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Wayne APA-64 - History

Wayne APA-64 - History

Wayne

(APA-64: dp. 13,910, 1. 468'8", b. 63'0"; dr. 13'3"s. 16.5 k.; cpl. 535, tr. 1,433, a. 2 5", a 1.1", 18 20mm.; cl. Sumter; T. C2-S-E:1)

Afoundria was laid down under a Maritime Commission contract (MC hull 476) on 20 April 1942 at Chickasaw, Ala., by the Gulf Shipbuilding Corp.; renamed Wayne and classified as a transport, AP-99, on 26 October 1942; launched on 6 December 1942; sponsored by Mrs. N. G. Nicolson; reclassified an attack transport, APA-54, on 1 February 1943, acquired by the Navy on 30 April 1943, delivered to the Navy the following day, 1 May 1943, and simultaneously placed in commission "in ordinary." Taken to the Bethlehem Steel Co. Key Highway Yard, Baltimore, Md., Wayne was converted for naval service.

Decommissioned on 11 May 1943 for the duration of the conversion work, Wayne (APA-54) was recommissioned at Baltimore on 27 August 1943, Comdr. T. V. Cooper in command. Wayne departed Baltimore on 1 September and headed down the eastern seaboard to Norfolk, Va., where she arrived the following day to take on fuel, stores, equipment and a full complement of landing craft. After shakelown training in Chesapeake Bay, Wayne departed Hampton Roads on 4 October, bound for New York.

Upon finishing loading at New York, she put to sea on 13 October and, escorted by Doran (DD-634) and Canfield (DE-262), headed for the Pacific. The attack transport transited the Panama Canal on 21 and 22 October and arrived at San Diego at the end of the month. For the remainder of 1943, Wayne operated out of San Diego on training exercises with various battalion landing teams of the 4th Marine Division.

On 13 January 1944, Wayne got underway with marines of the 3d Battalion (Reinforced), 24th Marines embarked and steamed in convoy for the Hawaiian Islands. She arrived at Lahaina Roads, Maui, Territory of Hawaii, on the 21st. There, she fueled from Tallulah (AO-50) and took on stores from Pastores (AF- 16). She departed Hawaiian waters two days later, bound for the Marshall Islands.

Arriving off Kwajalein on 30 January as part of the northern landing force, Wayne transferred her marines to LST's which then carried them inside the lagoon to the beachhead. After retiring to the open sea at night, the attack transport returned to the transport area the next morning, lowered her boats, and commenced unloading cargo. On the afternoon of 1 February, Wayne left the Marshalls and put in at Funafuti, in the Ellice Islands, on the 9th. Fueling there, Wayne and Elmore (APA-42) were detached from the homeward-bound convoy on the 17th, near Efate, in the New Hebrides, and anchored in Havannah Harbor. Nine days later, Wayne and her consort shifted to Guadalcanal.

Wayne trained with marines in the Solomons before she moved to Noumea, New Caledonia, on 21 March. Subsequently, after discharging naval passengers at Guadalcanal, she shifted to Emirau, St. Matthias Islands. Wayne disembarked marine replacements for the garrison there on the 11th of April. That same day, she stood out of Emirau harbor on a return run to Guadalcanal with the 1st Battalion, 4th Marine Division, embarked.

Wayne performed a similar reinforcement mission to New Britain where American forces had been fighting to push back Japanese troops since the previous December. At the time the attack transport arrived there, Allied troops had established a line about half-way across the island toward Rabaul and were awaiting more aid before continuing the push. On 18 April Wayne began embarking men of the 213th Field Artillery Battalion, 4th Marine Division, and on the 20th stood out to relieve the 1st Marine Division on New Britain, arriving on 23 April. Wayne then began a complicated cargo and man-handling task. While troops and equipment of the 213th Field Artillery Battalion were being disembarked and unloaded on one side of the ship, men of the 4th Battalion, 11th Marines, were being embarked on the other. Completing that assignment on the 25th, Wayne sailed to the Russells, where she unloaded cargo and disembarked more troops on the 28th before moving on to Guadalcanal the same day.

From 10 May to 3 June, Wayne trained at Guadalcanal. On 4 June, the attack transport stood out for Kwajalein—the staging area for the forthcoming Marianas campaign—and, from the 9th to the 12th, participated in staging and rehearsal operations. On the latter day, Wayne got underway for the Marianas. Her embarked marines—1st Battalion, 21st Marines, 3d Marine Division—were earmarked to land at Guam if not needed at Saipan.

On 15 June, transports under Vice,Admiral R. K. Turner landed marines under the command of Lt. General Holland M. Smith, USMC, on Saipan, covered by intensive naval gunfire and carrier-based air support. Wayne steamed offshore for several days after the initial assault. During the Battle of the Philippine Sea, which took place between the 19th and the 21st, Wayne remained on station about 250 miles east of Guam while the action was taking place some 500 miles to the west of the island. On 25 June, her troops as yet unused, the attack transport—part of Task Group ( TG ) 53—was ordered to retire to the Marshalls to await further orders.

Wayne remained at anchor in Eniwetok lagoon from the end of June through mid-July. Underway on 17 July, the attack transport proceeded to Guam, where she arrived three days later. There, she witnesesd part of the intensive preinvasion shelling by the gunfire support ships in the task force under Rear Admiral R. L. Conolly. Carrier-based air attacks also assisted in the "softening up" process. At 0828 on 21 July, Wayne's embarked marines headed for shore in the first wave of the invasion.

The attack transport completed her unloading of equipment on the morning of the 23d. During her stay, she received 177 wounded troops from the beaches, and her medical department rendered sterling work in the care and treatment of those men. Wayne stood by for two additional days after finishing her unloading before departing the Marianas on the 25th and carrying 165 wounded fighting men to Espiritu Santo, in the New Hebrides. Putting into Espiritu Santo on 6 August, Wayne discharged her disabled passengers and stood by to await further orders.

The attack transport remained at anchor in the New Hebrides until 14 August, when she shifted to Guadalcanal, en route to Renard Sound, in the Russell Islands, where the 1st Marine Division was encamped. From the 17th to the 26th, Wayne carried out practice landings in preparation for the next operation, the assault on the Palau Islands. On 26 August, the attack tran~ port sailed with TG 32.3 and devoted the ensuing days of the voyage to drills and briefings for the upcoming landings.

On the morning of 15 September, marines of the 1st Marine Division moved ashore at Peleliu. Wayne's troops were among those who landed that morning. They were later followed by boatloads of high-priority cargo: ammunition and medical supplies. By 1100, three and one-half hours after the initial waves waded ashore the first of the casualties began to arrive back on the ship for medical treatment, evidence of the intense and bloody struggle going on ashore. Japanese guns swept the beaches and waters offshore with deadly accuracy. Casualties among the marines and boat crews were high.

In the days that followed, Wayne kept up a steady pace of discharging cargo and receiving casualties during the day and retiring seaward at night. On the night of 20 September, she was ordered to move close inshore to serve as casualty evacuation ship, 1,000 yards off the reef. As the attack transport closed the island, enemy artillery opened up, lobbing two shells over the ship. Later during the night, machine gun fire from Japanese guns passed ovehead.

Wayne retired from the Palaus on 21 September and proceeded to Humboldt Bay, New Guinea. Between 1 and 12 October Wayne participated in staging operntions, includingioading troops of the 2d Battalion, 19th Infantry, 24th Division, USA, and their equipment on the 8th and a practice landing at Sko Skai beach, eight miles east of Humboldt Bay, on the 12th. On the morning of the 13th, the attack transport got underway for Leyte, in the Philippine Islands, and arrived off the town of Palo on the 20th, the first day of the invasion An enemy plane, a twin-engined "Nick," passed by the ship and was taken under fire by Wayne's 5-inch battery for a brief time before it dove steeply over friendly ships astern.

As the ship's commanding officer later recounted, the landings on Leyte were "accomplished with surprising ease." The beach upon which Wayne had landed her troops and equipment had been ". lightly defended at best . .," facilitating a rapid unloading. The operation was not without cost to the ship, however, as a Japanese gun scored a direct hit on one of the ship's LCVP landing craft, killing some of the Army personnel embarked and slightly wounding the boat's coxswain.

By 1600 on the afternoon of D-day, all cargo and troops had been unloaded, and Wayne got underway for Humboldt Bay—but only to return to Leyte with troops of the 1st Battalion, 128th Infantry, 32d Division, together with their cargo. Departing Dutch New Guinean waters on 9 November, the attack transport arrived off Leyte on the 13th.

While no enemy planes made an appearance close to Wayne that morning, a solitary "Jill," carrying a torpedo, attacked the convoy to which she was attached At 1700, the enemy aircraft appeared forward of the convoy, briefly took a parallel course to it, and then when aft of Wayne's position, banked to starboard and began a low-altitude run on Catskill (LSV-1). The torpedo missed, but Catskill's gunners did not and the raider splashed into the sea. Later that day, more enemy aircraft appeared in the vicinity, prompting the ships to go to general quarters, but did not come close enough to draw fire. By the time the word came to secure from general quarters, the convoy was in approach disposition in Leyte Gulf.

At 0736 on the 14th, Wayne's lookouts observed three "Zeke" fighters forward of the ship at a range of 7,000 yards. The planes maneuvered back and forth, closing the range steadily and drawing fire from the ships of the convoy. Wayne's forward 5-inch gun managed to get off one round to include in the scattered gunfire. Apparently the antiaircraft barrage sufficed to force the enemy to stay out of range. Attracted by the firing, American P-38's soon showed up and downed two of the "Zekes."

