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Research Decodes Ancient Celtic Astronomy Symbols and Links them to Jungian Archetypes

Research Decodes Ancient Celtic Astronomy Symbols and Links them to Jungian Archetypes



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My nonprofit educational corporation, The Celtic Collection Program, exhibits the largest privately owned collection of Celtic artifacts in the United States. When we started purchasing the artifacts from private collections and ancient galleries several years ago, I observed a motif of X and interconnected X designs on some of them, including important ones likely used to perform ceremonies. As a historian and a therapist with preferences for Psychoanalytic Theory and Neo-Freudian traditions such as Analytical Psychology, a school of psychology that originated from the ideas of Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, interpreting these symbols became a personal and professional challenge.

After fifteen years of identifying hundreds of linear and X patterns on artifacts and studying the symbolism of Stonehenge and Newgrange, I have discovered remarkable data, some of which has led me to consider that there may be a correlation between ancient X symbolism and what Dr. Carl Jung referred to as the “Collective Unconscious”, a subconscious storehouse of buried memories inherited from our ancestral past.

Importance of the Sun in Ancient Celtic Society

According to Dr. Miranda J. Green in her book, Dictionary of Celtic Myth and Legend , the sun was significantly meaningful to the ancient Celts. She states that “One of the most important venerated natural phenomena was the sun, seen as a life giver, promoter of fertility and healing” and that “coins were struck with sun symbols associated with the horse” (Refer to Celtic Collection Program Artifacts #1).

Some of the primary symbols for the Sun in ancient Celtic times were an X or a four-spoked wheel featured on bronze axes, swords, coins, urns, pottery and jewelry since Neolithic Europe. “Hallstatt Iron Age sheet-bronze vessels were decorated with repousse crosses and solar wheels,” states Dr. Green.

The X symbol was no doubt a significant astronomical representation for thousands of years; perhaps one of the most powerful ideograms valued by the Celts, which explains the X motif on our artifacts. The X artifacts range from 62 AD to 400 BC. However, to uncover the mystery of the interconnected design, a close evaluation of the symbols at Stonehenge and Newgrange needed to be conducted.

Celtic Collection Program Artifacts

All photos taken and owned by Lewis Hales of artifacts held in the Celtic Collection Program. Photo 1 is a coin from the Iceni tribe, 62 AD. Photo 2 is a Central European arm bracelet (c.a. 400 BC), in which are two sets of interconnected X’s extending from top to bottom inside of both bars . Photo 3 is a bell (200 BC) from Central Europe (likely used for ceremonial purposes) containing interconnected X’s engraved through its metal and around its body.

Photo taken and owned by Lewis Hales of artifact held in the Celtic Collection Program. This photo is a Central European bracelet (300 BC) with an atypical shape, which features a plain design on one side and a more elaborate version (twisted bronze) on the other one. Two long abstract shapes of a triangle are engraved into each terminal, a deeper cut one the plain side and a less elaborate cut one on the twisted side, forming an encoded cross reference of an X. This is the identical encoded design upon which Stonehenge was built (Refer to the Stonehenge geographical graphics design).

The Stonehenge and Newgrange X Factor

Stonehenge, prehistoric monument in Wiltshire, England. (Flickr/ CC BY 2.0 )

According to David Souden in his book, Stonehenge Revealed, “The stone phase at Stonehenge extended from 2550 BC to 1600 BC”, and is located in Wiltshire, England. Stonehenge is approximately 2,000 years older than our artifacts and its construction layout and artifacts excavated at or nearby the monument have revealed pertinent information. Stonehenge was built with an encoded X symbol between its Station Stones; the North Barrow Station Stone was intended to cross reference the South Barrow Stone and the North Station Stone was meant to align with the South Station Stone, forming a symbolic X across the monument’s landscape. The X precisely connects at the location of the altar, forming a perfect alignment straight across the ceremonial Avenue (Refer to Stonehenge’s X graphic design).

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Hundreds of artifacts featuring interconnected X artwork and the six images formed by that design (Refer to Findings and Summary) have been recovered from Stonehenge, such as the Chalk tablets (3,000-2,500 BC), an Early Bronze Age gold plaque from Wiltshire, and the Late Bronze Age gold lozenge, about which, Ancient Origins writer April Holloway accurately cited as an artifact believed by some to be an “astronomical instrument”, in her article, The Mysterious Golden Lozenge of Stonehenge .

Stonehenge’s X Graphic Design

This Graphics artwork has been donated to Lewis Hales with written permission of the designer, Les Still, to publish in this article.

Newgrange is a Stone Age monument in the Boyne Valley, County Meath, Ireland. It was constructed over 5,000 years ago during the Neolithic period and is about 800 to 900 years older than Stonehenge. This site contains exemplary examples of interconnected X artwork. The top photo shows them in a straight line over the roof box that allows sunlight to enter the chamber at dawn on the winter solstice and they are prominently featured on kerbstones 52 and 67 (Refer to Newgrange Images).

Newgrange, Stone Age Passage Tomb in County Meath, Ireland is older than Stonehenge or the Egyptian Pyramids.

Newgrange Images

Photo 1 Roof box was loaned to Lewis Hales by the photographer, © Dave Walsh for this article. Photo 2 is a painting of Kerbstone 52 donated to Lewis Hales with written permission to feature in this article by the artist Kathryn Gerhardt. Photo 3 is an image of Kerbstone 67 donated to Lewis Hales by written permission from the National Monuments Service Photographic Unit, located in Dublin, Ireland.

Symbols, Concepts and Motifs

Celtic artifacts frequently contain symbolism that places them into one or more categories, including the number three, fertility, feminine principle, reincarnation and astronomy. Every major belief or spiritual value, often synonymous, had a primary symbol, possibly several, and an enhanced version of that symbol to express veneration of it on the highest level. For example, the number three is often represented by nine symbols; usually an artifact’s enhanced ideogram indicates it was a particularly valued personal or ceremonial item, such as swords, bells and elaborate or gold adornments.

In ancient Celtic astronomy, the primary symbol was an X or sun wheel and its venerated rendition was an interconnected X design, which also represented the sun’s ongoing journey, considered sacred.

Celtic spiral on kerbstone. Newgrange, Near Kells - Co. Meath, Ireland. (Flickr/ CC BY 2.0 )

One of the most important discoveries of this research was identifying the six major astronomy symbols produced by the interconnected design (Refer to interpretation key chart). All six symbols, either collectively or separately, have been featured on Celtic artifacts for millennia and it is notable that many an artifact recovered from or near Stonehenge is particularly decorated with, or are in the form of, these shapes.

The X symbolism likely goes back much further in the ancestry of European Stone Age culture than Newgrange. According to Sherri Ellington, a historian specializing in Celtic mythology for 20 years, “The discovery of the six interconnected X symbols reveal an enhanced encoded set of astronomical shapes and representations that have been found on Celtic artifacts for millennia. Given that early Celtic and proto-Celtic society was widespread in Europe, the six interconnected X patterns and the primary X sun symbol likely go back much further than Newgrange, which is more than 5,000 years old and quite complex. These six shapes are still with us today and can be seen in our most prominent structures and institutions.”

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Our society still prominently incorporates the six symbols into all aspects of modern daily living, which frequently surfaces in our fashion, architecture, artwork, religious expression , and even in some of our political symbolism thousands of years after the original meaning has been forgotten.

We are a culture that believes that the “X” marks the spot, sends kisses with X symbols, and when we look close enough to notice, there are unlimited examples of the six designs everywhere.

Jung’s Paradigm of Archetypes

Dr. Carl Jung’s archetypal concept may provide an explanation why the X is still popular today. Archetypes are universal recurrent symbols, concepts or motifs found in literature, art, mythology, art and religion. They are basically genetically inherited bits of information that have been passed down for many generations. As a therapist, Carl Jung’s paradigm of archetypes best explains why the six symbols were and still remain significant features throughout society. However, as an educator, I encourage my students to research all available options, material and theories to find an answer that is best for them.

