Puerto Rico, and Guantanamo TF 4 (Rear Admiral Arthur L. Bristol) based at Narragansett Bay TF 5 (Rear Admiral Richard S. Edwards), TF 6 and TF 8 (Rear Admiral Edward D. McWhorter), TF 7 (Rear Admiral Ferdinand L. Reichmuth) based at Bermuda TF 9 (Rear Admiral Randall Jacobs) and TF 10 (Major General Holland M. Smith, USMC).

Patrol Wing 7 (the redesignated Patrol Wing, Support Force) (Captain Harold M. Mullinix) (TG 4.2) is established at Argentia, Newfoundland, for operations in North Atlantic.

Northeast Greenland Patrol (Commander Edward H. "Iceberg" Smith, USCG) (TG 6.5) is organized at Boston, Massachusetts, by the Coast Guard it consists of cutters Northland and North Star, and auxiliary Bear (AG-29).

U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom John Winant reports on 11 July 1941 that of the 27 American Red Cross nurses were travelling to serve in England 9 had arrived safely, 10 had been rescued (4 in serious condition) and 8 were missing.

1st Marine Aircraft Wing (Lieutenant Colonel Louis E. Woods, USMC) is established at Quantico, Virginia.

Naval Air Station, Quonset Point, Rhode Island, is established.

TG 2.7, comprising light cruisers Philadelphia (CL-41) and Savannah (CL-42) and destroyers Meredith (DD-434) and Gwin (DD-433), departs Bermuda for 3,415-mile neutrality patrol that will conclude there on 25 July.

24, Thu.
Atlantic
Transport West Point (AP-23) disembarks German and Italian consular officials and their families at Lisbon, Portugal (see 26 July and 1 August).

Pacific
Japanese forces occupy northern French Indochina (see 26 July).

U.S. Army Forces, Far East (Lieutenant General Douglas MacArthur) is organized Philippine military forces are called into service with U.S. Army.

Atlantic
Transport West Point (AP-23), at Lisbon, Portugal, embarks American and Chinese consular staffs from Germany, German-occupied countries, and Italy, and sails for the United States. In addition, West Point embarks the 21 American ambulance drivers who had been passengers on board the Egyptian steamship Zamzam when she had been sunk by German auxiliary cruiser Atlantis on 17 April (see 1 August). [The other three members of the detachment were accounted for as follows: (1) Commander of the BAAC field unit, Francis J. 'Frank' Vicovari of New York remained aboard the Atlantis due to the extent of his shrapnel injuries during the attack of April 17th (There had been 9 passengers wounded in the attack -- 3, who were serious, including Frank remained aboard Atlantis, the other passengers and crew transferred aboard the NDL freighter Dresden. The other wounded American died of his injuries several days later and was buried-at-sea. A British doctor was also wounded and transferred to the Dutch flagged prizeship Silva Plana in September, arriving Bordeaux in November). Frank would not return to the United States until released in the 2nd of 3 such operations under the RAMP (Returned Allied Military Personnel) scheme. Frank was exchanged for (2) German archeologists, detained in the United States. This 2nd exchange took place in Lisbon, Portugal during March of 1944 (1st Goteburg, Sweden October 42 3rd Seville, Spain, May 44). Frank had been held in the Marlag und Milag du Nord interment camp near Bremen, Germany since his arrival and transfer from the French port of St. Nazaire on Christmas Eve, 1941. (2) The other 2 members of the BAAC team, David Stewart and Tom Greenough had escaped from a German transport train while the guards watching over the 21 drivers slept. After several days they walked safely across the border into unoccupied France. After meeting with Free-French officials, they were granted passage to Lisbon and arrived in the USA just 5-days ahead of the other 21 members of the BAAC.]

Pacific
During Japanese bombing raid on Chungking, China, one bomb falls eight yards astern of river gunboat Tutuila (PR-4). While the bomb causes no damage to the ship, Tutuila's motor boats are badly damaged and the motor sampan cut loose from its moorings. There are no casualties (see 31 July).

Pacific
Japanese government assures U.S. government that the previous day's bombing of river gunboat Tutuila (PR-4) at Chungking, China, is "an accident 'pure and simple'."

August

  • Aug 1, Fri.
    Pacific
    Naval Air Station, Midway Island is established, Commander Cyril T. Simard in command.

Atlantic
Naval Operating Base, Trinidad, is established.

Transport West Point (AP-23) arrives at New York with American and Chinese passengers.

Presidential yacht Potomac (AG-25), accompanied by Calypso (AG-35), proceeds to South Dartmouth, Massachusetts, where she embarks Her Royal Highness Crown Princess Martha of Norway and her party. After a day of fishing ("with some luck") the Chief Executive personally takes the helm of a Chris-Craft motorboat and transports his guests back to the place whence they came. That night, Potomac, again accompanied by Calypso, shifts to Menemsha Bight, Vineyard Sound, Massachusetts, where they join heavy cruisers Augusta (CA-31) and Tuscaloosa (CA-37) and five destroyers.

Pacific
Heavy cruisers Northampton (CA-26) and Salt Lake City (CA-25) arrive at Brisbane, Australia, for a goodwill visit.

Pacific
Executive order transfers Coast Guard's Honolulu District from the Treasury Department to the Navy in the first step toward shifting the Coast Guard to naval control (see 11 September and 1 November).

Maneuvers at New River, North Carolina, conclude.

Submarine chaser PC 457 is accidentally sunk in collision with U.S. freighter Norluna off Puerto Rico.

Pacific
During Japanese bombing raid on Chungking, China, Japanese planes approach the city from the east, passing directly over the U.S. Embassy chancery and the river gunboat Tutuila (PR-4). There is no repetition of the incident of 30 July.

Atlantic
TG 2.5, comprising carrier Yorktown (CV-5) (VF 42, VS 41, and VT 5), light cruiser Brooklyn (CL-40) and destroyers Roe (DD-418), Grayson (DD-435), and Eberle (DD-430), departs Bermuda to begin 4,064-mile neutrality patrol that will conclude at Bermuda on 27 August.

President Roosevelt fishes with "indifferent luck" off Deer Island from presidential yacht Potomac (AG-25) the ship anchors in Pulpit Harbor, Penobscot Bay for the night.

Pacific
Heavy cruisers Northampton (CA-26) and Salt Lake City (CA-25) arrive at Rabaul, New Britain, British New Guinea, for a goodwill visit.

Atlantic
Panamanian (ex-Danish) freighter Sessa is torpedoed and sunk about 300 miles southwest of Iceland, 61°26'N, 30°50'W (see 6 September). The freighter's assailant is unknown.

Atlantic
TG 2.6 (Rear Admiral H. Kent Hewitt), comprising Wasp (CV-7), light cruiser Savannah (CL-42), and destroyers Meredith (DD-434) and Gwin (DD-433), departs Hampton Roads, Virginia, on a neutrality patrol that will conclude at Bermuda on 10 September.

Atlantic
German submarine U-570, attacked by an RAF Hudson (No. 269 Squadron), is captured intact by British surface force in the North Atlantic. The Royal Navy thoroughly evaluated the submarine, the first to be captured intact for intensive study the U-boat served as HMS Graph until it was wrecked in 1944. Among the ships that captured the submarine was Canadian destroyer HMCS Niagara, formerly USS Thatcher (DD-162), one of the fifty destroyers transferred in the destroyers-for-bases agreement of August 1940.

Hostilities in Iran cease.

Atlantic
TG 2.7, comprising aircraft escort vessel Long Island (AVG 1) (VGS 1), light cruiser Nashville (CL-43) and destroyers Livermore (DD-429) and Kearny (DD-432) departs Bermuda. It will conclude the patrol--the first involving the prototype "escort carrier"--at Bermuda on 9 September.

September

  • Sep 1, Mon.
    Atlantic
    Navy assumes responsibility for trans-Atlantic convoys from point off Argentia to meridian of Iceland.

Commander in Chief Atlantic Fleet (Admiral Ernest J. King) designates a task group as a Denmark Strait Patrol to operate in waters between Iceland and Greenland.

Pacific
U.S. Consul General in Shanghai, China (Clarence Gauss), Commander Yangtze Patrol (Rear Admiral William A. Glassford) and Commanding Officer Fourth Marine Regiment (Colonel Samuel L. Howard, USMC) recommend that all naval forces in China (river gunboats and marines) be withdrawn.

Executive order provides that such additional Coast Guard vessels, units, or people, should be transferred to the Navy as should be agreed upon between the Commandant of the Coast Guard and the Chief of Naval Operations (see 6 August and 1 November).

German submarines attack convoy SC 42 unarmed Panamanian freighter Montana is torpedoed and sunk by U-105 at 63°40'N, 35°50'W.

Gulf of Suez
Unarmed U.S. freighter Arkansan is damaged by antiaircraft shell fragments during heavy air raid on Port Suez there are no reported casualties among the 38-man crew.

Atlantic
As TF 15 proceeds toward Iceland, destroyer Truxtun (DD-229) reports submarine emerging from the fog 300 yards away, but low visibility and uncertainty as to the position of MacLeish (DD-220), also in the screen of TF 15, prevents Truxtun from opening fire. After the submarine submerges, Truxtun, MacLeish and Sampson (DD-394) make depth charge attacks with no verifiable result.

German submarines attack convoy SC 44 among the ships lost in the onslaught are Panamanian freighter Pink Star (ex-Danish Landby) and tanker T.J. Williams, torpedoed and sunk by U-552 at 61°36'N, 35°07'W and 61°34'N, 35°11'W, respectively.

German Chargé d'Affaires Hans Thomsen replies to Secretary of State Hull's note of 19 September concerning reparations for the loss of Robin Moor: referring to the notes of 20 June and 19 September 1941, Thomsen replies that "the two communications made are not such as to lead to an appropriate reply by my government" (see 3 November).

TU 4.1.3 (Commander Dennis L. Ryan) assumes escort duty for convoy ON 20 at the MOMP (see 2 October).

Rear Admiral Harold M. Bemis, incapacitated by illness, is relieved as Commandant, Sixteenth Naval District and Navy Yard, Cavite, P.I., by Captain Herbert J. Ray (see 5 November)."

October

  • Oct 1, Wed.
    United States, British, and Soviet representatives conclude three-day conference in Moscow on aid to the Soviet Union.

Secretary of the Navy Knox approves "popular" names for naval combat aircraft: "Avenger" (Grumman TBF), "Buccaneer" (Brewster SB2A), "Buffalo" (Brewster F2A), "Catalina" (Consolidated PBY), "Coronado" (Consolidated PB2Y), "Corsair" (Vought F4U), "Dauntless" (Douglas SBD), "Devastator" (Douglas TBD), "Helldiver" (Curtiss SB2C), "Kingfisher" (Vought OS2U/Naval Aircraft Factory OS2N), "Mariner" (Martin PBM), "Sea Ranger" (Boeing PBB patrol bomber), "Seagull" (Curtiss SO3C), and "Vindicator" (Vought SB2U). Names supplement the Navy's letter-number designations, which remain unchanged and continue to be used in correspondence. As can be seen, the name "Avenger" is assigned well before either Pearl Harbor (7 December 1941) or the slaughter of torpedo planes at the Battle of Midway (4-6 June 1942). These two events are commonly believed to have motivated the assignment of this particular nickname to the TBF/TBM series. The name "Seagull" is also applied unofficially to the Curtiss SOC series which is in use in cruiser-based observation squadrons. Ironically, the SO3C proves a failure in service, and the SOC it was designed to replace serves on.