The third "Zeke," however, returned to the area, going into a strafing dive. At a range of 400 yards, the plane swooped low at 150 feet altitude. Wayne's starboard guns opened fire and tracers began striking the plane. The "Zeke" changed course, crossing Wayne's bow at 200 yards. The attack transport's port batteries now commenced firing, scoring hits. Flames burst from the fuselage, and the "Zeke" executed a fatal wingover and spun out of control into the sea.

Within the space of a day, Wayne unloaded her cargo and disembarked her troops and, by 1630 on the 14th, was ready for sea, her boats hoisted on board and secured. Departing that day, the attack transport moved to Seeadler Harbor, at Manus, in the Admiralties. Provisioning and taking on fuel after her arrival there on the 20th, Wayne departed on 30 November, bound for Aitape, British New Guinea.

Arriving there on 1 December, Wayne remained at anchor through Christmas. Loading cargo on the 17th, the attack transport had fueled on Christmas Eve and, on the 26th, took the main body of troops—from the 3d Battalion, 172d Infantry, 43d Division, United States Army—on board. After landing exercises at Aitape on the 27th, Wayne departed British New Guinea the following day, as part of the San Fabian Attack Group, bound for Lingayen Gulf.

As the ship's commanding officer later recalled, "the most memorable feature of the assault on Luzon, from the standpoint of the transports involved, was the long and difflcult journey which the ships were forced to make through enemy waters between Leyte and Luzon." The convoy passed through the Surigao Strait into the Mindanao Sea on 5 January 1945 and entered the Sulu Sea west of the islands of Panay and Mindoro on the 6th.

On 9 January, Army forces landed at Lingayen Gulf
under cover of gunfire from ships offshore and carrier based aircraft overhead. Wayne disembarked her troops in her fifth assault landing and remained in the transport area offshore until the evening of 10 January. Air activity was heavier than the ship had encountered in any previous operation. The Japanese often attacked at dawn and at dusk, frequently utilizing single planes. Wayne had opened fire on a low flying twin-engined "Dinah" but scored no hits. Later that day, at 1835, a twin-engined "Frances" flew over the transport area dropping a stick of bombs that fell near Wayne. The danger of heavy antiaircraft fire laid down in the vicinity of "friendly" ships was amply demonstrated when two men in Wayne's crew were wounded by fragments from "friendly" gunfire.

Wayne departed the transport area on the 10th and, upon receipt of an enemy plane alert at 1905, went to general quarters. At 1914, a single enemy aircraft under fire from the ships in column on both flanks of Wayne, crashed into the port side of Du Page (APA-41) the column leader directly ahead of Wayne. An explosion followed, and Du Page was rapidly shrouded in smoke.

Wayne sheared out of the column to port; but Du Page held her course and speed in column, prompting Wayne to move back into formation astern. The following morning, she transferred two medical officers and eight corpsmen to Du Page to treat casualties caused by the suicide plane.

On the afternoon of 15 January, Wayne reached Leyte Island, and anchored off Taytay Point, receiving on board an advance detail of the 1st Battalion, 128th Infantry, 32d Division—the same battalion that she had brought to Leyte almost three months before. Almost nightly air raid alerts enlivened the ship's ensuing stay at Tacloban, Leyte, and the ship's company became accustomed to almost nightly "red alerts."

On 24 January, Wayne departed Leyte; en route back to Luzon, her convoy came under attack by Japanese torpedo planes. One succeeded in hitting the dock landing ship Shadwell (LSD-15), just astern of Wayne in the steaming disposition. Shadwell, able to proceed on one engine, consequently veered out of formation and returned to Leyte. Wayne, meanwhile, continued onward with the rest of the convoy and reached Lingayen Gulf with her embarked reinforcements on the 27th.

Between 0830 and 1331, Wayne unloaded her troops and cargo and got underway to return to Leyte at 1817 that evening. By 2100 on the 30th, the attack transport was back off Taytay Point. There was little rest for the ship, however, for she soon received orders directing her to Guadalcanal, as part of Transport Squadron (TransRon) 12. Departing Leyte on 2 February, Wayne arrived at Tulagi harbor on the 11th.

Assigned to carry the 2d Battalion, 22d Marines, of the 6th Marine Dlvision, Wayne spent a bit over a month fueling, provisioning, loading cargo, and carrying out the inevitable training exercises. Early on the morning of 15 March, TransRon 12 got underway, bound, via the Carolines, for the Ryukyus.

A week later, Wayne arrived at Ulithi, the staging point for the invasion of Okinawa. There, a number of the marines and sailors embarked at Tulagi were transferred to tank landing ships (LST's). On the afternoon of 27 March, Wayne and the other ships of the invasion force set sail for Okinawa itself.

"All hands anticipated that the attack on Okinawa would be a difficult and dangerous undertaking," wrote Wayne's chronicler. Her troops went ashore on D day —Easter Morning, 1 April 1945—on a small beach dominated by high ground and protected by a reef. The actual landing, gratifyingly, seemed "puzzlingly easy" to observers in Wayne. Her embarked troops went ashore against slight resistance.

During the day, unloading progressed until 1745, when Wayne and her consorts headed seaward in night retirement disposition. Red alerts, however, continued throughout the night—alerts that had resulted in the ship's being called repeatedly to general quarters. At 0543 on the 2d, Wayne returned to the transport area and observed heavy antiaircraft fire from other ships in the vicinity, as well as enemy planes attacking ships close to the beaches.

By evening, Wayne had made satisfactory progress in the unloading and then was ordered to move closer inshore. She anchored for the night close to the beach and completed unloading the remainder of her cargo before standing out to sea at 0015 on the morning of 3 April.

However, instead of being ordered from the area, Wayne was directed instead to put into Kerama Retto, by way of "Point Oboe." She consequently loaded empty brass shell casings from Salt Lake City (CA-25) before she moved into Kerama Retto to take on more brass and to receive on board casualties from other ships that had been sunk or damaged during the nearly incessant Japanese air raids.

Wayne remained at Kerama Retto from 5 April to 9 April, spending much of that time moored alongside the battle-battered attack transport Hinedale (APA120) that had been damaged by a suicide plane on 31 March. Wayne fed the crew of that ship and provided her with power.

Red alerts and air raids continued almost without letup; "more than once enemy planes were observed making suicide attacks on other ships in the vicinity." Loaded with empty brass, survivors, and casualties, Wayne weighed anchor on 9 April and headed for the Marianas. She anchored in Saipan harbor on the 13th before she shifted to the Marshalls, arriving at Eniwetok on the 18th. From there, the attack transport steamed on to Hawaii, arriving at Pier 8, Honolulu, on the morning of 27 April.

Proceeding independently from Hawaii to the west coast of the United States, Wayne departed Pearl Harbor on 29 April and reached San Francisco on 6
May. After disembarking casualties and survivors from I the Okinawa crucible there, she sailed north to Astoria, I Oreg., on 12 May for an overhaul. Completing repairs late in July, Wayne departed Astoria on the 27th, bound for San Diego, and arrived there soon thereafter.

On 10 August, Wayne sailed for the Marianas with naval and marme passengers—replacements bound for the forward areas of the Pacific theater. The end of the war in mid-August found Wayne at sea, steaming to the western Pacific. She made a fuel stop at Eniwetok on 26 August and reached Guam shortly thereafter where she unloaded her cargo and disembarked her passengers.

Wayne embarked men of the 3d Battalion, 6th Marines, at Saipan and, on 18 September, got underway for Japan. She disembarked the marines at Nagasaki on 23 September and then proceeded to the Philippines, touching at Manila first and later at Mindoro.

The attack transport departed the Philippines in late October, stopped at Guam for fuel on the 21st and arrived at San Diego on 6 November. Between 2i November 1945 and 7 January 1946, Wayne made one similar trip to the Philippine Islands, returning Navy veterans to the United States in Operation "Magic Carpet."

Subsequently visiting Seattle and San Diego, she ' cleared the latter port on 26 January 1946 and transited the Panama Canal on 6 February. Making port at New Orleans on the 11th, Wayne later shifted to Mobile and thence moved to her building site at the Gulf Shipbuilding Corp. where she was decommissioned on 16 March 1946. Her name was struck from the Navy list on 17 April 1946, and, on 1 August of the same year she was transferred to the War Shipping Administration.

Reverting to her original name, Afoundria, soon thereafter, the ship was acquired by the Waterman Steamship Corp., of Mobile, Ala., and renamed Beauregard in about 1947. She operated with the Waterman firm into the late 1950's. The erstwhile attack transport retained the name Beauregard as she operated into the 1970's with a succession of firms: with the Wilmington, Dell based Beauregard, Inc.; the Litton Industries Leasing Corp., and the Reynolds Leasing Corp.—operating with the last two corporations as a container ship. She disappeared from the American Bureau of Shipping Register in 1978.

Wayne (APA-54) received seven battle stars for her World War II service.


Wayne APA-64 - History

When you are included a direct quote from a source work, include a specific page reference (Anderson, 2004, p. 223).

If the author(s) names are mentioned in the same sentence, include only the year of publication. If the year of publication is mentioned in the text, include only the author's name in the cite.

Two authors
For works by two authors, always include both author names:

The citations in the text of the document should point to an entry in the Reference List.

According to a team of experts trained in reviewing research methods,

"nothing seemed so certain as the results of the initial projects"

(Tatt, 2001, p. 445). It was precisely this level of apparent certainty,

however, which led to a flurry of subsequent challenges to the techniques

used to process the data (Jones & Wayne, 2002). There were a number of

fairly obvious flaws in the data: consistencies and regularities that

proved to be, upon close scrutiny, most irregular (Aarns, 2003 West, 2003).

(See the section below for example reference list entries for different types of source works.)


Battle of Fallen Timbers: Background

Although the 1783 Treaty of Paris, which ended the American Revolutionary War (1775-83), ceded control of the Northwest Territory (the land northwest of the Ohio River) to the United States, the British failed to abandon their forts in the region and continued to support their Indian allies in skirmishes with American settlers.