Dr. Melissa Carver specializes in Metaphysics, and has written several articles about archetypal male and female role models and the importance of how superheroes shape the lives of children . She stated of the interconnected X discovery that “Ancient Celtic society for thousands of years used symbols that included the X pattern representing archetypes that stay with us today surfacing in the form of our architecture, religion, and political trademarks, although society is basically uninformed of their meaning or presence.”

Special Acknowledgements

I wish to thank the special contributors to this research, whose photos, artwork, consultations and services made this extensive work possible: graphics specialist, Kirsten Babb; graphics designer Les Still, historian and lecturer Sherri Ellington, Tony Roche, artist Kathryn Gerhardt, photographer Dave Walsh and clinician Dr. Melissa Carver.

Featured image: Deriv; Stone at Newgrange ( CC BY-SA 3.0 ), and Celtic knot with X symbol

By Lewis Hales


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Celestial Maps of Gegham Mountain: The Unique Rock Art of Armenia

In the volcanic Gegham and Vardenis Mountains of Armenia, architect Suren Petrosyan discovered unique and mysterious astrological rock art paintings.

Experts have different opinions on the creation chronology of the rock art paintings found in the basin of Lake Sevan and along the slopes of Mount Aragats. Some think these rock art paintings were created in the third to second millennium BC, others claim about the fifth to fourth millennium BC, and there are researchers who date them to 10th millennium BC. It is not surprising, since the study and chronology of rock art paintings is very difficult.

The dramatic volcanic landscape of the Gegham Mountains, Armenia (MEDIACRAT, CC BY-SA 3.0)

However, there is no doubt that these rock art paintings illustrating stellar maps have thousands of years’ history.

When you visit the mountains where these astrological paintings—some made with a natural paint made of red volcanic mineral, others carved into the rock—have been created, immediately you notice the wide skies which seem almost too close to the Earth. The starry sky is especially clear and bright, which inspires one to go back to the past and for a moment to appear beside our ancestors, and see how they saw.

And at a time when there were no magnifying devices, the fact that the Armenian Highland is high enough above sea level (1700 to 1800 meters, or 5577 to 5905 feet), and about 500 to 600 meters (1600 to 2000 feet) high from the neighboring countries, contributed to witnessing breathtaking clarity of the starry sky.

In this regard, great importance was placed on rock art paintings on the hill called “Sheikhi Chingil” in the Gegham mountains, and on the peak of Sevsar in Vardenis Mountains—the former above sea level about 3500 meters (11,482 feet), and the latter at about 300 meters (984 feet).

Celestial Rock Art

These rock art paintings differ from the rest of Armenian petroglyphs because they are exclusively dedicated to the worship of the heavenly bodies, including the sun, moon, planets, stars, and unusual compositions of figures. In these places even the so-called “ordinary” rock art paintings are inextricably linked to the starry sky.

Many Armenian scientists have studied these unique ancient astronomic centers and their stellar maps, but historian and archaeologist Harutyun Martirosyan came to conclusion that the ancestors of Armenians, while worshiping the heavenly bodies, recognized several important quantitative and qualitative patterns of the celestial world.

Accordingly, it is clear that the heavenly bodies that were carved into the rock were based on accurate observations, that thousands of years ago our ancestors have differentiated not only the sun and the moon, but also planets, stars, and constellations which were separated into respective images and symbols only in the third millennium BC.

Obviously, ancient man not only noticed, but also depicted the movement of the stars that helped them to clearly understand and mark day and night, and the passage of time—seasons, days, even hours. Our ancestors differentiated the long, medium and short days based on the movements of the near and distant stars and planets.

Thus, Armenians’ ancestors’ understanding of the night sky came from religious circles.

The Sun and Moon: Siblings in the Sky

If we look at the disks of the sun in our rock art paintings, then you see that they are portrayed differently: in varying positions, the disks of the sun portray the morning, noon and evening. The sun is depicted through four concentric circles according to its rotation.

Rock art at the Sevsar Astrological Observatory, Armenia. (Photo courtesy writer.)

Armenians’ ancestors believed that the sun and the moon are siblings. That’s why they often depicted the moon, like the sun, in the circle. However, unlike the sun, the moon was depicted with two concentric circles, that reflects two main stages of the moon.

Drawings detailing the rock art symbols (Image courtesy writer)

Following the sun, moon and stars movements, regularities, and their quantitative expressions, ancient Armenians generalized all these in numbers, studying count and arithmetic from nature.

So they gave the sun one point, the sun and the moon two points, the moon and the stars three points, five points they gave to the planets and added to the sun and the moon, it becomes seven points. And the number 7 occupies the main place in all initial calculations of man, especially since it exactly matches with the changes of the moon phases.

Thanks to Arsen Alvandyan for the provision of the material!


The Pentagram

The pentagram is the simplest regular star polygon and it was associated with the golden ratio and architectural perfection in ancient Greece. Nowadays, however, most people think of evil and black magic when they see a pentagram – since the symbol ended up linked to Satanism.

Image of a human body in a pentagram from Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa’s ‘Libri tres de occulta philosophia.’ Symbols of the sun and moon are in center, while the other five classical “planets” are around the edge. ( Public Domain )


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Celestial Maps of Gegham Mountain: The Unique Rock Art of Armenia

In the volcanic Gegham and Vardenis Mountains of Armenia, architect Suren Petrosyan discovered unique and mysterious astrological rock art paintings.

Experts have different opinions on the creation chronology of the rock art paintings found in the basin of Lake Sevan and along the slopes of Mount Aragats. Some think these rock art paintings were created in the third to second millennium BC, others claim about the fifth to fourth millennium BC, and there are researchers who date them to 10th millennium BC. It is not surprising, since the study and chronology of rock art paintings is very difficult.

The dramatic volcanic landscape of the Gegham Mountains, Armenia (MEDIACRAT, CC BY-SA 3.0)

However, there is no doubt that these rock art paintings illustrating stellar maps have thousands of years’ history.

When you visit the mountains where these astrological paintings—some made with a natural paint made of red volcanic mineral, others carved into the rock—have been created, immediately you notice the wide skies which seem almost too close to the Earth. The starry sky is especially clear and bright, which inspires one to go back to the past and for a moment to appear beside our ancestors, and see how they saw.

And at a time when there were no magnifying devices, the fact that the Armenian Highland is high enough above sea level (1700 to 1800 meters, or 5577 to 5905 feet), and about 500 to 600 meters (1600 to 2000 feet) high from the neighboring countries, contributed to witnessing breathtaking clarity of the starry sky.

In this regard, great importance was placed on rock art paintings on the hill called “Sheikhi Chingil” in the Gegham mountains, and on the peak of Sevsar in Vardenis Mountains—the former above sea level about 3500 meters (11,482 feet), and the latter at about 300 meters (984 feet).

Celestial Rock Art

These rock art paintings differ from the rest of Armenian petroglyphs because they are exclusively dedicated to the worship of the heavenly bodies, including the sun, moon, planets, stars, and unusual compositions of figures. In these places even the so-called “ordinary” rock art paintings are inextricably linked to the starry sky.

Many Armenian scientists have studied these unique ancient astronomic centers and their stellar maps, but historian and archaeologist Harutyun Martirosyan came to conclusion that the ancestors of Armenians, while worshiping the heavenly bodies, recognized several important quantitative and qualitative patterns of the celestial world.

Accordingly, it is clear that the heavenly bodies that were carved into the rock were based on accurate observations, that thousands of years ago our ancestors have differentiated not only the sun and the moon, but also planets, stars, and constellations which were separated into respective images and symbols only in the third millennium BC.

Obviously, ancient man not only noticed, but also depicted the movement of the stars that helped them to clearly understand and mark day and night, and the passage of time—seasons, days, even hours. Our ancestors differentiated the long, medium and short days based on the movements of the near and distant stars and planets.

Thus, Armenians’ ancestors’ understanding of the night sky came from religious circles.