Sale of War Savings Bonds to naval personnel is inaugurated on this date under the direction of a Coordinator for War Savings Bonds, Supply Corps officers are designated as issuing agents and assigned to 28 major shore activities. Actual sales of the bonds will amount to $61,000,000--over 50 in excess of the predicted sales.

Atlantic
Destroyer Winslow (DD-359), in screen of convoy ON 20, is detached from TU 4.1.3 to proceed to the assistance of Dutch motor vessel Tuva, torpedoed by German submarine U-575 at 54°16'N, 26°36'W. Although Winslow finds the freighter still afloat, the destroyer depth charges a "doubtful" submarine contact in the vicinity and upon her return is unable to locate any survivors. Winslow rejoins ON 20 the following morning. The Dutch freighter's crew, however, is apparently rescued by another ship, for the Lloyd's List of Shipping Losses: World War II lists only one man missing from among the complement of 35.

Coast Guard cutter Campbell scuttles irreparably damaged British tanker San Florentino (torpedoed by German submarine U-575 at 52°50'N, 34°40'W and 52°42'N, 34°51'W).

Oiler Salinas (AO-19), with convoy [. >, is damaged by heavy seas, and is convoyed to Iceland by destroyer Broome (DD-210).

Pacific
Captain Lester J. Hudson relieves Captain Richard E. Cassidy as Commander, South China Patrol, on board river gunboat Mindanao (PR-8) at Hong Kong, B.C.C.

Destroyer Charles F. Hughes (DD-428), while escorting convoy HX 154, rescues the only seven survivors of British freighter Hatasu (torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-431 on 2 October, 600 miles east of Cape Race), at 51°56'N, 35°58'W.

Pacific
Destroyers Peary (DD-225) and Pillsbury (DD-227) are damaged in collision during night exercises in Manila Bay, P.I.

Commander in Chief Pacific Fleet (Admiral Husband E. Kimmel) sends two submarines to Midway and two to Wake on "simulated war patrols" (see 26 October).

Navy orders all U.S. merchant ships in Asiatic waters to put into friendly ports.

Atlantic
Battle to protect convoy SC 48 continues. SC 48 is the first U.S. Navy-escorted convoy to engage German submarines in battle, but despite the presence of the three modern U.S. destroyers and two flush-deckers--Decatur (DD-341) and HMCS Columbia [ex-U.S. destroyer Haraden (DD-183)], and four Canadian corvettes, the enemy torpedoes six ships and an escort vessel in a total elapsed time of four hours and forty-seven minutes. U-432 sinks Greek steamer Evros at 57°00'N, 24°30'W, Panamanian steamer Bold Venture and Norwegian motor tanker Barfonn at 56°58'N, 25°04'W U-558 sinks British tanker W.C. Teagle at 57°00'N, 25°00'W, and Norwegian steamship Rym at 57°01'N, 24°20'W. U-553 sinks Norwegian steamer Erviken at 56°10'N, 24°30'W, and conducts unsuccessful approach on destroyer Plunkett (DD-431). Destroyer Kearny (DD-432) is torpedoed by U-568 southwest of Iceland, 57°00'N, 24°00'W 11 of Kearny's crew are killed, 22 injured (see 18 October). Soon thereafter, U-101 torpedoes and sinks British destroyer HMS Broadwater [ex-U.S. destroyer Mason (DD-191)], at 57°01'N, 19°08'W. Lost on board the British flush-decker are two survivors from Ervinger and nine from W.C. Teagle. Escorted by Greer (DD-145), the damaged Kearny proceeds to Hvalfjordur, Iceland. There she will undergo repairs alongside repair ship Vulcan (AR-5) and eventually return to the United States. Iceland-based PBYs (VP 73) arrive to provide air coverage for SC 48.

Destroyer Charles F. Hughes (DD-428) and Gleaves (DD-423), while screening convoy HX 154, depth-charge suspicious contacts at 54°40'N, 33°59'W, and 54°40'N, 33°59'W (see 19 October).

Unarmed U.S. freighter Lehigh is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-126 about 75 miles off Freetown, Sierre Leone, 08°26'N, 14°37'W. While there are no fatalities, four men are slightly injured.

TU 4.1.3 (Commander Richard E. Webb) escorts convoy HX 156 destroyer Hilary P. Jones (DD-427) carries out depth charge attacks on suspicious contact but, after spying a school of porpoises, ceases fire.

South and Northeast Greenland Patrols are merged and renamed Greenland Patrol it is designated as TG 24.8 of the Atlantic Fleet.

Destroyer Hilary P. Jones (DD-427) is damaged by heavy seas while screening convoy HX 156.

TU 4.1.6 (Commander George W. Johnson) screens convoy ON 28. During the day, destroyers Lea (DD-118), DuPont (DD-152), MacLeish (DD-220), and Sampson (DD-394) depth charge suspected U-boat contacts.

TU 4.1.1 (Captain Marion Y. Cohen) contacts MOMP-bound convoy HX 157 at 45°43'N, 55°37'W. The convoy will not be attacked by U-boats (see 1 November).

TU 4.1.6 (Commander George W. Johnson), screening ON 28, carries out vigorous attacks on sound contacts: destroyer Babbitt (DD-128) carries out two, while Buck (DD-420), DuPont (DD-152) (which is attacked by U-boat but missed), Leary (DD-158) and Sampson (DD-394) one attack apiece.

November

  • Nov 1, Sat.
    Executive order places Coast Guard under jurisdiction of Department of the Navy for duration of national emergency.

Pacific
Pacific Escort Force is formed at Pearl Harbor to protect transports and certain merchant vessels carrying troops and valuable military cargoes between Hawaii and the Far East.

Atlantic
PBYs (VP 73) provide air coverage for convoy ON 30.

Destroyers Dallas (DD-199), Ellis (DD-154), and Eberle (DD-430), screening convoy HX 157, carry out depth charge attacks on sound contacts off St. John's, Newfoundland.

PBMs (VP 74) provide air coverage for convoy ON 30.

Atlantic
PBYs (VP 73) provide air coverage for convoy ON 31.

Destroyer Upshur (DD-144), escorting convoy HX 157, depth charges sound contact (later determined to be most likely a whale or blackfish) at 56°56'N, 49°21'W.

British RFA oiler Olwen reports German surface raider attack at 03°04'N, 22°42'W. Commander-in-Chief, South Atlantic, Vice Admiral Algernon U. Willis, RN, orders heavy cruiser HMS Dorsetshire (accompanied by armed merchant cruiser HMS Canton) to investigate. Light cruiser HMS Dunedin and special service vessels HMS Queen Emma and Princess Beatrix are ordered to depart Freetown, Sierra Leone to join in the search. Dorsetshire and Canton part company, with the former heading southeast and the latter steaming toward a position to the northwest, to be supported by TG 3.6, light cruiser Omaha (CL-4) and destroyer Somers (DD-381), which are at that time well to the northwest of the reported enemy position. Light cruiser Memphis (CL-4) and destroyers Davis (DD-395) and Jouett (DD-396), near to Olwen's position, search the area without result Omaha and Somers search unsuccessfully for survivors (see 5-6 November).

Search for German raider reported by British RFA oiler Olwen the previous day continues Commander-in-Chief South Atlantic (Vice Admiral Algernon U. Willis, RN) informs British ships of the unsuccessful efforts by the five U.S. ships (two light cruisers and three destroyers) involved in the search the previous day (see 6 November).

Pacific
Rear Admiral Francis W. Rockwell relieves Captain Herbert J. Ray as Commandant, Sixteenth Naval District and Commander, Philippine Naval Coastal Frontier. Ray had been acting in that capacity due to the illness of Rear Admiral Harold M. Bemis.

Destroyer Madison (DD-425), on the flank of convoy ON 39, carries out depth charge attack at 45°50'N, 40°40'W investigation later proves their quarry to have been a whale.

Naval Operating Base, Iceland, is established Rear Admiral James L. Kauffman is the first commandant.

Destroyer Ericsson (DD-440), screening convoy HX 157, depth charges sound contact later evaluated as a "doubtful" submarine.

Pacific
Commander in Chief Asiatic Fleet (Admiral Thomas C. Hart) receives permission to withdraw river gunboats from the Yangtze and USMC forces from China.

Destroyer Decatur (DD-341), screening convoy HX 159, depth charges sound contact off the Grand Banks it is later evaluated as a "doubtful" submarine.

Destroyer Decatur (DD-341), screening convoy HX 159, twice depth charges sound contacts that are later evaluated as "non-submarine." Destroyer Badger (DD-126), depth charges sound contact that is later evaluated as perhaps Decatur's wake. Coast Guard cutter Campbell reports sound contact and conducts search she is joined by destroyer Livermore (DD-429).

Destroyer Decatur (DD-341), screening convoy HX 159, depth charges sound contact although it is regarded as a good contact, the ensuing search yields no evidence of a submarine.

Atlantic
Destroyer Benson (DD-421) and Niblack (DD-424), screening convoy ON 34, depth charge sound contacts.

Destroyer Edison (DD-439), en route to MOMP in TU 4.1.1 to screen convoy ON 35, attacks a sound contact southwest of Iceland at 62°53'N, 24°30'W.

Atlantic
TU 4.1.1 (Captain Marion Y. Cohen) assumes escort duty for convoy ON 35 at the MOMP. There will be no U-boat attacks on the convoy, but nearly continuous heavy weather between 16 and 25 November result in 16 of the 26 ships straggling.

Bureau of Navigation directs that naval district personnel who received Armed Guard training be assigned to Little Creek, Virginia, or San Diego, California, for further instruction. They will be transferred to Armed Guard centers at New York, New York, and Treasure Island, California, for assignment to merchant ships.

Special Japanese envoy Kurusu Saburo arrives in Washington and confers with Secretary of State Cordell Hull.

Atlantic
Destroyers Benson (DD-421) and Edison (DD-439), screening convoy ON 34, depth charge submarine contacts.

TU 4.1.5 (Commander William K. Phillips) intercepts and joins convoy HX 160 although none of the destroyers in the task unit will be damaged by enemy action, all--Mayo (DD-422), Babbitt (DD-128), Leary (DD-158), Schenck (DD-159), and Nicholson (DD-442)--will suffer storm damage of varying degrees between this date and 28 November.

German blockade runner Odenwald, captured by light cruiser Omaha (CL-4) and destroyer Somers (DD-381) on 6 November, is escorted into San Juan, Puerto Rico, by Somers and turned over to U.S. authorities.

Atlantic
Destroyer Nicholson (DD-424), with TU 4.1.5, escorting convoy HX 160, depth charges a sound contact at 50°30'N, 50°40'W.

Atlantic
Lend-Lease is extended to Iceland.

Pacific
Destroyer Shaw (DD-373) and oiler Sabine (AO-25) are damaged in collision in Hawaiian Operating Area.

Atlantic
TU 4.1.6 (Commander Gilbert C. Hoover) assumes escort duty for convoy HX 161 the convoy will not be attacked by U-boats during its passage (see 24 November).