Did you know? A number of American towns, cities and counties were named for General Anthony Wayne, including Fort Wayne, Indiana Wayne, New Jersey and Waynesboro, Georgia.


Battle Stars

Capture and occupation of Kwajalein and Majuro Atolls, 31 January to 8 February 1944. Elmore sailed from San Diego 13 January 1944 and landed troops and equipment in the initial assault on the Marshalls 31 January 1944. In early February, she reported to the 3d Fleet at Funafuti, Ellice Islands.

Bismarck Archipelago Operation

Admiralty Islands landings, 11 to 12 April 1944. After training in the Solomons, she took part in the landings on Emirau Island 11 April, and carried troops between Guadalcanal and New Guinea until 3 June. On the 4th she got underway for invasion of the Marianas. The attack on Guam was intended originally to start only days after the landings on Saipan, but it was postponed to the next month.

Marianas Operation

Capture and occupation of Guam, 21 to 25 July 1944. Elmore landed troops in the assault on Guam 21 July 1944 and remained to embark casualties whom she carried to Eniwetok.

Western Caroline Islands Operation

Capture and occupation of southern Palau Islands, 6 September to 14 October 1944. After the invasion of Guam, Elmore returned to the Solomons for training, then saw action in the first wave against the Palaus on 15 September, landing Marines at Peleliu Island.

Leyte Operation

Leyte landings, 13 to 21 October and 19 November 1944. Elmore staged at Hollandia for the coming Philippine invasion and sailed 13 October for the Leyte assault a week later. Landing troops and cargo under heavy fire, Elmore lost one killed and five wounded on 20 October 1944 and directly supporting Gen. Douglas MacArthur in his landing at Palo ("Red") Beach.

Luzon Operation

Lingayen Gulf landings, 11 to 14 January 1945. Returning to Manus and New Guinean ports, Elmore prepared for the northern Luzon assault. On 9 January 1945 she was in Lingayen Gulf for the initial landings. Elmore remained to support the fighters ashore, and on 29 January landed troops without opposition near San Felipe.

Manila Bay-Bicol Operations

Subic Bay, Zambales Province, 29 to 31 January 1945. Elmore returned to Leyte in February to be mother ship for the boat pool and to direct unloading of merchant ships.

Okinawa Gunto Operation

Assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto, 1 to 5 April 1945. Elmore sailed from Leyte 27 March 1945 for the invasion of Okinawa on 1 April. Four days after the assault she carried casualties to Guam, continuing to Seattle for overhaul. She was on her way back when the war ended and upon arrival at Leyte 30 August was assigned to redeploy troops throughout the Philippines.

Keeping Score: Battle Stars Earned During WWII

The Historical Record

USS Elmore (APA-42) earned eight battle stars during WWII in the Pacific theater. That put Elmore in the top 4% of all 233 attack transports in commission during the war. This includes all attack transports in both the Atlantic and Pacific theatres.

Only five APAs earned more battle stars. Ten stars was the maximum number earned during the war and two ships earned ten stars &ndash USS Harris (APA-2) and USS Crescent City (APA-21). Three ships earned nine stars &ndash USS Fuller (APA-7) and two of "the presidents" &ndash USS President Jackson (APA-18) and USS President Adams (APA-19).

USS Elmore tied at eight with four of her sister ships, USS Zelin (APA-3) USS Leonard Wood (APA-12) USS Calvert (APA-32) and USS Pierce (APA-50).

Like USS Elmore, two of these ships, USS Calvert (APA-32) and USS Pierce (APA-50) were Bayfield-class ships.

A total of 34 Bayfield-class vessels were produced between 1942 and 1944, making the Bayfield-class the second most numerous attack transport class behind the Haskell-class. It is noted that the Haskell-class, numbered 117 ships, and were produced after the Bayfields. The Haskells were in force at the end of the war, mainly at Iwo Jima and Okinawa, but none achieved more than three battle stars.

The crew of USS Elmore (APA-42) had every right to be proud of their ship, with a level of achievement forever enshrined in the historical record.

List of Attack Transports and Battle Stars Earned (233 total ships)

  • APA-2 Harris &ndash 10
  • APA-21 Crescent City &ndash 10
  • APA-18 President Jackson &ndash 9
  • APA-19 President Adams &ndash 9
  • APA-7 Fuller &ndash 9
  • APA-12 Leonard Wood &ndash 8
  • APA-3 Zeilin &ndash 8
  • APA-32 Calvert &ndash 8
  • APA-42 Elmore &ndash 8
  • APA-50 Pierce &ndash 8
  • APA-10 Harry Lee &ndash 7
  • APA-16 J. Franklin Bell &ndash 7
  • APA-20 President Hayes &ndash 7
  • APA-31 Monrovia &ndash 7
  • APA-41 DuPage &ndash 7
  • APA-5 Barnett &ndash 7
  • APA-51 Sheridan &ndash 7
  • APA-54 Wayne &ndash 7
  • APA-6 Heywood &ndash 7
  • APA-8 William P. Biddle &ndash 7
  • APA-90 James O'Hara &ndash 7
  • APA-1 Doyen &ndash 6
  • APA-11 Feland &ndash 6
  • APA-13 Joseph T. Dickman &ndash 6
  • APA-14 Hunter Liggett &ndash 6
  • APA-25 Arthur Middleton &ndash 6
  • APA-27 George Clymer &ndash 6
  • APA-28 Charles Carroll &ndash 6
  • APA-30 Thomas Jefferson &ndash 6
  • APA-35 Callaway &ndash 6
  • APA-36 Cambria &ndash 6
  • APA-40 Custer &ndash 6
  • APA-43 Fayette &ndash 6
  • APA-49 Ormsby &ndash 6
  • APA-55 Windsor &ndash 6
  • APA-56 Leedstown &ndash 6
  • APA-89 Frederick Funston &ndash 6
  • APA-26 Samuel Chase &ndash 5
  • APA-37 Cavalier &ndash 5
  • APA-4 McCawley &ndash 5
  • APA-46 Knox &ndash 5
  • APA-47 Lamar &ndash 5
  • APA-48 Leon &ndash 5
  • APA-52 Sumter &ndash 5
  • APA-53 Warren &ndash 5
  • APA-9 Neville &ndash 5
  • APA-92 Alpine &ndash 5
  • APA/LPA-44 Fremont &ndash 5
  • APA-33 Bayfield &ndash 4
  • APA-34 Bolivar &ndash 4
  • APA-39 Clay &ndash 4
  • APA-93 Barnstable &ndash 4
  • APA-94 Baxter &ndash 4
  • APA-117 Haskell &ndash 3
  • APA-15 Henry T Allen &ndash 3
  • APA-57 Gilliam &ndash 3
  • APA-58 Appling &ndash 3
  • APA/LPA-204 Sarasota &ndash 3
  • APA/LPA-45 Henrico &ndash 3
  • APA-106 Hansford &ndash 2
  • APA-118 Hendry &ndash 2
  • APA-119 Highlands &ndash 2
  • APA-120 Hinsdale &ndash 2
  • APA-121 Hocking &ndash 2
  • APA-133 Beckham &ndash 2
  • APA-153 Laurens &ndash 2
  • APA-156 Mellette &ndash 2
  • APA-158 Newberry &ndash 2
  • APA-159 Darke &ndash 2
  • APA-160 Deuel &ndash 2
  • APA-161 Dickens &ndash 2
  • APA-17 American Legion &ndash 2
  • APA-189 Oxford &ndash 2
  • APA-190 Pickens &ndash 2
  • APA-193 Sanborn &ndash 2
  • APA-195 Lenawee &ndash 2
  • APA-200 Marathon &ndash 2
  • APA-206 Sibley &ndash 2
  • APA-207 Mifflin &ndash 2
  • APA-211 Missoula &ndash 2
  • APA-59 Audrain &ndash 2
  • APA-60 Banner &ndash 2
  • APA-61 Barrow &ndash 2
  • APA-62 Berrien &ndash 2
  • APA-63 Bladen &ndash 2
  • APA-70 Carteret &ndash 2
  • APA-84 Garrard &ndash 2
  • APA-91 Adair &ndash 2
  • APA-96 Cecil &ndash 2
  • APA/LPA-154 Lowndes &ndash 2
  • APA/LPA-178 Lander &ndash 2
  • APA/LPA-192 Rutland &ndash 2
  • APA/LPA-194 Sandoval &ndash 2
  • APA/LPA-196 Logan &ndash 2
  • APA/LPA-208 Talladega &ndash 2
  • APA/LPA-233 Sevier &ndash 2
  • APA-100 Mendocino &ndash 1
  • APA-105 Shelby &ndash 1
  • APA-107 Goodhue &ndash 1
  • APA-108 Goshen &ndash 1
  • APA-109 Grafton &ndash 1
  • APA-122 Kenton &ndash 1
  • APA-123 Kittson &ndash 1
  • APA-124 LaGrange &ndash 1
  • APA-125 Lanier &ndash 1
  • APA-126 St. Mary's &ndash 1
  • APA-127 Allendale &ndash 1
  • APA-128 Arenac &ndash 1
  • APA-129 Marvin H. McIntyre &ndash 1
  • APA-130 Attala &ndash 1
  • APA-135 Bosque &ndash 1
  • APA-137 Bowie &ndash 1
  • APA-142 Clearfield &ndash 1
  • APA-143 Clermont &ndash 1
  • APA-145 Colbert &ndash 1
  • APA-148 Crockett &ndash 1
  • APA-149 Audubon &ndash 1
  • APA-151 La Porte &ndash 1
  • APA-152 Latimer &ndash 1
  • APA-155 Lycoming &ndash 1
  • APA-162 Drew &ndash 1
  • APA-163 Eastland &ndash 1
  • APA-164 Edgecombe &ndash 1
  • APA-165 Effingham &ndash 1
  • APA-166 Fond Du Lac &ndash 1
  • APA-167 Freestone &ndash 1
  • APA-168 Gage &ndash 1
  • APA-170 Gosper &ndash 1
  • APA-171 Granville &ndash 1
  • APA-172 Grimes &ndash 1
  • APA-174 Jerauld &ndash 1
  • APA-175 Karnes &ndash 1
  • APA-176 Kershaw &ndash 1
  • APA-187 Oconto &ndash 1
  • APA-191 Pondera &ndash 1
  • APA-197 Lubbock &ndash 1
  • APA-198 McCracken &ndash 1
  • APA-201 Menard &ndash 1
  • APA-202 Menifee &ndash 1
  • APA-203 Meriwether &ndash 1
  • APA-205 Sherburne &ndash 1
  • APA-209 Tazewell &ndash 1
  • APA-214 Natrona &ndash 1
  • APA-216 Neshoba &ndash 1
  • APA-217 New Kent &ndash 1
  • APA-218 Noble &ndash 1
  • APA-219 Okaloosa &ndash 1
  • APA-22 Joseph Hewes &ndash 1
  • APA-221 Oneida &ndash 1
  • APA-226 Rawlins &ndash 1
  • APA-23 John Penn &ndash 1
  • APA-230 Rockwall &ndash 1
  • APA-24 Edward Rutledge &ndash 1
  • APA-29 Thomas Stone &ndash 1
  • APA-67 Burleson &ndash 1
  • APA-68 Butte &ndash 1
  • APA-71 Catron &ndash 1
  • APA-72 Clarendon &ndash 1
  • APA-88 Presidio &ndash 1
  • APA-95 Burleigh &ndash 1
  • APA-97 Dauphin &ndash 1
  • APA-98 Dutchess &ndash 1
  • APA-99 Dade &ndash 1
  • APA/LPA-144 Clinton &ndash 1
  • APA/LPA-157 Napa &ndash 1
  • APA/LPA-173 Hyde &ndash 1
  • APA/LPA-177 Kingsbury &ndash 1
  • APA/LPA-179 Lauderdale &ndash 1
  • APA/LPA-188 Olmsted &ndash 1
  • APA/LPA-199 Magoffin &ndash 1
  • APA/LPA-210 Telfair &ndash 1
  • APA/LPA-212 Montrose &ndash 1
  • APA/LPA-213 Mountrail &ndash 1
  • APA/LPA-215 Navarro &ndash 1
  • APA/LPA-220 Okanogan &ndash 1
  • APA/LPA-222 Pickaway &ndash 1
  • APA/LPA-223 Pitt &ndash 1
  • APA/LPA-225 Bingham &ndash 1
  • APA/LPA-227 Renville &ndash 1
  • APA/LPA-228 Rockbridge &ndash 1
  • APA/LPA-229 Rockingham &ndash 1
  • APA/LPA-234 Bollinger &ndash 1
  • APA/LPA-235 Bottineau &ndash 1
  • APA/LPA-38 Chilton &ndash 1
  • APA-101 Montour &ndash 0
  • APA-102 Riverside &ndash 0
  • APA-103 Queens &ndash 0
  • APA-104 Westmoreland &ndash 0
  • APA-110 Griggs &ndash 0
  • APA-111 Grundy &ndash 0
  • APA-112 Guilford &ndash 0
  • APA-113 Sitka &ndash 0
  • APA-114 Hamblen &ndash 0
  • APA-115 Hampton &ndash 0
  • APA-116 Hanover &ndash 0
  • APA-131 Bandera &ndash 0
  • APA-134 Bland &ndash 0
  • APA-136 Botetourt &ndash 0
  • APA-138 Braxton &ndash 0
  • APA-139 Broadwater &ndash 0
  • APA-140 Brookings &ndash 0
  • APA-141 Buckingham &ndash 0
  • APA-147 Cottle &ndash 0
  • APA-150 Bergen &ndash 0
  • APA-180 Lavaca &ndash 0
  • APA-224 Randall &ndash 0
  • APA-232 San Saba &ndash 0
  • APA-238 Dane &ndash 0
  • APA-64 Bracken &ndash 0
  • APA-65 Briscoe &ndash 0
  • APA-66 Brule &ndash 0
  • APA-69 Carlisle &ndash 0
  • APA-73 Cleburne &ndash 0
  • APA-74 Colusa &ndash 0
  • APA-75 Cortland &ndash 0
  • APA-76 Crenshaw &ndash 0
  • APA-77 Crittenden &ndash 0
  • APA-78 Cullman &ndash 0
  • APA-79 Dawson &ndash 0
  • APA-80 Elkhart &ndash 0
  • APA-81 Fallon &ndash 0
  • APA-82 Fergus &ndash 0
  • APA-83 Fillmore &ndash 0
  • APA-85 Gasconade &ndash 0
  • APA-86 Geneva &ndash 0
  • APA-87 Niagara &ndash 0
  • APA/LPA-132 Barnwell &ndash 0
  • APA/LPA-146 Collingsworth &ndash 0
  • APA/LPA-169 Gallatin &ndash 0
  • APA/LPA-231 Saint Croix &ndash 0
  • APA/LPA-236 Bronx &ndash 0
  • APA/LPA-237 Bexar &ndash 0
  • APA/LPA-239 Glynn &ndash 0