The Sun and Moon: Siblings in the Sky

If we look at the disks of the sun in our rock art paintings, then you see that they are portrayed differently: in varying positions, the disks of the sun portray the morning, noon and evening. The sun is depicted through four concentric circles according to its rotation.

Rock art at the Sevsar Astrological Observatory, Armenia. (Photo courtesy writer.)

Armenians’ ancestors believed that the sun and the moon are siblings. That’s why they often depicted the moon, like the sun, in the circle. However, unlike the sun, the moon was depicted with two concentric circles, that reflects two main stages of the moon.

Drawings detailing the rock art symbols (Image courtesy writer)

Following the sun, moon and stars movements, regularities, and their quantitative expressions, ancient Armenians generalized all these in numbers, studying count and arithmetic from nature.

So they gave the sun one point, the sun and the moon two points, the moon and the stars three points, five points they gave to the planets and added to the sun and the moon, it becomes seven points. And the number 7 occupies the main place in all initial calculations of man, especially since it exactly matches with the changes of the moon phases.

Thanks to Arsen Alvandyan for the provision of the material!


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15th – 31st December 2019 Howlin’ at the moon. News & Features…ellisctaylor.com

WELCOME to 15th – 31st December 2019’s edition of Howlin’ at the Moon. Updated every day, if possible.
(Chronologically, the posts begin at the bottom of the page):

ReThink HS2

Time is of the essence so let’s get as many people as possible sending messages to the party leaders.
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Personally I think this shiny-trousered wet dream should be cancelled altogether and everyone who has had anything to do with promoting it be made to move from wherever they are and made to cough up what this insane and murderous scheme has cost so far and use the money for causes that are genuinely beneficial to these Isles.
– Ellis

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Ancient symbols of death

Our goal is to create the best possible product, and your thoughts, ideas and suggestions play a major role in helping us identify opportunities to improve. We compare from a wide set of banks, insurers and product issuers. Having seen the Film It’s My Party, one becomes more convinced that the Abrahamacist you’ve gotta suffer for GOD, seems less and less meaningful or needed. However, it is sometimes found on gravestones of very devoted religious people also. Although we provide information on the products offered by a wide range of issuers, we don't cover every available product or service.

Black represents mystery and evil.

refer you to our partners, but this does not influence our opinions or In the Islamic view of the Afterlife, death is symbolised by a black and white ram which in turn will be slain to symbolise the Death of Death. Your answers indicate you’ve experienced symptoms commonly associated with HS. © 2020 Bristol City Council. Less blunt symbols of death frequently allude to the passage of time and the fragility of life, and can be described as memento mori[8] that is, an artistic or symbolic reminder of the inevitability of death. Represents virtue and control. Europeans were also seen to use coffins and cemeteries to symbolize the wealth and status of the person who has died, serving as a reminder to the living and the deceased as well.[7]. He wears a black cloak because the color is associated with funerals and mourning.

It is going to become a reality for each and every one of us. By providing you with the ability to apply for a credit card or loan, we are not guaranteeing that your application will be approved. Palette and Brushes - Usually found on artists' gravestones. We’re programmed to fear the dark (and the predators it conceals) and so things associated with night have become scary.

These sorts of symbols were often incorporated into vanitas paintings, a variety of early still life. It is also a small way for the deceased to live on after death because their names and date of birth are available for anyone to see. Column - Mortality. Images of life in the afterlife are also symbols of death. Spade - mortality and death. Symbolises an abundant, fruitful life. In the last 6 months, have these bumps reappeared 3 or more times? After completing this quiz, please talk to your dermatologist about your answers as soon as possible. Decoding the Ancient Symbols of the Norsemen Research Decodes Ancient Celtic Astronomy Symbols and Links them to Jungian Archetypes A Legendary Symbol Born from Chaos: The Philosophy of Yin and Yang Spartacus performing a “Two-fingered salute.” ( Taringa!) The Gorgon In Greek mythology was a vicious female monster with sharp fangs who was a protective deity from early religious concepts. We need your consent to our privacy policy.

Find out the meanings of the symbols for death found in different cultures and religions across the globe in this detailed infographic. You may unsubscribe at any time. By subscribing, you agree to the terms of our Privacy Statement.

In ancient Egyptian religion, the sun god, Ra, enters the sky each day and transforms bodies and souls. Tombs, tombstones, and other items of funereal architecture are obvious candidates for symbols of death. Purple represents sorrow and mourning. Optional, only if you want us to follow up with you.

What’s on at Bristol Museum & Art Gallery, Being Human: An exhibition of modern sculpture, Late lunch talk: Japanese netsuke carvings, 21st Century Kids: Bristol through our eyes, Vanguard | Bristol Street Art: The evolution of a global movement, See our king vulture on our online collection search.

Instead of running from the fact, you should embrace it. It’s quite a challenge trying to fit all your games onto the PlayStation 4 hard drive. Coffins also serve as blunt reminders of mortality. Cohanim Hands (Hands with thumbs - and sometimes forefingers- joined.)

Century Plant - immortality everlasting life. It allows mourners to know exactly where their loved ones are situated. Gravestones mark a burial site. The Angel Of Death, sometimes called Azrael or Sariel or Mairya, is a personification of death. With your support we can bring more of Bristol Museums’ treasures to life, for you and all visitors to enjoy. He loves the challenge of launching Finder into new markets while helping grow Finder’s global team. Books may also represent a person's good deeds and accomplishments being recorded in the book of life. It is a reminder that our days our numbered. Please note: This quiz is not meant to diagnose patients with HS. Horse - Death. Broken Bud or Branch - Someone who died an untimely or premature death.

Find out more and book your visit. Tombs, tombstones, and other items of funereal architecture are obvious candidates for symbols of death. Why on earth have you partially obstructed the view of a contemporary masterpiece with a mannequin? Have your physical symptoms, such as sores, wounds, or pain, impacted your lifestyle or mental outlook?

Bible or Book - Often used on the gravestones of ministers or clergymen. New York, NY, 10016. The music can be from a song the musician wrote, or it could be the deceased person's favourite hymn. Also known as theatre masks.

Some are pretty common, others you may find surprising. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Then you need to stream these cyberpunk TV shows and movies today.

Grim Reaper - Since 15th century, Skeletal figure carrying large scythe, clothed in black cloak Banshee - Irish, Omen of death, variety of guises: old, frightening hag stunningly beautiful woman Irish Battle goddess washer woman. finder.com is an independent comparison platform and information service that aims to provide you with the tools you need to make better decisions. Crown and Cross - victory and Christianity. The aim is to understand that no one is bound to their body forever. Please tick the box if you wish to continue with newsletter subscription. What are the leading causes of death in the US? Flag - Usually found on veterans' graves. Tombs, tombstones, and other items of funereal architecture are obvious candidates for symbols of death.

Please appreciate that there may be other options available to you than the products, providers or services covered by our service. Clocks, hourglasses, sundials, and other timepieces both call to mind that time is passing, and frequently contain memento mori mottoes themselves. Vultures are death eaters. The skull and crossbones motif (☠) has been used among Europeans as a symbol of both piracy and poison.

I agree to the Privacy and Cookies Policy, finder.com Terms of Use and to receive emails from Finder. Bad enough that the Museum had withdrawn this treasure from public view for a year or two but to present it in this fashion only adds insult to injury. Painting Techniques Basics Lessons & Tutorials Supplies Drawing & Sketching Arts & Crafts By. Snake, hooped - eternal life - no beginning, no end.

The Grim Reaper is commonly depicted holding a scythe because he harvests human souls the same way a farmer harvests his crops.

Learn It also symbolises vigilance. Many ancient Egyptian symbols were also used in religious and magical rituals for the living and also for the dead. A symbol of death, rebirth, and great power, the Egyptian scarab beetle was represented on amulets worn by people, living and dead, for hundreds of years. ).