British light cruiser Dunedin is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-124 north of Pernambuco, Brazil, at approximately 03°00'S, 26°00'W (see 27 November).

Submarines Triton (SS-201) and Tambor (SS-198) arrive off Wake Island on simulated war patrols.

Pacific
Japanese carrier task force (Vice Admiral NagumoŒ', Chuichi), formed around six aircraft carriers, sails from remote Hittokappu Bay in the Kuriles, its departure shrouded in secrecy. Its mission, should talks between United States and Japan fail to resolve the diplomatic impasse over Far Eastern and Pacific questions, is to attack the U.S. Pacific Fleet wherever it is found in Hawaiian waters.

Tug Sonoma (AT-12) sails from Wake Island with Pan American Airways barges PAB No. 2 and PAB No. 4 in tow, bound for Honolulu.

Pacific
U.S. passenger liner President Madison, chartered for the purpose, sails from Shanghai, China, with the 2d Battalion, 4th Marine Regiment (Lieutenant Colonel Donald Curtis, USMC) embarked, bound for the Philippines (see 28 November).

Atlantic
Destroyer Babbitt (DD-128), with TU 4.1.5, escorting convoy HX 160, depth charges a sound contact.

U.S. freighter Nishmaha rescues 72 survivors (five of whom succumb to their wounds) from British light cruiser HMS Dunedin, sunk by German submarine U-124 on 24 November. Nishmaha transports the survivors to Trinidad.

Seaplane tender Wright (AV-1), arrives at Wake Island, with Marine Aircraft Group 21 people to establish an advance aviation base.

U.S. passenger liner President Harrison, chartered for the purpose, sails from Shanghai, China, with the 1st Battalion, 4th Marine Regiment (Lieutenant Colonel Curtis T. Beecher, USMC) and regimental staff (Colonel Samuel L. Howard, USMC) embarked, bound for the Philippines. "Stirring scenes of farewell," U.S. Consul Edwin F. Stanton reports to Secretary of State Hull, accompany the marines' departure.

During their storm-fraught passage to rendezvous with the river gunboats proceeding from Shanghai to Manila, submarine rescue vessel Pigeon (ASR-6) experiences steering casualty minesweeper Finch (AM-9), which loses both anchors in the tempest, stands by to render assistance, and eventually, after three tries, manages to take the crippled ship in tow the following day.

Atlantic
TU 4.1.2 (Commander Fred D. Kirtland), accompanied by salvage vessel Redwing (ARS-4) and oiler Sapelo (AO-11), assumes escort for convoy HX 162 (see 1 December).

TU 4.1.4 (Captain Alan G. Kirk) assumes escort duty for convoy ONS 39 the convoy will not be attacked by U-boats during its passage. ONS 39, however, will encounter considerable stormy weather that causes varying degrees of topside damage to destroyers Plunkett (DD-431), Livermore (DD-429), Decatur (DD-341) and Cole (DD-155).

Destroyer Woolsey (DD-437), screening convoy HX 161, despite having been hampered by propulsion problems the previous days, depth charges suspicious contact without result.

Small reconnaissance seaplane from Japanese submarine I 10 reconnoiters Suva Bay, Fiji.

U.S. passenger liner President Madison arrives at Olongapo, P.I., and disembarks the 2d Battalion, 4th Marine Regiment (Lieutenant Colonel Donald Curtis, USMC). President Madison will then proceed on to Singapore.

River gunboats Luzon (PR-7) and Oahu (PR-6) (Rear Admiral William A. Glassford, Commander Yangtze Patrol, in Luzon) rendezvous with submarine rescue vessel Pigeon (ASR-6) and minesweeper Finch (AM-9) they will remain in company until 3 December.

Atlantic
Destroyer Decatur (DD-341), in TU 4.1.4 (Captain Alan G. Kirk), escorting convoy ONS 39, carries out depth charge attack on suspicious contact, 59°24'N, 27°03'W.

Army GHQ Maneuvers in North and South Carolina conclude.

December

  • Dec 1, Mon.
    Atlantic
    Patrol Wing 9 (Lieutenant Commander Thomas U. Sisson) is established at Quonset Point, Rhode Island.

German submarine U-575 encounters and tracks unarmed U.S. tanker Astral, the latter en route from Aruba, N.W.I., to Lisbon, Portugal, with a cargo of 78,200 barrels of gasoline and kerosene. After seeing that Astral is unarmed and bears prominent neutrality markings, however, the U-boat's commanding officer, Kapitanleutnant Gunther Heydemann, allows the American ship to pass unmolested. Subsequently, another submarine in the vicinity, U-43, encounters Astral and attacks her, but her torpedoes miss their mark (see 2 December).

TU 4.1.2 (Commander Fred D. Kirtland), accompanied by salvage vessel Redwing (ARS-4) and oiler Sapelo (AO-11), while escorting convoy HX 162, encounters heavy weather that scatters 35 merchantmen. Destroyers Charles F. Hughes (DD-428), Madison (DD-425), Lansdale (DD-426), Wilkes (DD-441) and Sturtevant (DD-240) all suffer storm damage of varying degrees (see 7 December).

Destroyer Livermore (DD-429), escorting convoy ONS 39, is dispatched to investigate darkened merchantman steaming on opposite course. Livermore trails her and after determining her to be Panamanian freighter Ramapo, en route to join convoy SC 56, allows her to continue her voyage after being warned not to radio a report of contact with a convoy.

Pacific
President orders a "defensive information patrol" of "three small ships" established off the coast of French Indochina he specifically designates yacht Isabel (PY-10) (reserve flagship for Commander in Chief Asiatic Fleet) as one of the trio of vessels (see 3 and 6 December). Schooner Lanikai is acquired and commissioned, but the start of the war results in her planned mission being cancelled. The third vessel, schooner Molly Moore, is selected for the mission but is never taken over. Lanikai's civilian career had seen her used as a "prop" in the filming of motion picture "Hurricane" that starred Dorothy Lamour and Jon Hall.

U.S. passenger liner President Harrison arrives at Olongapo, P.I., with the remaining elements of the 4th Marine Regiment (Colonel Samuel L. Howard, USMC) withdrawn from Shanghai. President Harrison soon sails to bring out the last marines from China (see 8 December).

As river gunboats Luzon (PR-7) and Oahu (PR-6) (Rear Admiral William A. Glassford, Commander Yangtze Patrol, in Luzon), submarine rescue vessel Pigeon (ASR-6) and minesweeper Finch (AM-9) proceed toward Manila, they become the object of curiosity by Japanese forces in the vicinity first a floatplane circles the formation, then seven Japanese warships of various types.

Atlantic
German submarine U-43 again attacks unarmed U.S. tanker Astral and this time torpedoes and sinks her at 35°40'N, 24°00'W. There are no survivors from the 37-man merchant crew.

Weather encountered by convoy ONS 39, being escorted by TU 4.1.4 (Captain Alan G. Kirk) worsens to the extent that the watch on board destroyer Plunkett (DD-431) cannot be relieved because officers and men cannot safely traverse the weather decks.

TU 4.1.5 (Commander William K. Phillips) clears Reykjavik, Iceland, to rendezvous with convoy ON 41, which due to poor weather will be 48 hours late to the MOMP. Over the ensuing period at sea, TU 4.1.5 battles "consistently severe" weather conditions that will cause varying degrees of damage to all of the ships in the task unit. Although ships of the unit carry out attacks (see 5, 9 and 11 December), there will be no U-boat attacks on the merchantmen under their protection.

TU 4.1.6 (Commander Gilbert C. Hoover), escorting convoy HX 161, encounters heavy weather destroyer Bernadou (DD-153) suffers storm damage destroyers Roe (DD-418) and Lea (DD-118) each lose a man overboard. Neither sailor is recovered (see 4 December).

Pacific
Submarine Trout (SS-202) arrives off Midway Island on simulated war patrol.

Destroyer Mayo (DD-422), in TU 4.1.5 en route to MOMP and convoy ON 41, encounters two British ships, HMS Tenacity and merchantman Meademere, burning navigation lights south of Iceland when they fail to answer challenge, Mayo illuminates them with starshells, at which point they turn off lights and answer challenge promptly.

Pacific
Yacht Isabel (PY-10) sails for coast of French Indochina, deployed in accordance with President Roosevelt's "defensive information patrol" order.

Submarine Argonaut (SS-166) arrives off Midway Island on simulated war patrol.

River gunboat Mindanao (PR-8) (Captain Lester J. Hudson, Commander South China Patrol, embarked) sails from Hong Kong, British Crown Colony, for Manila. She is the last U.S. Navy ship to depart Chinese waters prior to war. Luzon Stevedoring Company tug Ranger follows subsequently, carrying spare parts and 800 3-inch shells for Mindanao's main battery (previously stored ashore at Hong Kong). Only two U.S. naval vessels remain in Chinese waters: river gunboat Wake (ex-Guam) (PR-3) at Shanghai to maintain communications until a radio station is established at the Consulate General with Navy equipment, and river gunboat Tutuila (PR-4) at Chungking, where she furnishes essential services to the U.S. Embassy. Wake had received her new name on 23 January 1941 to clear the name Guam for a new large cruiser (CB 2).

Carrier Enterprise (CV-6) ferries USMC F4Fs (VMF 211) to Wake Island TF 8 (Vice Admiral William F. Halsey, Jr.) then shapes a course to return to Pearl Harbor. TF 8 is slated to reach Pearl on 6 December. Heavy weather on 5-6 December, however, will result in a delay in fueling the force's destroyers and push back the time of arrival in Pearl from the afternoon of the 6th to the morning of the 7th. That same day, a routine scouting flight from the carrier sights Honolulu-bound tug Sonoma (AT-12) with Pan American Airways barges PAB No. 2 and PAB No. 4 in tow. Sonoma, armed with only two .30-caliber machine guns, will eventually reach Honolulu on 15 December 1941, with her tows.

Japanese naval land attack plane (Chitose Kokutai) reconnoiters Wake Island undetected.

Atlantic
TU 4.1.5 (Commander William K. Phillips) reaches MOMP to escort convoy ON 41 which has been delayed by bad weather.

TU 4.1.6 (Commander Gilbert C. Hoover), encounters "mountainous" seas as it continues to escort convoy HX 161 destroyer Roe (DD-418) suffers two sailors hurt when torpedo breaks loose atop her after deckhouse.

Carrier Lexington (CV-2) in TF 12 (Rear Admiral John H. Newton) sails for Midway to ferry USMC SB2Us (VMSB 231) to that atoll. Like Enterprise (CV-6)'s deployment to Wake, Lexington's to Midway is in response to the "War Warning" of 27 November.

Atlantic
TU 4.1.3 (Commander George W. Johnson) assumes escort duty for convoy HX 163 in North Atlantic.

Destroyer Babbitt (DD-128), in TU 4.1.5 escorting convoy ON 41, depth-charges suspected submarine contact without result.

Atlantic
Destroyer Decatur (DD-341), in TU 4.1.4 (Captain Alan G. Kirk), escorting convoy ONS 39, carries out depth charge attack on suspicious contact, 51°54'N, 41°53'W.