Comparison Overview

The accompanying pie chart greatly helps to visualize the distribution of battle stars among the attack transports (APAs). There was a total of 233 attack transports in commission during WWII. A number of these ships were produced too late in the war to earn any battle stars. The highest number of battle stars earned was ten. For the sake of simplicity, the number of battle stars earned have been grouped into four ranges.

&bull 49 ships (21%) earned zero battle stars during WWII.
&bull 125 ships (54%) earned between 1 and 2 battle stars.
&bull 49 ships (21%) earned between 3 and 7 battle stars.
&bull 10 ships (4%) earned between 8 and 10 battle stars.

USS Elmore (APA-42), with eight battle stars, was in the top 4% of all 233 attack transports in battle stars earned during WWII.

Distribution of Battle Stars Awarded

The Details

At first glance, the data table looks a bit daunting. But just spend a minute looking it over and it becomes readily understandable. This is the data source for the pie chart that can be seen in the Comparison Overview section. The details in the table are straightforward, as you will see.


Welcome !

Wayne County ILGenWeb is a free genealogical site about the people and history of the county. We hope you find helpful clues for your research of ancestors and relatives of Wayne county.

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COUNTY FORMATION


It is documented that settlers settled in what is now known as Wayne County as early as 1818 Though there have been 'unoffical' records that there were people in the area between 1812-1816. It became a county on March 26, 1819. Wayne came from General "Mad" Anthony Wayne, a General in the Revolutionary War and an Indian fighter in the Old Northwest Territory. The county seat location was picked because it was the 'center' of the settled areas. Its surname, "Fairfield", was given because 'looking over the beautiful land, it was the fair fields that drew one's breath'.

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Climate

There are two main seasons—the dry season, which lasts from May to October, and the wet season, which lasts from November to April. Temperatures vary seasonally, and they tend to decrease on average with increasing elevation. Nsanje, in the Shire River valley, has a mean July temperature in the high 60s F (low 20s C) and an October mean in the mid-80s F (high 20s C), while Dedza, which lies at an elevation of more than 5,000 feet (1,500 metres), has a July mean in the high 50s F (mid-10s C) and an October mean in the high 60s F (low 20s C). On the Nyika Plateau and on the upper levels of the Mulanje massif, frosts are not uncommon in July. Annual precipitation levels are highest over parts of the northern highlands and on the Sapitwa peak of the Mulanje massif, where they are about 90 inches (2,300 mm) they are lowest in the lower Shire valley, where they range from 25 to 35 inches (650 to 900 mm).


美國海軍兩棲作戰艦艇列表

美國海軍的直昇機登陸突擊艦(Landing Helicopter Assault)是一種擁有可供直昇機起降的大型甲板,與容納與維修直昇機的機庫之大型兩棲突擊艦,在垂直起降(VTOL)定翼機出現之後,此類船艦也肩負起輕至中型航空母艦的任務角色。LHA通常也擁有可收納、操作登陸艇或氣墊船的井圍甲板(well deck)與閘門設備,但最新銳的美利堅級之前兩艘(LHA-6及LHA-7)卻完全不擁有操作登陸作戰艦艇的能力,而以空中武力的強化為重點,是此類船艦的特例。但自本級第三艦「布干維爾號(USS Bougainville)」(LHA-8)後,又將再重新加設井圍甲板,以增強操作登陸艇或氣墊船之能力。

舷號 艦名 級別 狀態 註釋
LHA-1 Tarawa 塔拉瓦號 ( 英语 : USS Tarawa (LHA-1) ) 塔拉瓦級 除役
LHA-2 Saipan 賽班號 ( 英语 : USS Saipan (LHA-2) ) 塔拉瓦級 除役
LHA-3 Belleau Wood 貝勒森林號 ( 英语 : USS Belleau Wood (LHA-3) ) 塔拉瓦級 除役
LHA-4 Nassau 拿騷號 ( 英语 : USS Nassau (LHA-4) ) 塔拉瓦級 除役
LHA-5 Peleliu 貝里琉號 塔拉瓦級 除役
LHA-6 America 美利堅號 美利堅級 服役中
LHA-7 Tripoli 的黎波里號 ( 英语 : USS Tripoli (LHA-7) ) 美利堅級 服役中
LHA-8 Bougainville 布干維爾號 ( 英语 : USS Bougainville (LHA-8) ) 美利堅級 建造中
LHA-9 美利堅級 已簽約