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I refer to David Inshaw’s ‘Our days were a joy and our paths through flowers’. [13] In ancient Egypt, the gods Osiris and Ptah were typically depicted as mummies these gods governed the Egyptian afterlife. Take your favorite fandoms with you and never miss a beat. [18], Black is the color of mourning in many European cultures. Please read our website terms of use and privacy policy for more information about our services and our approach to privacy.

Even an empty hearse is associated with death. William has a Bachelor of Communications from the University of Technology Sydney, Australia.

Clocks, hourglasses, and sundials represents the passage of time. We value our editorial independence and follow editorial guidelines. [19] During the Victorian era, purple and grey were considered to be mourning colors in addition to black.

He has previously held the positions of group publisher of insurance for Finder Australia and lead publisher for the Finder global team.

Ankh - An Egyptian symbol of eternal life. He has previously held the positions of group publisher of insurance for Finder Australia and lead publisher for the Finder global team. Lyre - Often have a broken string, symbolizing the end of life. XP, overlapped - The Chi-Rho, one of the oldest Christian symbols. Many ancient Egyptian symbols were used as amulets of protection, or they were used to bring good fortune.


Research Decodes Ancient Celtic Astronomy Symbols and Links them to Jungian Archetypes - History

Keith
Hidden Mission Control

Thought our resident mathemagician might be a little interested in this one.

Pi Found in Mathematical Calculation of the Hydrogen Atom

A quantum mechanical calculation unexpectedly spits out the number.

3.14159265358979… admit it, you have tried at some point to memorize this number. I, for one, can only ever remember to the fifth digit. As of 2015, the representation of π is up to 13.3 trillion digits. Why do we need to know pi up to trillions of digits? The truth is, we don’t — it is just human curiosity and the desire to push things as far as possible.
The number π is a strange one — it has no end and a repeating pattern never occurs. If this number couldn’t get any weirder, a pair of physicists, Tamar Friedmann and Carl Hagan from the University of Rochester, have found that the formula for this odd number appears in a basic calculation in the physics of the hydrogen atom — the simplest atom in the universe.

Vianova
Posting Freak

.
The key to the statement error is:

Quantum mechanical calculations should be expected to spit out the number at some point.
They just need to look for it harder.

The angels maintain coincidence control in the universum holographicum,
itza big job, full time in no time flat.

Pi is woven and entangled into the fabric of the universe as we know it.
Macro to micro.

Even the ancient cultures ferreted out Pi fractions to 9 decimal placements.

We used to struggle to find convergent fractions for Pi,
and now I have seen hundreds emerge,
especially as the numbers increase in size and convergence gets closer:

take the double square root of fraction <2143 / 22>
equals
pi to 10 decimals

it's everywhere if you want to . measure it . and that is only when it exists,
when you measure it,
just like Time

You can also take the Mayan Calendar Round 18980
times
5.20
equals
98696 converges to 10,000 x Pi squared = 98696. 04401

There is a Khufu Pyramid cubit that creates a pi value to 9 decimal placements,
sorry,
but I want to keep that in back pocket.

Creating a geometry in a triangle is seen often on the net as knuckleheads fail.

A ncient Pi progressions prove that the more sophisticated ancient cultures
had this number
104348 / 33215 ----- note that 33215 = 91 x 365

You use just these two fundamental ancient pi fractions for the ancient pi progression:
355 / 113
and the ancient cosmological pi counterpart aPi = 22 / 7

CUT TO THE Quantum Cat in the Hat CHASE

300 x 355 -----------> minus 22 = 106478
divided by
300 x 113 ------------> minus 7 = 33893

= 3.141592659 99.99999982 % accuracy

you now have everything you need to find the absolute closest possible value,
the ancient pi progression,
can produce for Pi

Itza like . a hop skip and jump away

Kalter Rauch
Posting Freak

Vianova
Posting Freak

yes or no cannot answer that question

if you disentangle 0 from 1,
you disentagle from all numbers
and that is what pure zero implies actually . total disentanglement by sheer non existence

there's the rub . it's all an implication . numbers are employed to imply precision accuracy,
even in absolute unpredictable random chaos

There are numbers . you can count to got to sleep,
and then
there are number theories,
like the speed of light,
in meters per second . from whence light is beckoned

faster than light speed exists . wait till they quantify that with endless theories.


It becomes a philosophical argument . you could argue that 1 and 0 are the only numbers.

Numbers don't exist until you assign them or count them.

A great number entanglement are the first nine numbers

9 x 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 = ----------> 362880

A Khufu Pyramid base length of 756 feet
equals 9072 inches.
There are 4 base lengths thus total inches is = 36288

The two numbers are the same number sequence 36288 , . factor of 10

now with that number of inches in all 4 base lengths = 36288
you can create a Pi value,
with
square root 18 = 3x sqrt 2 = sqrt 18


483670 divided by < 36288 x sqrt 18 >= 3.1415926 0046 99.9999983%


Enormous Galactic zones of hot gas that birth thousands of stars . does Pi exist there?
how about One?
or
Zero?
do they exist out there?

Star factories of Infinity

Infinity = the square root of zero divided by Pi . plus one plus one plus one plus one plus one

Anybody see Pi out there? . It's absolutely everywhere but nowhere out there

Kalter Rauch
Posting Freak

Vianova
Posting Freak

I suppose so.
Sine waves . goes into Fourier series analysis.

Still it's interpretive semantics.

Harmonic Code is like a wormhole through the number string universe.

Every number string,
travels through an infinitely entangled and interconnected moebius strip like complexity . in a fashion,
but the Moebius strips have cross over connectivity number catalysts . on and off ramps,
into the number catalyst summoned complimentary Moebius strips.

You can chase your own cat tail,
in a Moebius strip universe,
for eternity.

If you get really good at Harmonic Code however,
then
you can sit back easy,
in the:
Cat - Bird Seat . and cruise the number universe.

999000 x square root two
divided by
449708

equals Pi = 3.141592653 ten decimal accuracy

Kalter Rauch
Posting Freak

EA
Posting Freak

Ancient Astronomers Tell Us Earth's Days Have Lengthened
Brian Koberlein ,

A rising sun and Earth's horizon are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 13 crewmember on the International Space Station. Credit: NASA

A day on Earth is longer than it used to be. The increase is tiny. Over the span of a hundred years the Earth's day will increase by only a few milliseconds. It's only been in the past few decades that we've been able to measure Earth with enough precision to see this effect directly. Using atomic clocks and ultra-precise measurements of distant quasars , we can measure the length of a day to within nanoseconds. Our measurements are so precise that we can observe various fluctuations in the length of a day due to things like earthquakes. Those fluctuations make it a challenge to answer another question. How has Earth's rotation changed over longer periods of time?

Variation of the length of a day in recent years. Credit: Wikipedia.

Part of the reason Earth's days are getting longer is due to the gravitational pull of the Moon on our oceans. The tides slosh against the Earth, gradually slowing its rotation . Over millions of years this means Earth's day was hour shorter than it is now, thus there were more days in a year than today. We see this effect in the geological record, which tells us an Earth day was about 22 hours long 620 million years ago. Trying to measure the length of a day between the recent and geological era, however, is difficult. Hundreds of years ago clocks weren't accurate enough to measure this variation, and the length of a day was fixed to its rotation, making any such comparison impossible. But recent work has found a way to study Earth's changing days.

Although our ancestors of centuries past didn't have accurate clocks, they were good astronomers. They observed and documented astronomical events such as the occultation of bright stars by the Moon , as well as solar eclipses . The occurrence of these events depends critically on when and where you are. If, for example, an astronomer in one city sees the Moon pass in front of a star one night, an astronomer in a nearby city will only see the Moon pass close to the star. By comparing the observations of these astronomical events with the actual time of their event as calculated from the orbital motions of the Earth and Moon, we know exactly when and where they occurred. Fitting a history of observations together, we can get an average rate for the increase of a day. That turns out to be about 1.8 milliseconds per century.
There are two things that are interesting about this result. The first is that it's pretty amazing to be able to determine this rate from historical documents. The observations span more than two and a half millennia, and are written in various languages and locations. Gathering them all together and verifying them is an amazing effort. The other is that this rate is actually less than the rate theorized from the tidal effects of our Moon (about 2.3 ms/century). This is likely due to changes in Earth's overall shape. We know, for example, that the melting of ice since the last ice age (about 10,000 years ago) has released pressure at the Earth's poles, allowing it to return to a more spherical shape. This would tend to shorten Earth's days a bit. The combination of these two effects give us the historical rate we see.