Pacific
Unarmed U.S. Army-chartered steam schooner Cynthia Olson is shelled and sunk by Japanese submarine I 26 about 1,000 miles northwest of Diamond Head, Honolulu, T.H., 33°42'N, 145°29'W. She is the first U.S. merchantman to be sunk by a Japanese submarine in World War II. There are no survivors from the 33-man crew or the two Army passengers.

Japanese Type A midget submarine attempts to follow general stores issue ship Antares (AKS-3) into the entrance channel to Pearl Harbor summoned to the scene by the auxiliary vessel, destroyer Ward (DD-139), on channel entrance patrol, with an assist from a PBY (VP 14), sinks the intruder with gunfire and depth charges. Word of the incident, however, works its way with almost glacial slowness up the chain of command.

Army radar station at Opana Point, Oahu, soon thereafter detects an unusually large "blip" approaching from the north, but the operator reporting the contact is told not to concern himself with the matter since a formation of USAAF B-17s is expected from the west coast of the United States. The army watch officer dismisses the report as "nothing unusual." The "blip" is the first wave of the incoming enemy strike.

Consequently, "like a thunderclap from a clear sky" Japanese carrier attack planes (in both torpedo and high-level bombing roles) and bombers, supported by fighters, totaling 353 planes from naval striking force (Vice Admiral Nagumo Chuichi) attack in two waves, targeting ships of the U.S. Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, and nearby military airfields and installations. Japanese planes torpedo and sink battleships Oklahoma (BB-37) and West Virginia (BB-48), and auxiliary (gunnery training/target ship) Utah (AG-16). On board Oklahoma, Ensign Francis G. Flaherty, USNR, and Seaman First Class James R. Ward, as the ship is abandoned, hold flashlights to allow their shipmates to escape on board West Virginia, her commanding officer, Captain Mervyn Bennion, directs his ship's defense until struck down and mortally wounded by a fragment from a bomb that hits battleship Tennessee (BB-43) moored inboard on board Utah, Austrian-born Chief Watertender Peter Tomich remains at his post as the ship capsizes, securing the boilers and making sure his shipmates have escaped from the fireroom. Flaherty, Ward, Bennion, Tomich and Bennion's falling in action sets in motion a chain of events that will result in Mess Attendant First Class Doris Miller becoming the first African-American to be awarded the Navy Cross. Miller, a brawny, broad-shouldered former high school football player, is recruited to carry the mortally wounded captain from the bridge. Their egress temporarily blocked by fires, however, the men are compelled to remain on the bridge. Miller mans a .50-caliber machine gun and later tells interviewers modestly that he believes he may have damaged two low-flying Japanese planes. Sadly, Miller will not survive the war he will perish with escort carrier Liscome Bay (CVE-56) on 24 November 1943 off the Gilberts.

Japanese bombs also sink battleship Arizona (BB-39) the cataclysmic explosion of her forward magazine causes heavy casualties, among them Rear Admiral Isaac C. Kidd, Commander Battleship Division 1, who thus becomes the first U.S. Navy flag officer to die in combat in World War II. Both he and Arizona's commanding officer, Captain Franklin van Valkenburgh, are awarded Medals of Honor, posthumously. In addition, the ship's senior surviving officer on board, Lieutenant Commander Samuel G. Fuqua, directs efforts to fight the raging fires and sees to the evacuation of casualties from the ship he ultimately directs the abandonment of the doomed battleship and leaves in the last boat. He is awarded the Medal of Honor.

When Arizona explodes, she is moored inboard of repair ship Vestal (AR-4) the blast causes damage to the repair ship, which has already been hit by a bomb. Vestal's captain, Commander Cassin Young earns the Medal of Honor by swimming back to his ship after being blown overboard by the explosion of Arizona's magazines, and directing her beaching on Aiea shoal to prevent further damage in the fires consuming Arizona.

Battleship California (BB-44) is hit by both bombs and torpedoes and sinks at her berth alongside Ford Island during the battle, Ensign Herbert C. Jones, USNR, organizes and leads a party to provide ammunition to the ship's 5-inch antiaircraft battery he is mortally wounded by a bomb explosion. Gunner Jackson C. Pharris, leading an ordnance repair party, is stunned by concussion of a torpedo explosion early in the action but recovers to set up an ammunition supply train, by hand he later enters flooding compartments to save shipmates. Chief Radioman Thomas J. Reeves assists in maintaining an ammunition supply party until overcomes by smoke inhalation and fires Machinist's Mate Robert R. Scott, although his station at an air compressor is flooding, remains at his post, declaring "This is my station and I will stay and give them [the antiaircraft gun crews] air as long as the guns are going." Jones, Pharris, Reeves and Scott all receive the Medal of Honor (Jones, Reeves and Scott posthumously).

Japanese bombs damage destroyers Cassin (DD-372) and Downes (DD-375), which are lying immobile in Drydock No. 1.

Minelayer Oglala (CM-4) is damaged by concussion from torpedo exploding in light cruiser Helena (CL-50) moored alongside, and capsizes at her berth harbor tug Sotoyomo (YT-9) is sunk in floating drydock YFD-2. Contrary to some secondary accounts, Utah (a converted battleship) is not attacked because she resembled an aircraft carrier, she is attacked because, in the excitement of the moment, she looked sufficiently like the capital ship she once had been. Of the other sunken ships, California, West Virginia, Oglala, and Sotoyomo are raised and repaired Cassin and Downes are rebuilt around their surviving machinery all are returned to service. Oklahoma, although raised after monumental effort, is never repaired, and ultimately sinks while under tow to the west coast to be broken up for scrap. The hulks of Arizona and Utah remain at Pearl as memorials.

Battleship Nevada (BB-36), the only capital ship to get underway during the attack, is damaged by bombs and a torpedo before she is beached. Two of her men are later awarded the Medal of Honor: Machinist Donald K. Ross for his service in the forward and after dynamo rooms and Chief Boatswain Edwin J. Hill (posthumously) for his work in enabling the ship to get underway and, later, in attempting to release the anchors during the attempt to beach the ship.

Battleships Pennsylvania (BB-38), Tennessee (BB-43), and Maryland (BB-46), light cruiser Honolulu (CL-48), and floating drydock YFD-2 are damaged by bombs light cruisers Raleigh (CL-7) and Helena (CL-50) are damaged by torpedoes destroyer Shaw (DD-373), by bombs, in floating drydock YFD-2 heavy cruiser New Orleans (CA-32), destroyers Helm (DD-388) and Hull (DD-350), destroyer tender Dobbin (AD-3), repair ship Rigel (AR-11), and seaplane tender Tangier (AV-8), are damaged by near-misses of bombs seaplane tender Curtiss (AV-4) is damaged by crashing carrier bomber garbage lighter YG-17 (alongside Nevada at the outset) is damaged by strafing and/or concussion of bombs.

Destroyer Monaghan (DD-354) rams, depth-charges, and sinks Type A midget submarine inside Pearl Harbor proper, during the attack. This particular Type A may have been the one whose periscope harbor tug YT-153 attempts to ram early in the attack.

Light minelayer Gamble (DM-15) mistakenly fires upon submarine Thresher (SS-200) off Oahu, 21°15'N, 159°01'W.

Thresher mistakes Gamble for destroyer Litchfield (DD-336) (the latter ship assigned to work with submarines in the Hawaiian operating area), the ship with which she is to rendezvous. Gamble, converted from a flush-deck, four-pipe destroyer, resembles Litchfield. Sadly, the delay occasioned by the mistaken identity proves fatal to a seriously injured sailor on board the submarine, who dies four hours before the boat finally reaches port on the 8th, of multiple injuries suffered on 6 December 1941 when heavy seas wash him against the signal deck rail.

Carrier Enterprise (CV-6) Air Group (CEAG, VB 6 and VS 6) search flight (Commander Howard L. Young, CEAG), in two-plane sections of SBDs, begins arriving off Oahu as the Japanese attack unfolds some SBDs meet their doom at the hands of Japanese planes one (VS 6) is shot down by friendly fire. Another SBD ends up on Kauai where its radio-gunner is drafted into the local Army defense force with his single .30-caliber machine gun. Almost all of the surviving planes, together with what observation and scouting planes from battleship (VO) and cruiser (VCS) detachments, as well as flying boats (VP) and utility aircraft (VJ) that survive the attack, take part in the desperate, hastily organized searches flown out of Ford Island to look for the Japanese carriers whence the surprise attack had come.

Navy Yard and Naval Station, Pearl Harbor Naval Air Stations at Ford Island and Kaneohe Bay Ewa Mooring Mast Field (Marine Corps air facility) Army airfields at Hickam, Wheeler, and Bellows and Schofield Barracks suffer varying degrees of bomb and fragment damage. Japanese bombs and strafing destroy 188 Navy, Marine Corps, and USAAF planes. At NAS Kaneohe Bay, Aviation Chief Ordnanceman John W. Finn mounts a machine gun on an instruction stand and returns the fire of strafing planes although wounded many times. Although ordered to leave his post to have his wounds treated, he returns to the squadron areas where, although in great pain, he oversees the rearming of returning PBYs. For his heroism, Finn is awarded the Medal of Honor.

Casualties amount to: killed or missing: Navy, 2,008 Marine Corps, 109 Army, 218 Civilian, 68 Wounded: Navy, 710 Marine Corps, 69 Army, 364 Civilian, 35. One particular family tragedy prompts concern in the Bureau of Navigation (later Bureau of Naval Personnel) on the matter of brothers serving in the same ship, a common peacetime practice in the U.S. Navy. Firemen First Class Malcolm J. Barber and LeRoy K. Barber, and Fireman Second Class Randolph H. Barber, are all lost when battleship Oklahoma (BB-37) capsizes. The Bureau considers it in the "individual family interest that brothers not be put on the same ship in war time, as the loss of such a ship may result in the loss of two or more members of the family, which might be avoided if brothers are separated." The Bureau, however, stops short of specifically forbidding the practice. On 3 February 1942, it issues instructions concerning the impracticality of authorizing transfers of men directly from recruit training to ships in which relatives are serving, and urges that brothers then serving together be advised of the undesirability of their continuing to do so. Authorizing commanding officers to approve requests for transfers to facilitate separation, the Bureau directs in July 1942 that commanding officers of ships not forward requests for brothers to serve in the same ship or station. This is too late, however, to prevent the five Sullivan brothers from serving in light cruiser Juneau (CL-52) (see 13 November 1942). Acts of heroism by sailors, marines, soldiers and civilians (from telephone exchange operator to yard shop worker), in addition to those enumerated above, abound. Among the civilians who distinguish themselves this day is Tai Sing Loo, the yard photographer, who has a scheduled appointment to take a picture of the marine Main Gate guards. During the attack, he helps the marines of the Navy Yard fire department fight fires in dry dock number one and later, in the wake of the morning's devastation, delivers food to famished leathernecks.

Japanese losses amount to fewer than 100 men, 29 planes of various types and four Type A midget submarines. A fifth Type A washes ashore off Bellows Field and is recovered its commander (Ensign Sakamaki Kazuo) is captured, becoming U.S. prisoner of war number one.