美國海軍的直昇機登陸船塢艦(Landing Helicopter Dock)大體上擁有與LHA類似的大型飛行平台與井圍甲板,用途幾乎相同。LHD與LHA之間主要的差異在於LHD擁有較大的船塢空間以容納較多的登陸艇或氣墊船,側重水面登陸作戰能力,而有別於以空中武力為主的LHA。

舷號 艦名 級別 狀態 註釋
LHD-1 Wasp 胡蜂號 ( 英语 : USS Wasp (LHD-1) ) 胡蜂級 服役中
LHD-2 Essex 艾賽克斯號 ( 英语 : USS Essex (LHD-2) ) 胡蜂級 服役中
LHD-3 Kearsarge 基薩奇山號 胡蜂級 服役中
LHD-4 Boxer 拳師號 ( 英语 : USS Boxer (LHD-4) ) 胡蜂級 服役中
LHD-5 Battan 巴單號 ( 英语 : USS Bataan (LHD-5) ) 胡蜂級 服役中
LHD-6 Bonhomme Richard 好人理查號 胡蜂級 除役
LHD-7 Iwo Jima 硫磺島號 ( 英语 : USS Iwo Jima (LHD-7) ) 胡蜂級 服役中
LHD-8 Makin Island 馬金島號 ( 英语 : USS Makin Island (LHD-8) ) 胡蜂級 服役中

美國海軍的兩棲指揮艦主要是作為兩棲艦隊指揮官的旗艦,因此側重其通訊設備與指揮官及其幕僚的會議及生活空間。在二戰時代美國海軍原本將指揮艦的艦級命名為「兩棲艦隊旗艦」(Amphibious Force Flagship),但是其艦級代號「AGC」卻是源自「C類通用輔助艦」(General Auxiliary, sub-class C)的縮寫,起因於早期的此類船艦通常是由其他類的 輔助艦 ( 英语 : Auxiliary ship ) (運輸艦、登陸艦,甚至商船)加強通訊設備之後改裝而來而非特別建造。麥金利山號(USS Mount McKinley AGC-7)是美國海軍第一艘專為了作為指揮艦而建造的此級軍艦,雖然在啟用時仍沿用AGC的艦級代碼,但在1969年1月1日時更改類別,命名為「兩棲指揮艦」(Amphibious Command Ship),其艦級代號「LCC」是「指揮與通訊登陸艦」(Landing ship Command & Control)的縮寫,自此之後的指揮艦皆開始改用LCC的艦級代號。

舷號 艦名 級別 狀態 註釋
AGC-1 Appalachian 阿帕拉契號 ( 英语 : USS Appalachian (AGC-1) ) 阿帕拉契級 除役
AGC-2 Blue Ridge 藍嶺號 ( 英语 : USS Blue Ridge (AGC-2) ) 阿帕拉契級 除役
AGC-3 Rocky Mount 洛磯山號 ( 英语 : USS Rocky Mount (AGC-3) ) 阿帕拉契級 除役
AGC-4 Ancon 國旗山號 ( 英语 : USS Ancon (AGC-4) ) 阿帕拉契級 除役 起造時原為越洋客輪,曾陸續用於陸軍運輸艦(USAT Ancon)、海軍運輸艦(USS Ancon AP-66)等用途
AGC-5 Catoctin 凱托克廷號 ( 英语 : USS Catoctin (AGC-5) ) 阿帕拉契級 除役 起造時原為越洋客輪瑪麗·惠特里奇號(SS Mary Whitridge)
AGC-6 Duane 杜恩號 ( 英语 : USCGC Duane (WPG-33) ) 阿帕拉契級 除役 起造時原為海岸警備隊緝私艦威廉·J·杜恩號(USCGC William J. Duane WPG-33),原本預計改造後交由海軍使用,但計畫從未實行,因此保留海岸警備隊的代號「W」而成為WAGC-6,之後變更艦級為 高續航力緝私艦 ( 英语 : High endurance cutter ) WHEC-6。
AGC-7/LCC-7 Mount McKinley 麥金利山號 ( 英语 : USS Mount McKinley (AGC-7) ) 麥金利山級 除役
AGC-8 Mount Olympus 奧林帕斯山號 ( 英语 : USS Mount Olympus (AGC-8) ) 麥金利山級 除役
AGC-9 Wasatch 瓦薩奇號 ( 英语 : USS Wasatch (AGC-9) ) 麥金利山級 除役
AGC-10 Auburn 奧本號 ( 英语 : USS Auburn (AGC-10) ) 麥金利山級 除役 起造時原名卡特凱號(Katkay),建造半途改名。
AGC-11/LCC-11 Eldorado 艾多拉多號 ( 英语 : USS Eldorado (AGC-11) ) 麥金利山級 除役
AGC-12/LCC-12 Estes 埃斯特斯號 ( 英语 : USS Estes (AGC-12) ) 麥金利山級 除役
AGC-13 Panamint 帕那敏號 ( 英语 : USS Panamint (AGC-13) ) 麥金利山級 除役
AGC-14 Teton 提頓號 ( 英语 : USS Teton (AGC-14) ) 麥金利山級 除役
AGC-15 Adirondack 亞迪朗達克號 ( 英语 : USS Adirondack (AGC-15) ) 麥金利山級 除役
AGC-16/LCC-16 Pocono 波科諾號 ( 英语 : USS Pocono (AGC-16) ) 麥金利山級 除役
AGC-17/LCC-17 Taconic 塔科尼克號 ( 英语 : USS Taconic (AGC-17) ) 麥金利山級 除役
AGC-18 Biscayne 比斯開號 ( 英语 : USS Biscayne (AVP-11) ) 麥金利山級 除役 啟用時原為 巴尼給級水上飛機母艦 ( 英语 : Barnegat-class seaplane tender ) AVP-11,1943年時改用途為兩棲艦隊旗艦。
AGC-369 Williamsburg 威廉斯堡號 ( 英语 : USS Williamsburg (AGC-369) ) - 除役 啟用時原為私人遊艇亞拉斯號(Aras),二戰時由海軍徵用改裝為砲艇威廉斯堡號(USS Williamsburg PG-56),二戰結束前進行指揮艦改造並賦予舷號AGC-369,但改造還沒完成對日作戰就結束,因此改作總統遊艇用途。1962年時除役,交由伍茲霍爾海洋研究所使用,成為海洋研究船安東·布魯號(Anton Bruun)。
LCC-19 Blue Ridge 藍嶺號 藍嶺級 ( 日语 : ブルー・リッジ級揚陸指揮艦 ) 服役中
LCC-20 Mount Whitney 惠特尼山號 藍嶺級 服役中

船塢平台登陸艦(Landing Platform Dock, LPD),或稱為兩棲運輸船塢艦(Amphibious transport dock),是一種擁有井圍甲板與直昇機起降平台的兩棲作戰艦艇。在近代的美國海軍兩棲船艦劃分中,LPD與船塢登陸艦(Landing Ship Dock, LSD)、LHA、LHD全都是同時擁有井圍甲板與飛行甲板的登陸作戰艦艇,其主要不同點在於與飛行有關的設備完整程度,其中航空武力最弱的LSD只擁有一個簡單的飛行甲板,LPD除了飛行甲板外還設有機庫,LHD、LHA則是擁有全通式的飛行甲板(LSD、LPD通常是配置艦尾飛行甲板)。

舷號 艦名 級別 狀態 註釋
LPD-1 Raleigh 羅里號 ( 英语 : USS Raleigh (LPD-1) ) 羅里級 ( 英语 : Raleigh-class amphibious transport dock ) 除役
LPD-2 Vancouver 溫哥華號 ( 英语 : USS Vancouver (LPD-2) ) 羅里級 除役
LPD-3/AGF-3 La Salle 拉沙爾號 ( 英语 : USS La Salle (AGF-3) ) 羅里級 除役 拉沙爾號在1972年時改裝為指揮艦,賦予AGF-3的舷號(AGF是輔助指揮艦、Auxiliary Command Ship的縮寫)。
LPD-4 Austin 奧斯丁號 ( 英语 : USS Austin (LPD-4) ) 奧斯丁級 除役
LPD-5 Ogden 奧格登號 ( 英语 : USS Ogden (LPD-5) ) 奧斯丁級 除役
LPD-6 Duluth 杜魯斯號 ( 英语 : USS Duluth (LPD-6) ) 奧斯丁級 除役
LPD-7 Cleveland 克利夫蘭號 ( 英语 : USS Cleveland (LPD-7) ) 奧斯丁級 除役
LPD-8 Dubuque 迪比克號 ( 英语 : USS Dubuque (LPD-8) ) 奧斯丁級 除役
LPD-9 Denver 丹佛號 ( 英语 : USS Denver (LPD-9) ) 奧斯丁級 除役
LPD-10 Juneau 朱諾號 ( 英语 : USS Juneau (LPD-10) ) 奧斯丁級 除役
LPD-11/AGF-11 Coronado 科羅納多號 ( 英语 : USS Coronado (AGF-11) ) 奧斯丁級 除役 在1980年時進行通訊用上層結構的改裝,而成為兩棲指揮艦AGF-11。
LPD-12 Shreveport 什里夫波特號 ( 英语 : USS Shreveport (LPD-12) ) 奧斯丁級 除役
LPD-13 Nashville 納什維爾號 ( 英语 : USS Nashville (LPD-13) ) 奧斯丁級 除役
LPD-14 Trenton 特倫頓號 ( 英语 : USS Trenton (LPD-14) ) 奧斯丁級 除役 2007年時售予印度海軍,改名為 河馬號 ( 英语 : INS Jalashwa (L41) ) (INS Jalashwa L41)。
LPD-15 Ponce 龐塞號 奧斯丁級 除役 經改裝作為 漂浮前線發動基地 ( 英语 : Mobile Landing Platform ) (Afloat Forward Staging Base, AFSB)與雷射武器系統(Laser Weapon System, LaWS)等新技術的實驗平台使用。
LPD-17 San Antonio 聖安東尼奧號 ( 英语 : USS San Antonio (LPD-17) ) 聖安東尼奧級 服役中
LPD-18 New Orleans 紐奧良號 聖安東尼奧級 服役中
LPD-19 Mesa Verde 梅薩維德號 ( 英语 : USS Mesa Verde (LPD-19) ) 聖安東尼奧級 服役中
LPD-20 Green Bay 綠灣號 ( 英语 : USS Green Bay (LPD-20) ) 聖安東尼奧級 服役中
LPD-21 New York 紐約號 聖安東尼奧級 服役中
LPD-22 San Diego 聖地牙哥號 聖安東尼奧級 服役中
LPD-23 Anchorage 安克拉治號 ( 英语 : USS Anchorage (LPD-23) ) 聖安東尼奧級 服役中
LPD-24 Arlington 阿靈頓號 ( 英语 : USS Arlington (LPD-24) ) 聖安東尼奧級 服役中
LPD-25 Somerset 桑莫塞特號 ( 英语 : USS Somerset (LPD-25) ) 聖安東尼奧級 服役中
LPD-26 John P. Murtha 約翰·穆爾沙號 ( 英语 : USS John P. Murtha (LPD-26) ) 聖安東尼奧級 服役中
LPD-27 Portland 波特蘭號 ( 英语 : USS Portland (LPD-27) ) 聖安東尼奧級 服役中
LPD-28 Fort Lauderdale 勞德代爾堡號 ( 英语 : USS Fort Lauderdale (LPD-28) ) 聖安東尼奧級 建造中
LPD-29 Richard M. McCool Jr. 小理查德·M·麥庫爾號 ( 英语 : USS Richard M. McCool Jr. (LPD-29) ) 聖安東尼奧級 合約已簽訂