Overall this work is a great demonstration of how history can speak to us. If we listen closely, we can even see the changes of time.

Paper: F. R. Stephenson, et al. Measurement of the Earth's rotation: 720 BC to AD 2015 . Proceedings of the Royal Society A. DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2016.0404 (2016)

Vianova
Posting Freak

.
That is interesting indeed.

In recent years the Earth sidereal year has been posted on the net with many close values.

It used to be plain old
365.2563 days

now it's set at:
365.253636 days

when it streamlines to actually 365.25 63 63 days

That may seem to be . nothing . but it amounts to something.

Also for YEARS the Mars diameter was 3397 km.
After my first pdf with important equations using that value,
NASA conveniently changed that to 3398 km


but look at the Earth year sidereal --- sidereal essentially is solar orbit period.

and this:
important Mars and Earth sidereal cycle featured in my soon to be relased pdf.

1225 x Mars sidereal 686.98 = 2304 x Earth sidereal 365.25636 .

now if you employ 365.2563 as the Earth year from older data a few years ago,
here is what happens
when you exact the equation and compare to 365.2563

1225 x 686.98 = 2304 x 365.2562934 days . off by 0.57 seconds --- 99.99999 82 % accuracy


if you employ 365.25636 as the Earth year
here is what you get,
when you exact the equation and compare to 365.25636

1225 x 686.98 = 2304 x 365.2562934 days . off by 5.75 seconds --- 99.9999 81 % accuracy

you lose one of the 9's in the accuracy.


Either way it is a highly important cycle,
one of many of which emerges from ancient pyramid geometry.

But that is how quickly planetary cycle percentage accuracy can change with a penny pinch on the sidereal.
.

EA
Posting Freak

(12-11-2016, 04:34 PM) Vianova Wrote: .
That is interesting indeed.

But that is how quickly planetary cycle percentage accuracy can change with a penny pinch on the sidereal.
.

Conversely is it not also a floating point of sorts and if a bayesian inference analysis were to be taken maybe they can start exact dating some of these monuments and stelea around the globe?

Archeo-achrony?
metronome
Celestial symphony?

6,000 years ago, the Sahara desert was tropical—what happened?
December 1, 2016


The Sahara desert was once a tropical jungle. Credit: Texas A&M University
As little as 6,000 years ago, the vast Sahara Desert was covered in grassland that received plenty of rainfall, but shifts in the world's weather patterns abruptly transformed the vegetated region into some of the driest land on Earth. A Texas A&M university researcher is trying to uncover the clues responsible for this enormous climate transformation – and the findings could lead to better rainfall predictions worldwide.

The Sphinx water erosion hypothesis contends that the main type of weathering evident on the enclosure walls of the Great Sphinx was caused by prolonged and extensive rainfall that would have predated the time of Djedefre and Khafre, the Pharaohs credited by most modern Egyptologists with building the Great Sphinx and .

Sphinx water erosion hypothesis - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Sphinx _water_ erosion _hypothesis

Robert Korty, associate professor in the Department of Atmospheric Sciences, along with colleague William Boos of Yale University, have had their work published in the current issue of Nature Geoscience .

The two researchers have looked into precipitation patterns of the Holocene era and compared them with present-day movements of the intertropical convergence zone, a large region of intense tropical rainfall. Using computer models and other data, the researchers found links to rainfall patterns thousands of years ago.

"The framework we developed helps us understand why the heaviest tropical rain belts set up where they do," Korty explains.

"Tropical rain belts are tied to what happens elsewhere in the world through the Hadley circulation, but it won't predict changes elsewhere directly, as the chain of events is very complex. But it is a step toward that goal."

Vianova
Posting Freak

.
The Petrie average for the four base lengths of the Khufu pyramid is 9068.8 inches.

His later scientific counterpart Cole,
who was hired by the Egyptian government to validate Petrie's work,
set the average at 9069.4 inches.
Which historically was considered to be a validation, with the average only 0.6 inches apart.

But they both posted all base length measurements , then tallied up the average.

Lehner on the other hand only posed his average and nothing else,
because he is worthless like Zahi Hawass, who he worked with on the project.

The huge and glaring problem with Petrie and Cole,
is that Petrie's longer measured north and south sides,
are Cole's shorter measured base lengths,
and vice versa.

The only way to approach the pyramid is from the perspective of the cubit system they used.
Petrie was not against that at all,
and in the end after finishing up the King's chamber,
set his Royal Cubit spread at:
20.615 to 20.624 inches.
It was by pressure from many English researchers looking at cubit system possibilities,
directed at Petrie,
that made him amend the Royal Cubit spread to:
20.615 to 20.625 inches.

This was a very good move by Petrie at the urging of cubit researchers independent of him,
because that cubit HAS to be in the mix,
as it is cosmologically and inextractably tied to cubit <1134 / 55 = 20.618 18 18

> first and foremost,
and cubit 20.61675 as well.

point being that small margins can change improtant numbers

example
for simplistic purposes just use 481 feet as the Khufu Pyramid height,
for tangent calculation purposes.

Petrie average for the four base lengths of the Khufu pyramid is 9068.8 inches.
Cole average for the four base lengths of the Khufu pyramid is 9069.4 inches.
So using that 481 feet as a designated height,
you get two different
slope angle tangents:

for the Petrie average the tangent would be 1.27 29 3578

for the Cole average: the tangent would be 1.27 28 51567

Those subtle differences are more important than you may consider them to be.

To top all that off,
the pyramid has . indent tations . not seen until the 1940's I think it is,
from overhead flight imaging.
Those indentations will amount to subtle changes as well,
and have never been explained.
But I have developed a solid theory for them from a geometry perspective.

I found this gif, if you look closely you will see the indentations . save it if you can