Japanese Naval Aviation Pilot First Class Nishikaichi Shigenori, from the carrier Hiryu, crash-lands his Mitsubishi A6M2 Type 0 carrier fighter (ZERO) on the island of Niihau, T.H. He surrenders to the islanders who disarm him and confiscate his papers but, isolated as they are, know nothing of the attack on Pearl Harbor. "Peaceful and friendly," Nishikaichi is not kept in custody but is allowed to roam the island unguarded (see 9, 12-14 December).

First night recovery of planes in World War II by the U.S. Navy occurs when Enterprise turns on searchlights to aid returning SBDs (VB 6 and VS 6) and TBDs (VT 6) that had been launched at dusk in an attempt to find Japanese ships reported off Oahu. Friendly fire, however, downs four of Enterprise's six F4Fs (VF 6) (the strike group escort) that are directed to land at Ford Island. Other Enterprise SBDs make a night landing at Kaneohe Bay, miraculously avoiding automobiles and construction equipment parked on the ramp to prevent just such an occurrence.

Damage to the battle line proves extensive, but carriers Enterprise and Lexington (CV-2) are, providentially, not in port, having been deployed at the eleventh hour to reinforce advanced bases at Wake and Midway. Saratoga (CV-3) is at San Diego on this day, preparing to return to Oahu. The carriers will prove crucial in the coming months (see Chapter VI, February-May 1942). Convinced that he has proved fortunate to have suffered as trifling losses as he has, Vice Admiral Nagumo opts to set course for home, thus inadvertantly sparing fuel tank farms, ship repair facilities, and the submarine base that will prove invaluable to support the U.S. Pacific Fleet as it rebuilds in the wake of the Pearl Harbor disaster.

Midway Island is bombarded by Japanese Midway Neutralization Unit (Captain Kaname Konishi) consisting of destroyers Ushio and Sazanami Marine shore batteries (6th Defense Battalion) return the fire, claiming damage to both ships. One of the submarines deployed on simulated war patrols off Midway, Trout (SS-202), makes no contact with the enemy ships the other, Argonaut (SS-166), is unable to make a successful approach, and Ushio and Sazanami retire from the area. Subsequent bad weather will save Midway from a pounding by planes from the Pearl Harbor Attack Force as it returns to Japanese waters.

Damage control hulk DCH 1 (IX-44), formerly destroyer Walker (DD-163), being towed from San Diego, California, to Pearl Harbor, by oiler Neches (AO-5), is cast adrift and scuttled by gunfire from Neches at 26°35'N, 143°49'W.

Japanese declaration of war [ N.B.: the so-called "Fourteen Point message" is not a declaration of war it merely declares an impasse in the ongoing diplomatic negotiations. The Imperial Rescript declaring a state of war between the Japanese Empire and the United States is not issued until the next day, in Tokyo. pwc ] reaches Washington, D.C., after word of the attack on Pearl Harbor has already been received in the nation's capital.

President orders mobilization.

Potomac River Naval Command with headquarters at Washington, D.C., and Severn River Naval Command with headquarters at Annapolis, Maryland, are established.

Pacific
Japanese submarine I 123 mines Balabac Strait, P.I. I 124 the entrance to Manila Bay.

Striking Force, Asiatic Fleet (Rear Admiral William A. Glassford) departs Iloilo, P.I., for Makassar Strait, N.E.I.

Seaplane tender (destroyer) William B. Preston (AVD-7) is attacked by fighters and attack planes from Japanese carrier Ryujo in Davao Gulf, P.I. William B. Preston escapes, but two PBYs (VP 101) she is tending are strafed and destroyed on the water.

Japan interns U.S. Marines and nationals at Shanghai, Tientsin and Chinwangtao, China. River gunboat Wake (PR-3) maintained at Shanghai as station ship and manned by a skeleton crew, is seized by Japanese Naval Landing Force boarding party after attempt to scuttle fails.

Wake, the only U.S. Navy ship to surrender during World War II, is renamed Tatara and serves under the Rising Sun for the rest of the war. British river gunboat HMS Peterel, however, moored nearby in the stream of the Whangpoo River, refuses demand to surrender and is sunk by gunfire from Japanese coast defense ship Idzumo. American-flag merchant small craft seized by the Japanese at Shanghai: tug Meifoo No. 5, tug Mei Kang, Mei Nan, Mei Ying and Mei Yun.

U.S. passenger liner President Harrison, en route to evacuate marines from North China, is intentionally run aground at Sha Wai Shan, China, and is captured by the Japanese. Repaired and refloated, President Harrison is renamed Kakko Maru and later, Kachidoki Maru (see 12 September 1944). Among the baggage awaiting shipment out of occupied China along with the North China Marines are the bones of Peking Man, which are never seen again. Their fate remains a mystery to this day.

Japanese forces land on Batan Island, north of Luzon.

Japanese forces land on east coast of Malay Peninsula. RAF Hudsons bomb invasion shipping off Kota Bharu, Malaya, setting army cargo ship Awajisan Maru afire destroyers Ayanami and Shikinami and submarine chaser Ch 9 take off Awajisan Maru's crew.

Japanese planes bomb Hong Kong, Singapore, and the Philippine Islands. Extensive damage is inflicted on USAAF aircraft at Clark Field, Luzon, P.I. During Japanese bombing of shipping in Manila Bay, U.S. freighter Capillo is damaged by bomb, set afire, and abandoned (see 11 December).

Japanese naval land attack planes (Chitose Kokutai) bomb Wake Island, inflicting heavy damage on airfield installations and VMF 211's F4Fs on Wake islet. The four-plane VMF 211 patrol is out of position to deal with the incoming raid (there is no radar on Wake). Pan American Airways Martin 130 Philippine Clipper (being prepared for a scouting flight with an escort of two VMF 211 F4Fs when the attack comes) in the aftermath of the disaster precipitately evacuates Caucasian airline staff and passengers only (Pan American's Chamorro employees are left behind). Another individual who somehow fails to get a seat on the outgoing flying boat is an official from the Bureau of the Budget who was on Wake to go over construction costs.

Japanese force slated to assault Wake Island (Rear Admiral Kajioka Sadamichi) sails from Kwajalein, in the Marshall Islands.

Japanese floatplanes (18th Kokutai) bomb Guam, M.I., damaging minesweeper Penguin (AM-33) and miscellaneous auxiliary Robert L. Barnes (AG-27). Penguin, abandoned, is scuttled in deep water by her crew.

Robert L. Barnes, maintained in reduced commission as a floating oil depot, her seaworthiness reduced by age and deterioration, had served since 1 July 1937 as the training ship for Guamanian mess attendants recruited on the island.

Atlantic
Destroyers Niblack (DD-424), Benson (DD-421) and Tarbell (DD-143), part of TU 4.1.3 escorting convoy HX 163, depth-charge sound contacts that are later classified as non-submarine.

Japanese submarines RO 63, RO 64, and RO 68 bombard Howland and Baker Islands in the mistaken belief that American seaplane bases exist there.

Transport William Ward Burrows (AP-6), en route to Wake Island, is re-routed to Johnston.

Japanese submarine I 10 shells and sinks unarmed Panamanian-flag motorship Donerail 200 miles southeast of Hawaii, 08°00'N, 152°00'W. There are only eight survivors of the 33-man crew all seven passengers perish.

Japanese Naval Aviation Pilot First Class Nishikaichi Shigenori, from the carrier Hiryu, who had crash-landed his Mitsubishi A6M2 fighter Type 0 carrier fighter on Niihau on 7 December, is placed under guard by the islanders attempts this day and the next to transport him to Kauai are frustrated by bad weather (see 12-14 December).

Japanese naval land attack planes (Chitose Kokutai) bomb defense installations on the islets of Wilkes and Wake, Wake Island.

China declares war on Japan, Germany, and Italy.

Japanese occupy Bangkok, Thailand.

River gunboat Mindanao (PR-8), en route from Hong Kong to Manila, encounters Japanese fishing vessel No. 3 South Advance Maru, stops her, and takes her 10-man Formosan crew prisoner. Mindanao leaves the craft adrift at 16°42'N, 118°53'E, and steams on, reaching her destination the following day.

Submarine Swordfish (SS-193), in initial U.S. submarine attack of the war, torpedoes Japanese ship 150 miles west of Manila at 14°30'N, 119°00'E. Her claim of a sinking, however, is not confirmed in enemy records.

Atlantic
TU 4.1.5 (Commander William K. Phillips) continues its escort duty with convoy ON 41 destroyers Babbitt (DD-128) and Mayo (DD-422) depth-charge sound contacts Babbitt's at 57°19'N, 33°09'W. Destroyer Schenck (DD-159), operating independently from TU 4.1.5 while escorting U.S. freighter Ozark, carries out "well conducted" depth charge attack on sound contact at 52°19'N, 39°37'W.

Battleship New Mexico (BB-40), en route to Hampton Roads, Virginia, accidentally rams and sinks U.S. freighter Oregon, bound for Boston, Massachusetts, south of Nantucket Lightship, 35°55'N, 69°45'W.

TU 4.1.1 (Captain Marion Y. Cohen) assumes escort duty for convoy HX 164 the ships will not be attacked by enemy submarines. While escorting oiler Mattole (AO-17) to join the main convoy, destroyer Gleaves (DD-423) carries out depth charge attack on sound contact at 45°50'N, 53°35'W. The contact is later classified as "doubtful" submarine.

Pacific
Cavite Navy Yard, P.I., is practically obliterated by Japanese land attack planes (Takao Kokutai and 1st Kokutai). Destroyers Peary (DD-226) and Pillsbury (DD-227), submarines Seadragon (SS-194) and Sealion (SS-195), minesweeper Bittern (AM-36), and submarine tender Otus (AS-20), suffer varying degrees of damage from bombs or bomb fragments ferry launch Santa Rita (YFB-681) is destroyed by direct hit. Submarine rescue vessel Pigeon (ASR-6) tows Seadragon out of the burning wharf area minesweeper Whippoorwill (AM-35) recovers Peary, enabling both warships to be repaired and returned to service. Bittern is gutted by fires. Antiaircraft fire from U.S. guns is ineffective. During bombing of Manila Bay area, unarmed U.S. freighter Sagoland is damaged.

While flying to safety during the raid on Cavite, Lieutenant Harmon T. Utter's PBY (VP 101) is attacked by three Japanese Mitsubishi A6M2 Type 0 carrier fighters (ZERO) (3rd Kokutai) Chief Boatswain Earl D. Payne, Utter's bow gunner, shoots down one, thus scoring the U.S. Navy's first verifiable air-to-air "kill" of a Japanese plane in the Pacific War. Utter, as a commander, will later coordinate the carrier air strikes that lead to the destruction of Japanese battleship Yamato (see 7 April 1945).

Japanese forces land on Camiguin Island and at Gonzaga and Aparri, Luzon. Off Vigan, minesweeper W.10 is bombed and sunk by USAAF P-35 at 17°32'N, 120°22'E destroyer Murasame and transport Oigawa Maru are strafed the latter, set afire, is beached to facilitate salvage. USAAF B-17s bomb and damage light cruiser Naka and transport Takao Maru the latter is run aground at 17°29'N, 120°26'E (see 5 March 1942). Off Aparri, minesweeper W.19 is bombed by a B-17 and grounded (total loss) at 18°22'N, 121°38'E light cruiser Natori is also damaged by a B-17. The B-17 is probably the one flown by Captain Colin P. Kelly, Jr., who is awarded the Distinguished Service Cross, posthumously, for heroism when Japanese fighters attack his bomber over Clark Field as he returns from his mission over Aparri.