直昇機平台登陸艦(Landing Platform Helicopter, LPH)是一種主要供直昇機與垂直升降定翼機起降的兩棲作戰用艦艇,可以說是直昇機航空母艦的延伸。美國海軍只曾開發過一個LPH專用艦級( 硫磺島級 ( 英语 : Iwo Jima-class amphibious assault ship ) ),但曾將三艘二戰時代建造的航空母艦改作LPH用途。LPH是同時擁有飛行甲板與水面作戰用井圍甲板的兩棲突擊艦類軍艦之先驅者,但其角色之後被LHA與LHD給取代。

舷號 艦名 級別 狀態 註釋
CVE-106
LPH-1
Block Island 布洛克島號 ( 英语 : USS Block Island (CVE-106) ) 啟航灣級 除役 布洛克島號是啟航灣級護衛航空母艦的二號艦,建造時原名日落灣號(Sunset Bay),但卻是以布洛克島號之名完工下水,賦予CVE-106的舷號。1957年時,原本預計改造為一艘兩棲突擊艦LPH-1但計畫沒有實現,直到1959年除籍時仍然維持CVE-106之舷號。
LPH-2 Iwo Jima 硫磺島號 ( 英语 : USS Iwo Jima (LPH-2) ) 硫磺島級 ( 英语 : Iwo Jima-class amphibious assault ship ) 除役
LPH-3 Okinawa 沖繩號 ( 英语 : USS Okinawa (LPH-3) ) 硫磺島級 除役
CV/CVA/CVS-21
LPH-4
Boxer 拳師號 艾賽克斯級 除役 原為一艘長體艾賽克斯級航空母艦,但在1958年時開始進行實驗性的船身內部改裝,成為直昇機平台登陸艦LPH-4。
CV/CVA/CVS-37
LPH-5
Princeton 普林斯頓號 艾賽克斯級 除役 原為一艘長體艾賽克斯級航空母艦,起造時原名福治谷號(Valley Forge),下水時改名普林斯頓。
CVE-90/CVHA-1
LPH-6
Thetis Bay 西提斯灣號 ( 英语 : USS Thetis Bay (CVE-90) ) 卡薩布蘭卡級 除役 原為一艘卡薩布蘭卡級護衛航空母艦,1955年時改裝為直昇機突擊航空母艦並賦予CVHA-1的舷號,是美國海軍第一艘此類型的船艦。1959年時再次更改舷號成為LPH-6,以便與其他LPH的編號統一。
LPH-7 Guadalcanal 瓜達康納爾號 ( 英语 : USS Guadalcanal (LPH-7) ) 硫磺島級 除役
CV/CVA/CVS-45
LPH-8
Valley Forge 佛吉谷號 艾賽克斯級 除役 原為一艘長體艾賽克斯級航空母艦CV-45,1952年時更改艦級為攻擊航空母艦CVA-45,1954年又改為反潛航空母艦CVS-45。1961年時進廠改裝為直昇機兩棲攻擊母艦後,賦予LPH-8的新舷號。
LPH-9 Guam 關島號 ( 英语 : USS Guam (LPH-9) ) 硫磺島級 除役
LPH-10 Tripoli 的黎波里號 ( 英语 : USS Tripoli (LPH-10) ) 硫磺島級 除役
LPH-11 New Orleans 紐奧良號 ( 英语 : USS New Orleans (LPH-11) ) 硫磺島級 除役
LPH-12 Inchon 仁川號 ( 英语 : USS Inchon (LPH-12) ) 硫磺島級 除役

船塢登陸艦(Dock landing ship,又稱為Landing Ship, Dock,縮寫為LSD)是一種配置有井圍甲板的兩棲作戰艦艇,這類船隻通被用作登陸艇或氣墊船等更小型登陸船隻的母艦,可在惡劣的海象中直接裝卸物資、設備與人員。美國海軍的LSD通常不配置LST(戰車登陸艦)那般的船艏可開啟吊橋式閘門,能直接搶灘卸下戰車與士兵,而是將閘門設於艦尾。美國海軍是以與航空能力相關的設備等級來區別同樣設置有井圍甲板與飛行甲板的幾種兩棲突擊艦,其中只配置直昇機甲板的稱為LSD,配有機庫乃至於全通式飛行甲板的則分類為LPD、LHD與LHA。

艾許蘭級 ( 英语 : Ashland-class dock landing ship ) (Ashland-class)是美國最早的LSD艦級,此級軍艦在開發出期原本是歸類為「機械化砲兵運輸艦」(Mechanized Artillery Transports, APM)類別,屬於 輔助艦 ( 英语 : Auxiliary ship ) (Auxiliary ship)的大類底下。但在實際建造之前就已轉分類至兩棲作戰艦類別之下。