EA
Posting Freak


25 JANUARY, 2017 - 17:01 KERRY SULLIVAN
What is the Mysterious Handbag Seen in Ancient Carvings Across Cultures and Countries?
(Read the article on one page)
One of the more mysterious symbols that has been found in ancient carvings is an image that looks uncannily like a handbag. The shape appears in depictions made by the Sumerians of Iraq, in the ruins of ancient Turkish temples, in decorations of the Maori of New Zealand, and in crafts made by the Olmecs of Central America. Handbags can be seen in the art of disparate cultures from around the world and throughout time, with the first known instance of a handbag appearing at the end of the Ice Age. What is this mysterious symbol that can be found throughout the ancient world?
A Representation of the Cosmos?
The handbag image is so called because it looks very similar to the modern-day purse. The objects “typically feature a rounded handle-like top and a rectangular bottom, and may include varying degrees of additional details of texture or pattern” (Scranton, 2016). The images sometimes appear as stand-alone objects sometimes they are depicted in the hand of a person, god, or mythical being in a manner similar to how one would hold a basket.
One possible theory for the proliferation of this image is its simple and straightforward representation of the cosmos. The semi-circle of the image (what would appear to be the bag’s strap) represents the hemisphere of the sky. Meanwhile, the solid square base represents the earth. “In ancient cultures from Africa to India to China, the figure of a circle was associated symbolically with concepts of spirituality or non-materiality, while that of a square was often associated with concepts of the Earth and of materiality” (Scranton, 2016). Thus, the image is used to symbolize the (re)unification of the earth and sky, of the material and the non-material elements of existence.
The symbol of the Swastika and its 12,000-year-old history
Research Decodes Ancient Celtic Astronomy Symbols and Links them to Jungian Archetypes
Decoding the Ancient Symbols of the Norsemen
Could the mysterious handbag really represent the cosmos? Assyrian relief carving from Nimrud, 883–859 B.C.
Could the mysterious handbag really represent the cosmos? Assyrian relief carving from Nimrud, 883–859 B.C. (Metropolitan Museum of Art)
Oldest Depictions of the ‘Handbag’
One of the earliest instances of the handbag motif can be seen in the ruins of Göbekli Tepe, located at the top of a mountain ridge in southeastern Turkey. Dating back to approximately 11,000 BC, Göbekli Tepe is one of the oldest temple complexes ever discovered (Tinfoil Hat, 2014). The exact purpose of the mountain sanctuary is unknown however, it appears that temple may have served as a site for religious sacrifices (archaeologists unearthed many butchered animal bones). The walls and pillars of the temple are decorated with finely carved animals, gods, and mythical creatures, perhaps in an effort to portray the many different creations of the cosmos. Amidst these other carvings are three handbags.
Experts believe that early religions worshiped the fundamental elements of life on earth. Therefore, “the three Göbekli Tepe handbags, taken as an early form of those icons, could be said to symbolically define the site as a temple” (Scranton, 2016).
Pillar 43 from Gobekli Tepe in Turkey shows three ‘handbag’ carvings along the top.
Pillar 43 from Gobekli Tepe in Turkey shows three ‘handbag’ carvings along the top. Credit: Alistair Coombs
From the Middle East to South America, the Strange Carving Can Be Found
Elsewhere, the handbag image shows up with striking similarities in two stone reliefs, one made by the Assyrians of ancient Iraq sometime between 880-859 BC and the other made by the Olmecs of ancient Mesoamerica sometime between 1200 – 400 BC. In both of these images, a man-like figure carries the handbag in his hand, as if it were a basket or purse. “When used in Assyrian art it is said the purse holds magic dust. When depicted in Olmec art they postulate it contains herbs for getting high” (Freeborn, 2013). This suggests that the handbag may have been a standard of measurement uniquely discovered by both cultures.
Göbekli Tepe Shamans and their Cosmic Symbols – Part I
Ancient Signs of Pride and Power: Unravelling the Secrets Behind Irish and Celtic Symbols
Fire Symbolism: Flames that Ignite Faiths and Inspire Minds
Olmec Monument 19, from La Venta, Tabasco, shows a man holding the handbag in his hand.
Olmec Monument 19, from La Venta, Tabasco, shows a man holding the handbag in his hand. (Xuan Che)
Another instance of ancient handbag imagery can be found in faraway New Zealand. A Maori myth tells of a hero who once ascended to the home of the gods and returned to earth carrying three baskets full of wisdom. Thus, much like the Göbekli Tepe handbags, the Maori handbags symbolize worship and gratitude for divinely inspired knowledge.
Finally, in ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, the handbag-like image can be seen. This time serving as a home for the gods and goddesses, with the purse straps being the domed poles of the portable tent and the square bottom being the cloth or animal skins laid across the poles. This structure is quite similar to the Native American teepee or the central Asian yurt.
The many instances of this symbol seem to confirm the use of a handbag as a cosmological symbol represented as a commonplace household item (a basket that is, not the handbag) so as to be better understood by ordinary people.
Top image: Assyrian relief carving, 883 – 859 BC. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
By Kerry Sullivan
Sources:
Freeborn, B. L. "The Odd Little Purse in Olmec and Assyrian Art." Noahsage. Noah's Age, 1 July 2013. Web. https://noahsage.com/2013/07/01/the-odd-. yrian-art/.
Scranton, Laird. "Perspectives on Ancient Handbag Images." Lost Origins. Lost Origins, 21 Feb. 2016. Web. http://lost-origins.com/perspectives-on-. ag-images/.
Tinfoil Hat. "Ancient Purses and Balls of Power." Tinfoil Hat Lady. Tinfoil Hat Lady, 10 June 2014. Web. https://tinfoilhatlady.com/2014/06/10/an. -of-power/. Vianova
Posting Freak

.
I pointed out the carved stele Olmec Monument 19 God with the handbag or purse iconography,
being identical to the Sumerian counterparts in those stone stele,
many years ago.

This news article mentions Globekli Tepi handbags.
I am skeptical of them as being the same thing.

Here is a link with huge magnification
https://tepetelegrams.files.wordpress.co. abb-23.jpg

The Globekli Tepi carvings aren't quite the same IMO.

My guess was that these were the alien "seed purses" representative of many things.
They carried the seeds of agriculture and the wisdom and knowledge of the Gods .
. into humanity for the survival of mankind and civiliaztion,
symbolically represented in the carvings.
Curiously the Sumerian stele all show the othe hand holding what looks to be a pine cone like object,
often with the tree of life.

Maybe the purses are also sacred medicinal carriers.
Godspice . sacred angel DNA . the Tree of Life.

One thing the little purses are not is the mundane offering these scientists came up with:

Quote: The semi-circle of the image (what would appear to be the bag’s strap)
represents the hemisphere of the sky.
Meanwhile, the solid square base represents the earth.

Thus, the image is used to symbolize the (re)unification of the earth and sky,
of the material and the non-material elements of existence.

Vianova
Posting Freak

.
Often seen on FB with the harmonic code people are unfortunate attempts to create a triangle,
that produces Pi,
or a convergent Pi value that is,
in the hypotenuse of the the triangle.

After acquiring a headache looking at the results of these pi convergence triangles,
and vocalizing my displeasure at such poor results
I decided that I had better put up or shut up.

So a few months ago I released the first attempt at a Pi triangle,
and got interesting results that just beat 6 sigma accuracy.

In the image below you will see that first triangle on the top left section.

The top right section, and down most of the right hand side,
is an improved accuracy percentage in achieving a Pi value in a triangle geometry.
I show 4 triangles in a row,
that display a descending progression in how the triangle lengths will reduce.
ie
all 4 triangles are the exact same geometry with angle A.

Notice that ancient Mayan number systems are employed:
Seen are the Mayan tzlokin 260 day spiritual calendar,
and even the Mayan Calendar Round 18980 days.
The absolutely wild part of this triangle is the equation with the angle cosine,
that reveals the ancient calendar count for the Venus synod to Earth of 584 days.
This triangle proves that the Mayan system of count using the 13 prime,
can produce a highly convergent Pi value.
In this case, 6 sigma accuracy was greatly exceeded!

Now go to the bottom left in the image,
and one triangle has 100 % accuracy.
That triangle is perfect, mathematically and geometrically perfect,
but it has an inherent . deception.

If you can figure it out, please say so.

Below that triangle is the best convergent Pi triangle ever constructed that I know of.
It has 99.9999995 % accuracy.

This triangle uses the Fine Structure Constant and Pi.
The absolute beauty of this triangle,
is the capacity to convert directly with the Egyptian cosmologiccal pi vlaue aPi = 22 / 7,
in the base length of the triangle .

So the entire bottom of the image shows how to expand the triangle on the bottom left,
into the triangle on the bottom right.
This is material from my finally finished and abridged pdf, awaiting copyright.

I have doubts that anyone can beat my triangle.
It brings together an ancient historic Egyptian cosmological Pi --- aPi = 22 / 7,
and the modern Pi value to produce a convergent geometry.


Vianova
Posting Freak

.
The Tricky Triangle has 100% accuracy.
One can create an infinite number of 100% accuracy pi triangles,
built upon the mathematic principles of this triangle.
The important difference between all these triangles,
is that each one has it's own unique angle V <---.
100 % accuracy is exceptional,
but this is the Tricky Triangle and it has a uniquely secluded simple trick!
It can only be 100% accurate as structured,
and that process can be replicated infinitely.
My triangle here is not special having 100% accuracy,
as it is most excellent because the sine of this angle V,
is the tangent of pentagonal 36 degrees,
a component of phi geometry. The challenge is:
Can anyone decipher the cosine and tangent of angle V,
in terms of phi?