British battleship HMS Prince of Wales and battle cruiser HMS Repulse (Admiral Sir Tom S.V. Phillips, RN) are sunk by Japanese land attack planes off Kuantan, Malaya. Four U.S. destroyers that had been sent to help screen Phillips's ships, having arrived at Singapore too late to sortie with the British force, search unsuccessfully for survivors before returning to Singapore.

Governor of Guam, M.I. (Captain George J. McMillin) surrenders the island to Japanese invasion force (Rear Admiral Goto Aritomo). District patrol craft YP-16 and YP-17 open lighters YC-664, YC-665, YC-666, YC-667, YC-6687, YC-670, YC-671, YC-672, YC-673, YC-674, YC-685, YC-717, YC-718 dredge YM-13 water barges YW-50, YW-55, YW-58 and miscellaneous auxiliary Robert L. Barnes (AG-27) are all lost to the Japanese occupation of that American Pacific possession.

SBD (CEAG) from carrier Enterprise (CV-6) sinks Japanese submarine I 70 in Hawaiian Islands area, 23°45'N, 155°35'W. Plane is flown by a VS 6 pilot.

Japanese naval land attack planes (Chitose Kokutai) bomb Marine installations on Wilkes and Wake islets, Wake Island. During the interception of the bombers, Captain Henry T. Elrod, USMC, executive officer of VMF 211, shoots down a Mitsubishi G3M2 Type 96 land attack plane (NELL) this is the first USMC air-to-air "kill" of the Pacific War. Japanese submarines RO 65, RO 66, and RO 67 arrive off Wake. Shortly before midnight, submarine Triton (SS-201), patrolling south of the atoll, encounters a Japanese warship, probably a picket for the oncoming assault force (see 11 December).

Unarmed U.S. freighter Mauna Ala, re-routed back to Portland, Oregon, because of Japanese submarines lurking off the U.S. west coast, runs aground off the entrance to the Columbia River she subsequently breaks up on the beach, a total loss.

United States declares war on Germany and Italy.

Pacific
Secretary of the Navy Knox arrives on Oahu to personally assess the damage inflicted by the Japanese on 7 December.

Submarine Triton (SS-201), patrolling south of Wake Island, attacks the Japanese ship she has encountered shortly before midnight she is unsuccessful.

Wake Island garrison (Commander Winfield S. Cunningham) repulses Japanese invasion force (Rear Admiral Kajioka Sadamichi) Marine shore battery gunfire (1st Defense Battalion) sinks destroyer Hayate and damages destroyers Oite, Mochizuki, and Yayoi, and Patrol Boat No. 33 (high-speed transport) USMC F4Fs (VMF 211) bomb and sink destroyer Kisaragi and strafe and damage light cruiser Tenryu and armed merchant cruiser Kongo Maru. Later the same day, USMC F4F (VMF 211) bombs and most likely damages submarine RO 66 south of Wake. U.S. submarines deployed off Wake, Triton to the south and Tambor (SS-198) to the north, take no active part in the battle. Following the abortive assault, Japanese naval land attack planes (Chitose Kokutai) bomb marine gun batteries on Peale islet.

Japanese submarine I 9 shells unarmed U.S. freighter Lahaina about 800 miles northeast of Honolulu, T.H., 27°42'N, 147°38'W (see 12 and 20 December).

Japanese make landings at Legaspi, Luzon.

Unarmed U.S. freighter Capillo, damaged by bomb on 8 December 1941, is partially scuttled by U.S. Army demolition party, off Corregidor, P.I. (see 29 December). Freighter Sagoland, damaged by bombs the previous day, sinks in Manila Bay.

Atlantic
TU 4.1.5 (Commander William K. Phillips) detaches destroyers Babbitt (DD-128) and Leary (DD-158), low on fuel because of the delayed arrival of convoy ON 41 at the MOMP, to proceed to Argentia. En route to that place, Babbitt depth charges sound contact without result at 51°37'N, 43°08'W.

TU 4.1.6 (Commander John S. Roberts) assumes escort duty at MOMP for convoy ON 43, which has been badly scattered by heavy weather conditions (see 13 and 15 December). Convoy HX 163, being escorted by TU 4.1.3 (Commander George W. Johnson), encounters same abominable weather.

12, Fri.
Naval Air Transport Service (NATS) is established.

U.S. government seizes French ships in U.S. ports.

Pacific
Secretary of the Navy Knox departs Oahu after inspecting the damage done by the Japanese attack of 7 December.

Japanese reconnaissance flying boats (Yokohama Kokutai) bomb Wake Island in pre-dawn raid. Later in the day, land attack planes (Chitose Kokutai) bomb Wake.

Unarmed U.S. freighter Vincent is shelled and sunk by Japanese armed merchant cruisers Aikoku Maru and Hokoku Maru about 600 miles northwest of Easter Island, 22°41'S, 118°19'E, and her entire crew captured.

Unarmed U.S. freighter Lahaina, shelled and torpedoed by Japanese submarine I 9 the previous day, sinks (see 21 December).

Japanese Naval Aviation Pilot First Class Nishikaichi Shigenori begins, with aid of Harada Yoshio, a Japanese resident of Niihau, to terrorize the inhabitants of the island into returning papers confiscated on 7 December. In response to this campaign of intimidation, the islanders flee to the hills (see 13 December).

Submarine S 38 (SS-143) mistakenly torpedoes and sinks Norwegian merchantman Hydra II west of Cape Calavite, Mindoro, P.I., believing her to be a Japanese auxiliary. Hydra II had been en route from Bangkok, Thailand, to Hong Kong, when she is diverted to Manila by the outbreak of war.

During Japanese bombing of shipping off Cebu, in the Visayan Sea, Philippine passenger vessel Governor Wright is sunk, 12°55'N, 123°55'E.

USAAF B-17 (19th Bombardment Group) bombs Japanese shipping off Vigan, P.I., damaging transport Hawaii Maru.

Dutch submarines operate off Malaya against Japanese invasion shipping. K XII torpedoes and sinks army cargo ship Toro Maru off Kota Bharu, 06°08'N, 102°16'E O 16 torpedoes and damages army cargo ships Tozan Maru, Kinka Maru, and Asosan Maru off Patani/Singora.

Japanese minelayer/netlayer Naryu is damaged by marine casualty, Tomogashima Channel.

13, Sat.
Congress, to meet the demand for trained enlisted men, authorizes the retention of enlisted men in the Navy upon the expiration of their enlistments when not voluntarily extended.

Pacific
Japanese planes attack Subic Bay area and airfields in Philippines. During bombing of shipping in Manila Bay by naval land attack planes (Takao Kokutai), unarmed U.S. tankship Manatawny is damaged (see 11 January 1942).

Occupation of Niihau by Japanese Naval Aviation Pilot First Class Nishikaichi Shigenori ends: a party of Hawaiians sets out for Kauai to inform the outside world of events on Niihau in the meantime, Nishikaichi burns his plane (it will not be until July 1942 that the U.S. Navy will be able to obtain an intact ZERO to study) and the house in which he believes his confiscated papers are hidden. Later, in confrontation with a local Hawaiian, Benny Kanahele, a scuffle to grab the pilot's pistol ensues. Although Kanahele is shot three times, he picks up Nishikaichi bodily and dashes the pilot's head into a stone wall, killing him Harada Yoshio, the Japanese resident of Niihau who had allied himself with the pilot, commits suicide. Kanahele survives his injuries. On the basis of the report by the islanders who have arrived on Kauai after a 15-hour trip, meanwhile, Commander, Kauai Military District (Colonel Edward W. FitzGerald, USA) dispatches expedition (squad of soldiers from Company M, 299th Infantry) in Coast Guard light house tender Kukui to proceed from Kauai to Niihau (see 14 December).

Japanese cargo ship Nikkoku Maru is stranded and wrecked off Hainan Island, 18°00'N, 110°00'E.

Gunboat Erie (PG-50) receives 50 Japanese POWs at Puntarenas, Costa Rica, from Costa Rican government, and sends prize crew to take charge of motor vessel Albert.

Atlantic
Destroyer Woolsey (DD-437), sweeping astern of convoy ON 43, depth charges sound contact at 57°55'N, 32°05'W.

Japanese reconnaissance flying boats (Yokohama Kokutai) bomb Wake Island. Later in the day, naval land attack planes (Chitose Kokutai) raid Wake, bombing airfield installations.

Destroyer Craven (DD-382) collides with heavy cruiser Northampton (CA-26) during underway refueling and is damaged. The ships are part of TF 8 operating north of Oahu.

Norwegian motorship Hoegh Merchant is torpedoed and sunk by Japanese submarine I 4 about 20 miles east-northeast of Oahu. All hands (35-man crew, 5 passengers) survive the loss of the ship.

Coast Guard lighthouse tender Kukui reaches Niihau with squad of soldiers from Company M, 299th Infantry (Lieutenant Jack Mizuha) the detachment learns of the denouement of the events that have transpired on Niihau since 7 December.

Japanese gunboat Zuiko Maru, wrecked and driven aground by storm, sinks off Matsuwa Jima, Kuriles, 48°05'N, 153°43'E.

Gunboat Erie (PG-50), off coast of Costa Rica, boards and takes charge of motor vessel Sea Boy, and takes off a Japanese POW she orders Sea Boy into Balboa the following day.

USAAF B-17s bomb and damage Japanese cargo ship Ikushima Maru and oiler Hayatomo off Legaspi, Luzon.

With its operating area rendered untenable by Japanese control of the air, Patrol Wing 10 (Captain Frank D. Wagner) departs Philippines for Netherlands East Indies. Seaplane tender (destroyer) Childs (AVD-1), with Captain Wagner embarked, sails from Manila.

Submarine Seawolf (SS-197) torpedoes Japanese seaplane carrier San'yo Maru off Aparri, P.I. one torpedo hits the ship but does not explode.

Submarine Swordfish (SS-193), attacking Japanese shipping off Hainan Island, torpedoes army transport Kashii Maru, 18°08'N, 109°22'E.

Navy boarding party (Lieutenant Edward N. Little) transported in commandeered yacht Gem, seizes French motor mail vessel Marechal Joffre, Manila Bay. Majority of the crewmen, pro-Vichy or unwilling to serve under the U.S. flag, are transported ashore (see 17-18 December).

Japanese reconnaissance flying boats (Yokohama Kokutai) bomb Wake Island.

Johnston Island is shelled by Japanese submarine I 22 although one shell lands astern and another passes over her forecastle, transport William Ward Burrows (AP-6) is apparently unseen by the enemy submariners. She is not hit and escapes.

Kahului, Maui, T.H., is shelled by Japanese submarine from the Second Submarine Squadron. Possible candidates for having carried out the shelling are I 2, I 3, I 4, I 5, I 6, or I 7.

Philippine steamship Vizcaya is scuttled in Manila Bay.

Atlantic
TU 4.1.2 (Commander Fred D. Kirtland) clears Reykjavik for the MOMP, escorting convoy ON 45 destroyer Sturtevant (DD-240), escorting cargo vessel Alchiba (AK-23), depth-charges sound contact at 62°05'N, 24°15'W (see 16 December).