舷號 艦名 級別 狀態 註釋
LSD-1 Ashland 艾許蘭號 ( 英语 : USS Ashland (LSD-1) ) 艾許蘭級 ( 英语 : Ashland-class dock landing ship ) 除役
LSD-2 Belle Grove 貝爾格羅夫號 ( 英语 : USS Belle Grove (LSD-2) ) 艾許蘭級 除役
LSD-3 Carter Hall 卡特莊號 ( 英语 : USS Carter Hall (LSD-3) ) 艾許蘭級 除役
LSD-4 Epping Forest 埃平森林號 ( 英语 : USS Epping Forest ) 艾許蘭級 除役
LSD-5 Gunston Hall 岡斯頓莊號 ( 英语 : USS Gunston Hall (LSD-5) ) 艾許蘭級 除役 1970年時售予阿根廷海軍,改名為「坎迪多·德·拉薩拉號」(ARA Cándido de Lasala Q-43)
LSD-6 Lindenwald 林登瓦德號 ( 英语 : USS Lindenwald (LSD-6) ) 艾許蘭級 除役
LSD-7 Oak Hill 橡樹丘號 ( 英语 : USS Oak Hill (LSD-7) ) 艾許蘭級 除役
LSD-8 White Marsh 白澤號 ( 英语 : USS White Marsh (LSD-8) ) 艾許蘭級 除役 1960年時出借中華民國,成為第一代的「中正號」(ROCS Chung Cheng LSD-191),1977年時正式轉移船籍予中華民國海軍,1985年時除役報廢,「中正號」艦名由另一艘船塢登陸艦 康斯塔克號 ( 英语 : USS Comstock (LSD-19) ) (USS Comstock LSD-19)承襲,成為第二代中正艦。
LSD-13 Casa Grande 卡薩格蘭德號 ( 英语 : USS Casa Grande (LSD-13) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 ( 英语 : Casa Grande-class dock landing ship ) 除役 原本是根據租借法案預計替英國皇家海軍所建造的英國機動化砲兵運輸艦BAPM-5,並命名為「波特威號」(HMS Portway F144)。實際開始建造時更改艦級,成為LSD-13,並改名為「長矛號」(HMS Spear),但在尚未完工前就與姊妹艦LSD-14、LSD-15一同被轉調回美國海軍使用,改名「卡薩格蘭德號」並成為此級登陸艦的一號艦。
LSD-14 Rushmore 拉什摩爾號 ( 英语 : USS Rushmore (LSD-14) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役 原本是根據租借法案預計替英國皇家海軍所建造的英國機動化砲兵運輸艦BAPM-6,並命名為「長劍號」(HMS Sword),之後又改名為「施瓦許威號」(HMS Swashway F145)。實際開始建造時更改艦級,成為LSD-14,但在尚未完工前就與姊妹艦LSD-13、LSD-15一同被轉調回美國海軍使用,以「拉什摩爾號」之名下水。
LSD-15 Shadwell 沙德韋爾號 ( 英语 : USS Shadwell (LSD-15) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役 原本是根據租借法案預計替英國皇家海軍所建造的英國機動化砲兵運輸艦BAPM-7,並命名為「戰斧號」(HMS Tomahawk),之後又改名為「華特威號」(HMS Waterway F146)。實際開始建造時更改艦級,成為LSD-15,但在尚未完工前就與姊妹艦LSD-13、LSD-14一同被轉調回美國海軍使用,以「沙德韋爾號」之名下水。
LSD-16 Cabildo 卡比多號 ( 英语 : USS Cabildo (LSD-16) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役
LSD-17 Catamount 山貓號 ( 英语 : USS Catamount (LSD-17) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役
LSD-18 Colonial 殖民號 ( 英语 : USS Colonial (LSD-18) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役
LSD-19 Comstock 康斯塔克號 ( 英语 : USS Comstock (LSD-19) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役 1984年原本已除役的康斯塔克號在拖曳至台灣拆解時,經中華民國海軍方面要求,將艦體狀況尚佳的康斯塔克號與中正號(LSD-191,原美國海軍白澤號(LSD-8))對調,舊中正號報廢拆解,康斯塔克號改名中正號,並以相同的LSD-191舷號繼續服役,直到2012年時才除役。 [1]
LSD-20 Donner 唐納號 ( 英语 : USS Donner (LSD-20) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役
LSD-21 Fort Mandan 曼丹堡號 ( 英语 : USS Fort Mandan (LSD-21) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役 1971年時轉移至希臘海軍,改名「納夫克拉圖薩號」(Nafkratousa L153),以取代另外一艘原本在希臘海軍服役、同艦名舷號的原英國皇家海軍卡薩格蘭德級登陸艦,伊斯特威號(HMS Eastway)。
LSD-22 Fort Marion 馬里安堡號 ( 英语 : USS Fort Marion (LSD-22) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役 1977年時轉移至中華民國海軍,成為鎮海號船塢登陸艦(ROCS Chen Hai LSD-192),於1999年7月時除役。
LSD-23 Fort Snelling 施奈林堡號 ( 英语 : USNS Taurus (T-AK-273) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役 以船塢登陸艦施奈林堡號起造的LSD-23,由於在建造半途遇到二次大戰結束,因此尚未完工就中止了建造計畫。半完成的船體在幾度轉手後成為滾裝船「加勒比女王號」(SS Carib Queen),之後軍事海運局(Military Sea Transportation Service, MSTS, 軍事海運指揮部 ( 英语 : Military Sealift Command ) 前身)將該艦簽下,成為車輛登陸艦(Vehicle Landing Ship)「 金牛座號 ( 英语 : USNS Taurus (T-AK-273) ) 」。1963年時,車輛登陸艦自輔助艦類別中拆分而出,改編入登陸艦類別,金牛座號舷號也隨之改為LSV-8,作為美軍在越戰的後勤支援。
LSD-24 Point Defiance 抵抗角號 卡薩格蘭德級 未完工 建造計畫終止,其艦名轉由 湯瑪斯頓級 ( 英语 : Thomaston-class dock landing ship ) 的LSD-31繼承。
LSD-25 San Marcos 聖馬可斯號 ( 英语 : USS San Marcos (LSD-25) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役 1971年時轉交由西班牙海軍操作,成為「加利西亞號」(Galicia TA31),之後更改舷號成為L31,並一直服役至1988年。
LSD-26 Tortuga 托圖加號 ( 英语 : USS Tortuga (LSD-26) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役
LSD-27 Whetstone 磨石號 ( 英语 : USS Whetstone (LSD-27) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役
LSD-28 Thomaston 湯瑪斯頓號 ( 英语 : USS Thomaston (LSD-28) ) 湯瑪斯頓級 ( 英语 : Thomaston-class dock landing ship ) 除役
LSD-29 Plymouth Rock 普利茅斯岩號 ( 英语 : USS Plymouth Rock (LSD-29) ) 湯瑪斯頓級 除役
LSD-30 Fort Snelling 施奈林堡號 ( 英语 : USS Fort Snelling (LSD-30) ) 湯瑪斯頓級 除役 LSD-30是美國海軍第二艘使用「施奈林堡」作為艦名的船塢登陸艦,但第一艘的LSD-23並沒有實際以船塢登陸艦的身份完工。
LSD-31 Point Defiance 抵抗角號 ( 英语 : USS Point Defiance (LSD-31) ) 湯瑪斯頓級 除役 LSD-31是美國海軍第二艘使用「抵抗角」作為艦名的船塢登陸艦,但第一艘的LSD-24尚未開工就計畫終止。
LSD-32 Spiegel Grove 史匹格號 ( 英语 : USS Spiegel Grove (LSD-32) ) 湯瑪斯頓級 除役
LSD-33 Alamo 阿拉莫號 ( 英语 : USS Alamo (LSD-33) ) 湯瑪斯頓級 除役 1990年除役並出租給巴西海軍,改名成「里約熱內盧號」(NDD Rio de Janeiro (G31)),並一直服役至2012年中。
LSD-34 Hermitage 隱士廬號 ( 英语 : USS Hermitage (LSD-34) ) 湯瑪斯頓級 除役 1989年除役並出租給巴西海軍,改名成「塞阿臘號」(NDD Ceará (G30))。
LSD-35 Monticello 蒙蒂塞洛號 ( 英语 : USS Monticello (LSD-35) ) 湯瑪斯頓級 除役
LSD-36 Anchorage 安克拉治號 ( 英语 : USS Anchorage (LSD-36) ) 安克拉治級 除役
LSD-37 Portland 波特蘭號 ( 英语 : USS Portland (LSD-37) ) 安克拉治級 除役
LSD-38 Pensacola 朋沙科拉號 安克拉治級 除役 1999年時移交給中華民國海軍,改名為「旭海號」(ROCS Hsu Hai LSD-193)。
LSD-39 Mount Vernon 維農山莊號 ( 英语 : USS Mount Vernon (LSD-39) ) 安克拉治級 除役
LSD-40 Fort Fisher 漁人堡號 ( 英语 : USS Fort Fisher (LSD-40) ) 安克拉治級 除役
LSD-41 Whidbey Island 惠德比島號 ( 英语 : USS Whidbey Island (LSD-41) ) 惠德比島級 服役中
LSD-42 Germantown 日耳曼城號 ( 英语 : USS Germantown (LSD-42) ) 惠德比島級 服役中
LSD-43 Fort McHenry 麥克亨利堡號 ( 英语 : USS Fort McHenry (LSD-43) ) 惠德比島級 服役中
LSD-44 Gunston Hall 岡斯頓莊號 ( 英语 : USS Gunston Hall (LSD-44) ) 惠德比島級 服役中
LSD-45 Comstock 康斯塔克號 ( 英语 : USS Comstock (LSD-45) ) 惠德比島級 服役中
LSD-46 Tortuga 托圖加號 ( 英语 : USS Tortuga (LSD-46) ) 惠德比島級 服役中
LSD-47 Rushmore 拉什摩爾號 ( 英语 : USS Rushmore (LSD-47) ) 惠德比島級 服役中
LSD-48 Ashland 艾許蘭號 ( 英语 : USS Ashland (LSD-48) ) 惠德比島級 服役中
LSD-49 Harpers Ferry 哈普斯渡口號 ( 英语 : USS Harpers Ferry (LSD-49) ) 哈珀斯渡口級 服役中
LSD-50 Carter Hall 卡特莊號 ( 英语 : USS Carter Hall (LSD-50) ) 哈普斯渡口級 服役中
LSD-51 Oak Hill 橡樹丘號 ( 英语 : USS Oak Hill (LSD-51) ) 哈普斯渡口級 服役中
LSD-52 Pearl Harbor 珍珠港號 ( 英语 : USS Pearl Harbor (LSD-52) ) 哈普斯渡口級 服役中

武裝運輸艦起源於二次大戰前,為了應付即將到來的戰事,美國軍方自民間徵調了許多隸屬於 美國商船隊 ( 英语 : United States Merchant Marine ) (United States Merchant Marine)的客輪與貨輪改裝成軍用運輸艦,賦予代表人員輔助艦的「AP」字首的舷號,主要用於士兵的輸送。之後軍方決定特別針對登陸作戰的需求發展一個正式的作戰用艦級,將其稱為武裝運輸艦(Attack Transport),其艦級代號APA是「武裝人員輔助艦」(Attack Personnel Auxiliary)的縮寫,以便與主要用於貨物運送的武裝貨物運輸艦(AKA)做區隔。為了能迅速地自海上將兵員送到陸地上,武裝運輸艦大都設置有大型的 吊艇柱 ( 英语 : davit ) ,可利用收納在甲板或艦橋旁的登陸艇將人員放置到海面上。部分APA甚至有輕型的裝甲或配備有小型的對空對海兩用砲。


Operation Crossroads: Composition of Joint Task Force One

Operation Crossroads: Composition of Joint Task Force One
JTF 1 was organized on 11 January 1946. It followed the basic principles employed during World War II to develop amphibious task forces, but incorporated needs of the scientific program. The joint task force staff comprised Army, Navy, and civilian scientific personnel. This joint staff maintained liaison with the War and Navy Departments, the Manhattan Engineer District, and other government agencies.

Commander Joint Task Force 1 [CJTF 1] maintained liaison with two boards of special interest, the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) Evaluation Board and the President's Evaluation Commission. The Evaluation Board was to advise CJTF 1 during preparation for the tests and evaluate test results. The Evaluation Commission was to cooperate with the War and Navy Departments in conducting the tests, and to undertake a study of the tests and to submit its observations to the President along with findings, conclusions, and recommendations.

JTF 1 was subdivided into eight task groups, each of which performed some specific function.