Keith
Hidden Mission Control

do tell.
one thing that strikes me about these is how did 'primitives' know to encode these into the pyramidal geometries

I mean, those are pretty heavy to be figuring on a cuneiform tablet or scratching on a rock.

EA
Posting Freak

For sum reason I think if the triangle was 3-deed on an X,Y,Z, axis and the light cone of the universe was within itz parameters that it would explain our Chiral Universe.

Vianova
Posting Freak

.
I cannot answer the premise of chiral universe,
but I can show how the Tricky Triangle is more fluff than stuff.

Pi is somewhat naturally encoded in any 3d construct. pyramid geometries un-encode themselves,
when you study and measure pyramid dimensions,
which are formed with cross sectional triangles.

They were aware of Pi , Phi, and the three important square roots , 2,3,5,
as building blocks of the universe by sheer geometry perspective.

Ancient cultures encoded far more than those simplicities into the pyramids.

But that is somewhat why I made the Tricky Triangle.
I mean . it's got the kitchen sink!
pi, phi, sqrt phi sqrt 2, sqrt 5

It looks complicated in that format, but in reality it is far more simple.

the tangent of the angle V is: the square root of :

the cosine of angle V is: the inverse square root of: .

inverse is <1 / x>on your hand computer

phi and sqrt 5 related numbers have an amazing plethora of mathematical definitions,
for each number value,
associated with that number system:

sqrt 5 + 2 = 4.236067978 = tangent 72 degrees x tangent 54 degrees = phi x phi squared

now look at the tricky triangle again

now just remove pi . everywhere

you have the exact same triangle.

the true triangle,
has vertical height : the double square root of 5

and base length: square root 2

and hypotenuse : phi x sqrt phi

Pi is irrelevant, you can substitute ANY number for where you see Pi,
and
that triangle will remain the same geometry.

Try the number 6, and replace Pi with 6, in the base and the height.

The base becomes sqrt 12,
and
the height becomes ---> the double square root of 180,
and
you retain the exact same geometry.
.

Keith
Hidden Mission Control

Citizen Quasar
Member

(02-20-2017, 01:37 AM) Keith Wrote:

Keith
Hidden Mission Control

EA
Posting Freak

Second largest Maya jade found in Belize has unique historical inscription
February 24, 2017 by Inga Kiderra


UC San Diego archaeologist Geoffrey Braswell holds a replica of the Maya jade pendant. Credit: Erik Jepsen/UC San Diego Publications
To say that UC San Diego archaeologist Geoffrey Braswell was surprised to discover a precious jewel in Nim Li Punit in southern Belize is something of an understatement.


"It was like finding the Hope Diamond in Peoria instead of New York," said Braswell, who led the dig that uncovered a large piece of carved jade once belonging to an ancient Maya king. "We would expect something like it in one of the big cities of the Maya world. Instead, here it was, far from the center," he said.
The jewel—a jade pendant worn on a king's chest during key religious ceremonies—was first unearthed in 2015. It is now housed at the Central Bank of Belize, along with other national treasures. Braswell recently published a paper in the Cambridge University journal Ancient Mesoamerica detailing the jewel's significance. A second paper, in the Journal of Field Archaeology , describes the excavations.
The pendant is remarkable for being the second largest Maya jade found in Belize to date, said Braswell, a professor in the Department of Anthropology at UC San Diego. The pendant measures 7.4 inches wide, 4.1 inches high and just 0.3 inches thick. Sawing it into this thin, flat form with string, fat and jade dust would have been a technical feat. But what makes the pendant even more remarkable, Braswell said, is that it's the only one known to be inscribed with a historical text. Carved into the pendant's back are 30 hieroglyphs about its first owner.
"It literally speaks to us," Braswell said. "The story it tells is a short but important one." He believes it may even change what we know about the Maya.
Also important: The pendant was "not torn out of history by looters," said Braswell. "To find it on a legal expedition, in context, gives us information about the site and the jewel that we couldn't have otherwise had or maybe even imagined."

Three of the objects buried together by the Maya around A.D. 800. Why were they entombed? Field and artifact photos courtesy Braswell. Credit: University of California - San Diego
Where the jewel was found
Nim Li Punit is a small site in the Toledo District of Belize. It sits on a ridge in the Maya Mountains, near the contemporary village of Indian Creek. Eight different types of parrot fly overhead. It rains nine months of the year.
On the southeastern edge of the ancient Maya zone (more than 250 miles south of Chichen Itza in Mexico, where similar but smaller breast pieces have been found), Nim Li Punit is estimated to have been inhabited between A.D. 150 and 850. The site's name means "big hat." It was dubbed that, after its rediscovery in 1976, for the elaborate headdress sported by one of its stone figures. Its ancient name might be Wakam or Kawam, but this is not certain.


Braswell, UC San Diego graduate students Maya Azarova and Mario Borrero, along with a crew of local people, were excavating a palace built around the year 400 when they found a collapsed, but intact, tomb. Inside the tomb, which dates to about A.D. 800, were 25 pottery vessels, a large stone that had been flaked into the shape of a deity and the precious jade pectoral. Except for a couple of teeth, there were no human remains.
What was it doing there?
The pendant is in the shape of a T. Its front is carved with a T also. This is the Mayan glyph "ik'," which stands for "wind and breath." It was buried, Braswell said, in a curious, T-shaped platform. And one of the pots discovered with it, a vessel with a beaked face, probably depicts a Maya god of wind.

Nim Li Punit was abandoned within a generation of the construction of the tomb that held the jade pendant. Credit: University of California - San Diego
Wind was seen as vital by the Maya. It brought annual monsoon rains that made the crops grow. And Maya kings—as divine rulers responsible for the weather—performed rituals according to their sacred calendar, burning and scattering incense to bring on the wind and life-giving rains. According to the inscription on its back, Braswell said, the pendant was first used in A.D. 672 in just such a ritual.
Two relief sculptures on large rock slabs at Nim Li Punit also corroborate that use. In both sculptures, a king is shown wearing the T-shaped pendant while scattering incense, in A.D. 721 and 731, some 50 and 60 years after the pendant was first worn.
By the year A.D. 800, the pendant was buried, not with its human owner, it seems, but just with other objects. Why? The pendant wasn't a bauble, Braswell said, "it had immense power and magic." Could it have been buried as a dedication to the wind god? That's Braswell's educated hunch.
Maya kingdoms were collapsing throughout Belize and Guatemala around A.D. 800, Braswell said. Population levels plummeted. Within a generation of the construction of the tomb, Nim Li Punit itself was abandoned.
"A recent theory is that climate change caused droughts that led to the widespread failure of agriculture and the collapse of Maya civilization," Braswell said. "The dedication of this tomb at that time of crisis to the wind god who brings the annual rains lends support to this theory, and should remind us all about the danger of climate change."