Destroyer Benson (DD-421), detached from TU 4.1.3 and convoy HX 163 at the MOMP, searches for survivors of steamer Nidardal, reported sinking at 56°07'N, 21°00'W (later amended to 56°07'N, 23°00'W) (see 16 December).

Convoy ON 43, struggling through rough seas and high winds, being escorted by TU 4.1.6 (Commander John S. Roberts), is dispersed.

United States
Admiral Ernest J. King is offered the post of Commander in Chief U.S. Fleet. He accepts (see 18, 20 and 30 December).

Convoy ON 45, escorted by TU 4.1.2 (Commander Fred D. Kirtland), is dispersed because of bad weather.

Destroyer Benson (DD-421) sights white distress rocket at 0241 and alters course in hopes of locating survivors of merchantman Nidardal the intense darkness in which the search is being conducted renders it barely possible to see the surface of the ocean from the bridge, and the loudness of the wind makes it unlikely that a hail can be heard no more than 50 to 100 feet from the ship. Benson searches throughout the daylight hours but finds no trace of the missing ship or her crew. She abandons the search at nightfall and proceeds to Reykjavik.

Pacific
TF 14 (Rear Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher), comprising carrier Saratoga (CV-3) (with VMF 221 embarked), four destroyers heavy cruisers Astoria (CA-34) (flagship), Minneapolis (CA-36), and San Francisco (CA-38) and five destroyers, sails from Pearl Harbor. These ships will overtake the force formed around Tangier (AV-8) and Neches (AO-5) and their consorts that is to relieve Wake Island.

Japanese Pearl Harbor Attack Force (Vice Admiral Nagumo Chuichi) detaches carriers Hiryu and Soryu, heavy cruisers Tone and Chikuma, and two destroyers (Rear Admiral Abe Hiroaki) to reinforce second planned attack on Wake Island.

Japanese naval land attack planes (Chitose Kokutai) bomb Wake.

Submarine Tambor (SS-198), damaged by operational casualty, retires from the waters off Wake.

Submarine Swordfish (SS-193), attacking Japanese convoy south of Hainan Island, torpedoes army transport Atsutasan Maru, 18°06'N, 109°44'E.

Gunboat Erie (PG-50) boards Panamanian motor vessel Santa Margarita and orders her to proceed to Puntarenas, Costa Rica. Later the same day, the gunboat tows disabled motor boat Orion into Puntarenas.

Small reconnaissance seaplane from Japanese submarine I 7 reconnoiters Pearl Harbor.

Unarmed U.S. freighter Manini is torpedoed and sunk by Japanese submarine I 175 180 miles south of Hawaii, 17°45'N, 157°03'E (see 27 and 28 December).

USMC SB2Us (VMSB 231), led by a plane-guarding PBY (VP 21) (no ships are available to plane-guard the flight), arrive at Midway, completing the longest over-water massed flight (1,137 miles) by single-engine aircraft. The squadron had been embarked in Lexington (CV-2) when the outbreak of war cancelled the projected ferry mission on 7 December 1941.

Japanese submarine RO 66 is sunk in collision with sistership RO 62 off Wake Island.

Philippine steamship Corregidor, crowded with about 1,200 passengers fleeing Manila for Mindanao, hits an Army mine off Corregidor and sinks with heavy loss of life. Motor torpedo boats PT-32, PT-34, and PT-35 pick up 282 survivors (196 by PT-32 alone) distributing them between Corregidor and the requisitioned French steamship Si-Kiang seven of those rescued die of injuries suffered in the tragedy. Dr. Jurgen Rohwer, in his volume on Axis submarine successes, attributes the sinking to a mine laid by Japanese submarine I 124 on 8 December 1941 off Corregidor, P.I. Interestingly, Corregidor was formerly the British seaplane carrier HMS Engadine, which took part in the Battle of Jutland in 1916.

Navy takes over French motor mail vessel Marechal Joffre, Manila Bay (see 18 December).

Japanese land at Miri, Sarawak, Borneo.

In another executive order, President Roosevelt directs a commission, to be headed by retired Supreme Court Chief Justice Owen J. Roberts (Roberts Commission), to "ascertain and report the facts relating to the attack made by the Japanese armed forces upon the Territory of Hawaii on December 7, 1941. to provide bases for sound decisions whether any derelictions of duty or errors of judgment on the part of United States Army or Navy personnel contributed to such successes as were achieved by the enemy on the occasion mentioned and if so, what these derelictions or errors were, and who were responsible therefor." In addition to Justice Roberts, the commission's membership includes retired Admiral William H. Standley and Rear Admiral Joseph W. Reeves Major General Frank R. McCoy, USA (Retired) and Brigadier General Joseph T. McNarney, USA (see 23 January 1942).

Congress passes First War Powers Act.

Caribbean
State Department announces that Rear Admiral Frederick J. Horne and Admiral Georges Robert, French High Commissioner at Martinique, French West Indies, have reached an agreement neutralizing French Caribbean possessions.

Pacific
French motor mail vessel Marechal Joffre, manned by a scratch crew that includes aviation personnel from Patrol Wing Ten, departs Manila Bay for Borneo. Marechal Joffre will be formally acquired by the Navy on 20 April 1942, and will serve as the transport Rochambeau (AP-63).

Dutch Dornier 24 bombs and sinks Japanese destroyer Shinonome off Miri, Borneo.

Japanese naval land attack planes (Chitose Kokutai) bomb Wake Island, targeting installations on Wake and Peale islets.

Unarmed U.S. freighter Prusa is torpedoed and sunk by Japanese submarine I 172 about 150 miles south of Hawaii, 16°45'N, 156°00'W (see 27 December).

United States
U.S. Naval Academy Class of 1942 is graduated early, due to the National Emergency.

Pacific
SBDs (VB 6 and VS 6) from carrier Enterprise accidentally bomb submarine Pompano (SS-181) twice, at 20°10'N, 165°28'W, and 20°15'N, 165°40'W.

PBY (VP 23) arrives at Wake Island to deliver information to the garrison concerning the relief efforts then underway (see 21 December).

Survivors of U.S. freighter Lahaina (sunk on 11 December by Japanese submarine I 9), aided by Coast Guard cutter Tiger, reach land at Sprecklesville Beach, near Kahului, Maui, having lost four of their number during their ordeal in their one lifeboat.

Japanese troops land at Davao, Mindanao, P.I.

Unarmed U.S. tankship Emidio is shelled, torpedoed and sunk by Japanese submarine I 17 about 25 miles west of Cape Mendocino, California, 40°33'N, 125°00'W (see 21 December).

Unarmed U.S. tanker Agwiworld is shelled by Japanese submarine I 23 off the coast of California, 37°00'N, 122°00'W.

Naval local defense forces in Philippine Islands (Rear Admiral Francis W. Rockwell) move headquarters to Corregidor.

Destroyer Paul Jones (DD-230) is damaged when her starboard propeller strikes a sunken object off Makassar, N.E.I.

Coast Guard cutter Shawnee rescues 31 survivors of U.S. tanker Emidio, sunk the previous day by I 17 off Cape Mendocino, California, from Blunt's Reef Lightship.

Atlantic
Light cruiser Omaha (CL-4) and destroyer Somers (DD-381), operating out of Recife, Brazil, encounter darkened ship that acts suspicious and evasive when challenged. Omaha fires starshell and illuminates the stranger Somers sends armed boarding party that learns that the merchantman nearly fired upon is Soviet freighter Nevastroi.

Destroyer Edison (DD-439), in TU 4.1.3 en route to MOMP to pick up convoy ON 47, depth-charges sound contact without result.

Pacific
Japanese bombers and attack planes, covered by fighters, from carriers Soryu and Hiryu, bomb Wake Island for the second time the last two flyable USMC F4Fs (VMF 211) intercept the raid. One F4F is shot down, the other is badly damaged.

American troops (Task Force South Pacific) (Brigadier General Julian F. Barnes, USA) arrive at Brisbane in convoy escorted by heavy cruiser Pensacola (CA-24). This is the first U.S. Army troop detachment to arrive in Australia.

Japanese submarine I 19 shell unarmed U.S. tanker H.M. Storey southwest of Cape Mendocino, California, 34°35'N, 120°45'W, but fails to score any hits and the American ship escapes.

Japanese commence invasion of Luzon, landing troops at Lingayen, P.I. submarine S 38 (SS-143) torpedoes and sinks Japanese army transport Hayo Maru in Lingayen Gulf, 16°00'N, 120°00'E.

USAAF B-17s bomb and damage Japanese army oiler No. 3 Tonan Maru off Davao, P.I.

Atlantic
TU 4.1.3 (Commander George W. Johnson), assumes escort duty at MOMP for convoy ON 47 the convoy is dispersed the following day.

Pacific
Wake Island (Commander Winfield S. Cunningham) is captured by naval landing force (Rear Admiral Kajioka Sadamichi) that overcomes gallant resistance offered by the garrison that consists of marines, sailors, volunteer civilians (Contractors Pacific Naval Air Bases) and a USAAF radio detachment. Japanese Patrol Boat No. 32 and Patrol Boat No. 33 (old destroyers converted to high speed transports) intentionally run ashore to facilitate landing of troops, are destroyed by marine shore batteries (1st Defense Battalion). Planes from carriers Hiryu and Soryu, as well as seaplane carrier Kiyokawa Maru provide close air support for the invasion. Open cargo lighter YCK 1 is lost to Japanese occupation of the atoll, as are civilian tugs Pioneer and Justine Foss, and dredge Columbia.

Uncertainty over the positions of and number of Japanese carriers and reports that indicate Japanese troops have landed on the atoll compel Vice Admiral William S. Pye, Acting Commander in Chief Pacific Fleet, to recall TF 14 (Rear Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher) while it is 425 miles from its objective.

Palmyra Island is shelled by Japanese submarines I 71 and I 72.

Unarmed U.S. tanker Montebello is torpedoed and sunk by Japanese submarine I 21 about four miles south of Piedras Blancas light, California, 35°30'N, 121°51'W. I 21 machine-guns the lifeboats, but miraculously inflicts no casualties. I 21 later also shells unarmed U.S. tanker Idaho near the same location.

Japanese submarine I 17 shells unarmed U.S. tanker Larry Doheny southwest of Cape Mendocino, California, 40°00'N, 125°00'W, but the American ship escapes.

USAAF B-17s bomb Japanese ships in Lingayen Gulf and off Davao, damaging minesweeper W.17 and destroyer Kuroshio off the latter place. USAAF P-40s and P-35s strafe landing forces in San Miguel Bay, Luzon, damaging destroyer Nagatsuki.

Submarine Seal (SS-183) sinks Japanese army cargo ship Soryu Maru off Vigan, Luzon, 17°35'N, 120°12'E.

Japanese troops land at Kuching, Sarawak, Borneo. Off the invasion beaches, Dutch submarine K XIV torpedoes and sinks transport Hokkai Maru, army transport Hiyoshi Maru, and damages army cargo ship Nichiran Maru and transport Katori Maru.

Atlantic
TU 4.1.4 (Commander Richard E. Webb) assumes escort duty for convoy HX 166 the ships reach their destination without being attacked by U-boats.