The most important aspect of the jewel, Braswell says, is a historical text of 30 hieroglyphs on its back, a private message seen mostly by the king who wore it. Credit: University of California - San Diego
Still and again: What was it doing there?
The inscription on the back of the pendant is perhaps the most intriguing thing about it, Braswell said. The text is still being analyzed by Braswell's coauthor on the Ancient Mesoamerica paper, Christian Prager of the University of Bonn. And Mayan script itself is not yet fully deciphered or agreed upon.
But Prager and Braswell's interpretation of the text so far is this: The jewel was made for the king Janaab' Ohl K'inich. In addition to noting the pendant's first use in A.D. 672 for an incense-scattering ceremony, the hieroglyphs describe the king's parentage. His mother, the text implies, was from Cahal Pech, a distant site in western Belize. The king's father died before aged 20 and may have come from somewhere in Guatemala.
It also describes the accession rites of the king in A.D. 647, Braswell said, and ends with a passage that possibly links the king to the powerful and immense Maya city of Caracol, located in modern-day Belize.
"It tells a political story far from Nim Li Punit," Braswell said. He notes that Cahal Pech, the mother's birthplace, for example, is 60 miles away. That's a five-hour bus ride today, and back then would have been many days' walk—through rainforest and across mountains. How did the pendant come to this outpost?
While it's possible it had been stolen from an important place and whisked away to the provinces, Braswell doesn't think so. He believes the pendant is telling us about the arrival of royalty at Nim Li Punit, the founding of a new dynasty. The writing on the pendant is not particularly old by Maya standards, but it's the oldest found at Nim Li Punit so far, Braswell said. It's also only after the pendant's arrival that other hieroglyphs and images of royalty begin to show up on the site's stelae, or sculptured stone slabs.

raduate student Mario Borrero excavates the substructure of the palace building which held the tomb. Credit: University of California - San Diego
It could be that king Janaab' Ohl K'inich himself moved to Nim Li Punit, Braswell said. Or it could be that a great Maya state was trying to ally with the provinces, expand its power or curry favor by presenting a local king with the jewel. Either way, Braswell believes, the writing on the pendant indicates ties that had been previously unknown.
"We didn't think we'd find royal, political connections to the north and the west of Nim Li Punit," said Braswell, who has been excavating in Belize since 2001 and at Nim Li Punit since 2010. "We thought if there were any at all that they'd be to the south and east."
Even if you ignore the writing and its apparent royal provenance, the jade stone itself is from the mountains of Guatemala, southwest of Belize. There are few earlier indications of trade in that direction either, Braswell said.
We may never know exactly why the pendant came to Nim Li Punit or why it was buried as it was, but Braswell's project to understand the site continues. He plans to return in the spring of 2017. This time, he also wants to see if he might discover a tie to the Caribbean Sea. After all, that's a mere 12 miles downriver, a four-hour trip by canoe.
Explore further: Mexican experts say original pyramid found at Chichen Itza
Provided by: University of California - San Diego

Vianova
Posting Freak

.
I have been on the road for 2 days, thanks for posting the jade carving.

That is the find of many lifetimes.
Wow, what a thrill it must have been.
I would have had to pocket that one if I had found it.
So now it sits in a bank in Belize.

I was viewing what appears to be state of the art fake in a Mayan cylinder vase yesterday.
It was important to be able to view this from the perspective of hands on observation.
I had to drive 120 miles to go see it.
Important items get faked.
That Maya jade cannot be faked, well maybe, but it would be easily debunked.
Ancient jade like that has an unmistakeable patina,
and it would be extremely difficult to carve those symbols out with hand tools.
Ancient tool marks are also to be expected on a true item.

I saw the crystal skull Sha-Na-Ra once in my hands and it had modern tool marks all over it.
The owners would say that those are later repolishing marks.
They also had a fake Chinese jade skeleton.
The skull however was quite beautiful when they shined multi colored lights through it,'
and it is revered by believers none the less.

Painted and worked ceramics are much more easily faked.
Chinese fake a lot of jades -- a lot of jades.
They are usually easy to ferret out.
.

Ancient Vizier
Goodbye Pie, Hello Pi

(02-19-2017, 03:18 AM) Vianova Wrote: Pi is somewhat naturally encoded in any 3d construct. pyramid geometries un-encode themselves,
when you study and measure pyramid dimensions,
which are formed with cross sectional triangles.

But that is somewhat why I made the Tricky Triangle.
I mean . it's got the kitchen sink!
pi, phi, sqrt phi sqrt 2, sqrt 5

Well, yes. The one "respectable" book I have on pyramid geometry I think spent most of that book making the case for Phi as the fundamental constant of Great Pyramid geometry, but I was basically able to get the same result by not giving a rip whatsoever about Phi. Using a model purely based on double Pi, you can still come along later and do a fair job milking Phi out of it the same way.

On the other hand, you've got some REALLY nice work here, Vi. And anything that includes the Kitchen Sink isn't likely to have gone unnoticed by the ancients.

It IS possible that what really went into the pyramids is a set of choices that allow the Kitchen Sink to be recovered regardless of which new-agey idiot (raises hand) is trying to decode them and no matter how shitty the satellite imagery or measurements are that they're using. Somehow nobody fails to extract a whole wheelbarrow full of NASA planetary data no matter how diverse their approaches to ferreting it out may be. It's just that the more accurate one actually tries to be the less "everybody is right in their own touchy-feely little way" will actually hold water.

I'm just still not all that sure after all this time what it is the ancients really want to talk about after they're done making the announcement, "Hello, we're talking to you in math and geometry, just like Sagan said aliens would do" - I suspect it really does involve some cosmology since it's eventually hard to separate the two subjects. In all my glory days of monument hunting, I don't think I EVER found three ancient terrestrial monuments in a straight line, and there is NO WAY that is accidental. The catch might be that since they open the discussion like we're in kindergarten, how complex do they really want to get with us (give or take Pi or Phi naturally nested within one another sort of stuff) unless they absolutely have to?

I'm also not smart enough to not be skeptical about 22/7, I still think that was us finding the Kindergarten Papyrus. Like someone digging up my old high school chemistry book and looking at the Handy Dandy Data Table inside the front cover, and then declaring that We Who Put Men On The Moon only knew Pi to three places after the decimal just because that's all any high school student needs to give a shit about it.

I extended our "Pyramid Matrix" mathematical model to include these, and christened it something or other along with related names for some relatives (w and w/o capstone, etc). That raw "idented apothem" value may have some meaning, although near the base these indentations bifurcate so that too like the simpler apothem value is some kind of idealized rather than actual value. Presumably there are no less than three meaningful values being communicated by the GP apothem due to these arrangements even before we get to the capstone.

There are some better pictures of the indentation in your basic better books on pyramidology, probably Tompkins. It might be possible to deduce where the bifurcation begins by counting blocks and comparing with known measurements to obtain the actual values but I never got quite that far for attempting a bunch of other things with the Great Pyramid, like trying to nail down what metrics were being used in the Great Pyramid's interior. (I wouldn't bet money on it now but my recollection is that they seemed to be more or less alternating between cubits and remens in the passages and shafts).

My books didn't get dug out but here's one of the ones that comes to mind. Likely I held out for a photo verifying this before I dove into it but I can't seem to recall where one is at the moment.

I also got caught up in some fiasco where I tried to find the geographic location of the Great Pyramid entrance with the assistance of satellite imagery. Damn if I didn't come up with a set of numbers so resonant that I'd still swear there is another entrance above the known one, even after trying to do ANYTHING with pyramids based on (even the best available) Internet satellite imagery turned out to be the dumbest thing I ever did with archaeology. (Let me guess, I will try to figure out where the three main pyramids are in relation to each other using Google Earth, and come out 3/4 mile off both Petrie's and Lehner's figures?)

It's funny stuff. All you have to do is simply grant Carl Munck his largely indefensible cartography for one moment and shazam, Zahi discovered a second Giza Radian Pyramid , period, is what I think. (I should dig all my calculations out of storage and buy a new calculator someday if I can hope to live that long). I dunno, I used to fall asleep every night punching calculator keys, used to bring a calculator to Pagan Night because I thought it was Sacred Pagan Duty to be able to prove with a pocket calculator that these silly old ancient farts didn't invent Earth Worship because they were any less rational-minded than the rest of us.

It's probably really their social structure that's more interesting - how in Hell did the ancients manage to NOT end up with societies where it is Verbotten to cure a disease because to do so might stand a remote chance of putting some a-hole out of a job? That amid all the Royal Court Intrigues and backstabbing that history usually tries to tell us they were devoted to, no less.

If you like, I could go look for my 3-ring binder with photocopies from a book on the elementary mathematics of the hydrogen atom. Of all the useless Goddam baggage, I've saved it ever since probably 1988 when/since I noticed Pi in it. Very fuzzy now but "elementary mathematics of the hydrogen atom" might have actually been the title?


Watch the video: Our Connection To Something Bigger: The Archetypes of. Jung (August 2022).