Unarmed U.S. steamship Dorothy Philips is shelled by Japanese submarine I 23 off Monterey Bay, California.

Seaplane tender Wright (AV-1) disembarks Marine reinforcements (Batteries "A" and "C," 4th Defense Battalion) at Midway.

Second Marine Brigade (Colonel Henry L. Larsen, USMC) is formed at Camp Elliott, California, to defend American Samoa (see 6 and 20 January 1942).

Japanese land at Lamon Bay, Luzon.

Motor torpedo boat PT-33 is damaged by grounding on reef five miles northwest of Cape Santiago, Luzon, 13°46'N, 120°40'E.

During Japanese bombing of shipping in Manila Bay by naval land attack planes (Takao Kokutai and 1st Kokutai), seized French steamship Si-Kiang is set afire off Mariveles of the 8-man USMC guard detachment on board (from 1st Separate Marine Battalion), two marines are killed and three wounded. Tug Napa (AT-32) assists in fire-fighting efforts.

Dutch submarine K XVI torpedoes and sinks Japanese destroyer Sagiri off Kuching, Sarawak, 01°34'N, 110°21'E.

British surrender Hong Kong. U.S. freighter Admiral Y.S. Williams, under repairs in that port for damage incurred in a grounding that had occurred on 24 September, is intentionally damaged to prevent use by the Japanese. The merchantman is salvaged, however, and is renamed Tatsutama Maru. U.S. steamship (ex-yacht) Hirondelle (also under repairs in the Crown Colony when caught there by the outbreak of hostilities) and Philippine steamship Argus are captured. Hirondelle is renamed Gyonan Maru and will survive the war. Argus is refitted and commissioned in the Japanese Navy as the gunboat Hong Kong Maru for her fate under her new owners, see 19-21 June 1943. Philippine steamship Churruca is scuttled.

Japanese land at Jolo, P.I. Submarine Sealion (SS-195), damaged by bombs at Cavite, P.I., on 10 December, is scuttled by demolition crew.

Carrier Saratoga (CV-3) diverted from the attempt to relieve Wake Island, flies off USMC F2As (VMF 221) to Midway. These will be the first fighter aircraft based there.

Motor torpedo boat PT-33, damaged by grounding on 24 December five miles northwest of Cape Santiago, Luzon, 13°46'N, 120°40'E, is burned to prevent capture.

Dutch Army planes bomb and sink Japanese minesweeper W.6 and collier No. 2 Unyo Maru off Kuching, Sarawak, 01°34'N, 110°21'E.

Japanese destroyer Murasame and minesweeper W.20 are damaged by marine casualties off Takao, Formosa.

Seaplane tender Tangier (AV-8), diverted from the attempt to relieve Wake Island, disembarks Battery "B," 4th Defense Battalion and ground echelon of VMF 221 at Midway to augment that garrison's defenses.

Atlantic
Submarine chaser PC 451 accidentally rams and sinks U.S. tug Nancy Moran off east coast of Florida.

Coast Guard cutter Tiger rescues 14 survivors of U.S. freighter Prusa, sunk by Japanese submarine I 172 on 19 December. A second group of 11 survivors reaches safety after a 2,700-mile voyage, rescued by a Fijian government vessel and taken to Boruin, Gilberts.

Unarmed U.S. tanker Connecticut is shelled by Japanese submarine I 25 about 10 miles west of the mouth of the Columbia River.

Submarine Perch (SS-176) torpedoes Japanese supply ship Noshima in South China Sea, 22°14'N, 115°13'E.

Six PBYs (VP 101) bomb Japanese shipping at Jolo, P.I. against heavy fighter opposition four Catalinas are lost.

Japanese bomb shipping in Manila Bay and Pasig River (Takao Kokutai and 1st Kokutai). Philippine customs cutters Arayat and Mindoro and motor vessel Ethel Edwards are set afire, while lighthouse tender Canlaon is destroyed by a direct hit. Steamship Taurus is scuttled in the Pasig River (see 29 December).

Destroyer Peary (DD-226) is damaged when mistakenly bombed and strafed by RAAF Hudsons off Kina, Celebes, N.E.I.

Japanese destroyer Akikaze and army cargo ships Kamogawa Maru and Komaki Maru are damaged by marine casualties east of Luzon.

Japanese submarine RO 60, returning from the Wake Island operation, is irreparably damaged by grounding, Kwajalein Atoll, 09°00'N, 167°30'E.

Atlantic
TU 4.1.5 (Commander William K. Phillips) assumes guard for east-bound convoy HX 167. U.S. freighter Stonestreet is damaged by evaporator explosion one man is killed and three injured. Destroyer Simpson (DD-221) puts medical officer and corpsman on board promptly to treat the injured Stonestreet is directed to return to St. John's U.S. PBY provides cover. During the voyage to Iceland, HX 167 will not encounter any enemy submarines but poor navigation by the convoy will result in a critical fuel state for the "shortlegged" flush-deck destroyers (see 3 January 1942).

Pacific
Japanese submarine I 1 shells Hilo, Hawaii seaplane tender (destroyer) Hulbert (AVD-6), moored to a pier adjacent to the one damaged by the bombardment, is not damaged.

Navy-commandeered tug Ranger lands volunteer raiding party on Sangley Point. The sailors bring out diesel generators and diesel oil needed on Corregidor to provide auxiliary power.

Japanese submarines shell Kauai, Maui, and Hawaii.

While returning from attempting to aid destroyer Peary (DD-226) (see 28 December), small seaplane tender Heron (AVP-2) is damaged but fights off, over a seven-hour span, a series of attacks by Japanese reconnaissance flying boats (Toko Kokutai) and land attack planes off Ambon, N.E.I. Heron shoots down one seaplane whose crew refuses rescue.

Submarine rescue vessel Pigeon (ASR-6) transports armed party [Lieutenant (j.g.) Malcolm M. Champlin, USNR] to Sangley Point which brings out Luzon Stevedoring Company lighter loaded with 97 mines and eight truckloads of aerial depth charges Pigeon then tows the barge to a point four and a half miles off Sangley Point and capsizes it in 11 fathoms of water. The sailors also destroy the aircraft repair shop at Cavite and one irreparable PBY.

U.S. cargo/passenger ship Ruth Alexander, en route from Manila to Balikpapan, Borneo, is bombed and irreparably damaged by Japanese flying boat in Makassar Strait, N.E.I., 01°00'N, 119°10'W, one man is killed in the bombing. She sinks on 2 January 1942. Dutch Dornier 24 later rescues all 48 survivors.

Japanese destroyer Yamagumo is damaged by mine off Lingayen.

Philippine steamships Magellanes and Montanes are scuttled, most likely at Manila.


The 20th Century: The End of US Isolationism

World War I (1914 to 1919)

Though actual battle never touched her shores, America’s participation in World War I marked the nation’s first departure from its historic isolationist policy.

During the conflict, the United States entered into binding alliances with the United Kingdom, France, Russia, Italy, Belgium, and Serbia to oppose the Central Powers of Austria-Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire.

However, after the war, the United States returned to its isolationist roots by immediately ending all of its war-related European commitments. Against the recommendation of President Woodrow Wilson, the U.S. Senate rejected the war-ending Treaty of Versailles, because it would have required the U.S. to join the League of Nations.

As America struggled through the Great Depression from 1929 to 1941, the nation’s foreign affairs took a back seat to economic survival. To protect U.S. manufacturers from foreign competition, the government imposed high tariffs on imported goods.

World War I also brought an end to America’s historically open attitude toward immigration. Between the pre-war years of 1900 and 1920, the nation had admitted over 14.5 million immigrants. After the passage of the Immigration Act of 1917, fewer than 150,000 new immigrants had been allowed to enter the U.S. by 1929. The law restricted the immigration of “undesirables” from other countries, including “idiots, imbeciles, epileptics, alcoholics, poor, criminals, beggars, any person suffering attacks of insanity…”

World War II (1939 to 1945)

While avoiding the conflict until 1941, World War II marked a turning point for American isolationism. As Germany and Italy swept through Europe and North Africa, and Japan began taking over Eastern Asia, many Americans started to fear that the Axis powers might invade the Western Hemisphere next. By the end of 1940, American public opinion had started to shift in favor of using U.S. military forces to help defeat the Axis.

Still, nearly one million Americans supported the America First Committee, organized in 1940 to oppose the nation’s involvement in the war. Despite pressure from isolationists, President Franklin D. Roosevelt proceeded with his administration’s plans to assist the nations targeted by the Axis in ways not requiring direct military intervention.

Even in the face of Axis successes, a majority of Americans continued to oppose actual U.S. military intervention. That all changed on the morning of December 7, 1941, when naval forces of Japan launched a sneak attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. On December 8, 1941, America declared war on Japan. Two days later, the America First Committee disbanded.

After World War II, the United States helped establish and became a charter member of the United Nations in October 1945. At the same time, the emerging threat posed by Russia under Joseph Stalin and the specter of communism that would soon result in the Cold War effectively lowered the curtain on the golden age of American isolationism.


The city of Lvov (L’viv) in southeastern Poland was occupied by the Soviet Union in 1939, under the terms of the German-Soviet Pact. There were over 200,000 Jews in Lvov in September 1939 nearly 100,000 were Jewish refugees from German-occupied Poland. The Germans subsequently occupied Lvov after the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941.

Encouraged by German forces to begin violent actions against the Jewish population in Lvov, Ukrainian nationalists massacred about 4,000 Jews in early July 1941. Another pogrom, known as the Petliura Days, was organized in late July. This pogrom was named for Simon Petliura, who had organized anti-Jewish pogroms in the Ukraine after World War I. For three days, Ukrainian militants went on a rampage through the Jewish districts of Lvov. They took groups of Jews to the Jewish cemetery and to Lunecki prison and shot them. More than 2,000 Jews were murdered and thousands more were injured.

In early November 1941, the Germans established a ghetto in the north of Lvov. German police shot thousands of elderly and sick Jews as they crossed the bridge on Peltewna Street on their way to the ghetto. In March 1942, the Germans began deporting Jews from the ghetto to the Belzec extermination camp.

By August 1942, more than 65,000 Jews had been deported from the Lvov ghetto and murdered. Thousands of Jews were sent for forced labor to the nearby Janowska camp. In early June 1943, the Germans destroyed the ghetto, killing thousands of Jews in the process. The remaining ghetto residents were sent to the Janowska forced-labor camp or deported to Belzec.


Good books to know everything about the M1 carbine:

If you are interested in M1 carbines, I warmly recommend the book by Leroy Thompson published a few years ago: "The M1 Carbine". This book also deals with the M1A1 "Paratrooper" model and the select fire M2 Carbine. It is an exciting read about the history of the M1 Carbine, the battle between manufacturers to produce the best possible rifle and the details and different models of the M1 Carbine. If you love history and firearms, this is truly an indispensable book! You can find it easily online.

Another good book recommendation is "The M1 Carbine: A Revolution in Gun Stocking", written by Grafton and Barbara Cook. In this book, you will find a lot of information you won't find anywhere else. The reading is easy and very interesting.

These 2 books are "must-have" if you like M1 carbines, WW2 history and firearms. If you have other books to recommend, please send us an email, we would be happy to read them !