Task Group 1.1 (Technical Group)
Task Group 1.2 (Target Vessel Group)
Task Group 1.3 (Transport Group)
Task Group 1.4 (Army Ground Group)
Task Group 1.5 (Army Air Group)
Task Group 1.6 (Navy Air Group)
Task Group 1.7 (Destroyer Surface Patrol Group)
Task Group 1.8 (Service Group)
Post-Operation Organization and Activities

Headquarters for JTF 1 was on the USS Mount McKinley (AGC-7) (Joint Task Group Flagship).

Task Group 1.1 (Technical Group)

Task Group 1.1 [TG 1.1] was responsible for instrumenting all target ships and target areas. Selected ships assigned to the group were equipped with laboratory facilities to service scientific instruments and record all data. The primary mission of its Drone Boat Unit (Task Unit 1.1.3 [TU 1.1.3]) was to obtain early samples of radioactive water after each test and conduct remotely controlled radiological reconnaissances of the lagoon area after shot BAKER. TG 1.1 also did the following:

A. Operated and performed technical services
B. Observed and measured physical phenomena
C. Furnished technical advice and assistance.

TG 1.1 had the following three task units [TU], listed below with the ships on which they were based.

USS Albemarle (AV-5) (Flagship)
LCT-1359
LSM-60 (BAKER surface zero vessel)

TU 1.1.2 (Instrumentation Unit)

USS Avery Island (AG-76)
USS Burleson (APA-67)
USS Cumberland Sound (AV-17)
USS Haven (AH-12)
USS Kenneth Whiting (AV-14)
USS Wharton (AP-7)

Task Group 1.2 (Target Vessel Group)

A. Prepared and placed target vessels for tests
B. Salvaged and provided rescue assistance to damaged, strained, or distressed vessels
C. Evacuated ships at time of tests
D. Furnished boats and boat crews to the boat patrol
E. Provided boats from target vessels for radsafe reconnaissance and transport of initial inspection parties.

TG 1.2 was composed of seven task units [TU] during the testing period. Not all TG 1.2 ships were target ships, although most were. Nontarget ships (*) supported preparation, placement, and salvage of the targets. BAKER target only vessel (**).

Task Group 1.2 (Target Vessel Group) ships participating in CROSSROADS.

Task Unit 1.2.1 (Battleship and Cruiser Unit)

Battleship Division 7 [BATDIV 7]

USS Arkansas (BB-33) (Flagship)
Nagato (captured Japanese battleship)
USS New York (BB-34)

Battleship Division 9 [BATDIV 9]

USS Nevada (BB-36)
USS Pennsylvania (BB-38) (Flagship)

Cruiser Division 23 [CRUDIV 23]

USS Pensacola (CA-24)
Prinz Eugen (captured German heavy cruiser)
Sakawa (captured Japanese heavy cruiser)
USS Salt Lake City (CA-25) (Flagship)

Task Unit 1.2.2 (Aircraft Carrier Unit)

Carrier Division 31 [CARDIV 31]

USS Independence (CVL-22)
USS Saratoga (CV-3)

Task Unit 1.2.3 (Destroyer Unit)

Destroyer Division 31 [DESDIV 31]

USS Anderson (DD-411)
USS Hughes (DD-410) (Flagship)
USS Lamson (DD-367)
USS Rhind (DD-404)

Destroyer Division 2 [DESDIV 2]

USS Ralph Talbot (DD-390)
USS Stack (DD-406)
USS Wainwright (DD-419) (Flagship)
USS Wilson (DD-408)

Destroyer Division 3 [DESDIV 3]

USS Conyngham (DD-371)
USS Flusser (DD-368) *
USS Mugford (DD-389)
USS Mustin (DD-413)

Destroyer Division 4 [DESDIV 4]
USS Mayrant (DD-402)
USS Trippe (DD-403)

Task Unit 1.2.4 (Submarine Unit)

Submarine Division 111 [SUBDIV 111]

USS Searaven (SS-196)
USS Skate (SS-305)
USS Skipjack (SS-184)
USS Tuna (SS-203)

Submarine Division 112 [SUBDIV 112]

USS Apogon (SS-308)
USS Dentuda (SS-335)
USS Parche (SS-384)
USS Pilotfish (SS-386)

Task Unit 1.2.5 (Landing Craft Unit)

USS LST-52
USS LST-125
USS LST-133
USS LST-220
USS LST-545
USS LST-661

LCT-816
LCT-818
LCT-874
LCT-1078
LCT-1112
LCT-1113
LCT-1114
LCT-1115
LCT-1116 *
LCT-1130 *
LCT-1132 *
LCT-1155 *

LCT-412 **
LCT-414
LCT-705
LCT-812
LCT-1013
LCT-1175
LCT-1187
LCT-1237
LCT-1268 *
LCT-1341 *
LCT-1377 *
LCT-1415 *

Task Unit 1.2.6 (Merchant Type Unit)

Transport Division 91 [TRANSDIV 91]

USS Banner (APA-60)
USS Brule (APA-66)
USS Carlisle (APA-69)
USS Carteret (APA-70)
USS Fallon (APA-81)

Transport Division 92 [TRANSDIV 92]

USS Barrow (APA-61)
USS Butte (APA-68)
USS Cortland (APA-75)
USS Crittenden (APA-77)
USS Dawson (APA-79)

Transport Division 93 [TRANSDIV 93]

USS Bladen (APA-63)
USS Bracken (APA-64)
USS Briscoe (APA-65)
USS Catron (APA-71)
USS Fillmore (APA-83)
USS Geneva (APA-86)
USS Niagara (APA-87)

Transport Division 94 [TRANSDIV 94]

USS Appling (APA-58) *
USS Artemis (AKA-21) *
USS Gasconade (APA-85)

Task Unit 1.2.7 (Salvage Unit)

ATR-40 *
ATR-87 *
ATA-180 *
ATA-185 *
ATA-192 *
USS Achomawi (ATF-148) *
USS Chickasaw (ATF-83) *
USS Clamp (ARS-33) *
USS Conserver (ARS-39) *
USS Coucal (ASR-8) *
USS Current (ARS-22) *
USS Deliver (ARS-23) *
USS Etlah (AN-79) *
USS Gypsy (ARSD-1) *
LCT-581 *
LCT-746 *
LCT-1184 *
LCT-1420 *
USS Mender (ARSD-2) *
USS Oneota (AN-85) *
USS Palmyra (ARST(T)-3) *
USS Preserver (ARS-8) *
USS Reclaimer (ARS-42) *
USS Shakamaxon (AN-88) *
USS Suncock (AN-80) *
USS Widgeon (ASR-1) *

An eighth task unit, TU 1.2.12 (Kwajalein Maintenance Force), provide radiological decontamination and ammunition removal and disposal services for the JTF 1 ships moved from Bikini to Kwajalein during August and September 1946. Other activities included rollup of operations at Bikini, radiological survey of marine life around Wotho, Rongerik, and Rongelap islands, preparation of ships for movement to other shipyards, and aid in the training of radiological safety school graduates who had been sent to Kwajalein for practical experience. The unit initially consisted of about 1,500 men base ashore and on assorted small craft as well as the following vessels:

USS Conserver (ARS-39) *
USS Current (ARS-22) *
USS Geneva (APA-86) *
USS Haven (AH-12) *
APL-27 *
LCI-329 *
LCI(L)-549 *
LCI(L)-615 *
YF-753 *

Task Group 1.3 (Transport Group)

TG 1.3 transported personnel and equipment to Bikini Atoll as well as evacuating personnel of the Target Vessel Group. It also furnished boats and boat crews to the boat pool, supplied two AKAs and two LSTs for the construction unit, and transported and quartered the press and observers. This task group was composed of three task units [TU] their respective ships are listed below.

Task Unit 1.3.1 (Transport Group)

Transport Division 31 [TRANSDIV 31]

USS Bayfield (APA-33)
USS Bexar (APA-227)
USS Bottineau (APA-235)
USS George Clymer (APA-27)
USS Henrico (APA-45)
USS LST-817
USS LST-881
USS Ottawa (AKA-101)
USS Rockingham (APA-229)
USS Rockwall (APA-230)
USS Rolette (AKA-99)
USS Saint Croix (APA-231)

Task Unit 1.3.3 (Observer Unit)

USS Blue Ridge (AGC-2)
USS Panamint (AGC-13)

Task Group 1.4 (Army Ground Group)

TG 1.4 was responsible for determining damage to selected Army equipment exposed at varying distances from the detonation point and measuring radii of effectiveness for each detonation. Each of the operating task units had Army equipment on certain ships and on Bikini Island for exposure to the nuclear detonations. Each unit had inspection teams that were assigned to target ships and responsible for loading, securing, maintaining, and inspecting assigned test items. These teams also instructed crews of each target ship concerning exposed test items. Teams were to reboard ships after the tests when ships were radiologically cleared and safe for boarding. TG 1.4 was composed of a headquarters and the following six operating task units [TU]:

TU 1.4.1 (Engineer Unit)
TU 1.4.2 (Signal Unit)
TU 1.4.3 (Ordnance Unit)
TU 1.4.4 (Chemical Unit)
TU 1.4.5 (Quartermaster Unit)
TU 1.4.6 (Air Unit)

Task Group 1.5 (Army Air Group)

TG 1.5, the Army Air Group, composed of provisional Army Air Forces units, was assigned the mission of dropping the ABLE weapon on the target array in Bikini Lagoon. In addition, it furnished aircraft, facilities, and crews for photography, weather reconnaissance, air-sea rescue, cloud sampling, pressure gauge drops, and air transport. The following table lists the numbers and types of Army aircraft used during CROSSROADS and their missions..

1 Boeing B-29 Superfortress (Command)
1 Boeing B-29 Superfortress (Bomb drop)
2 Boeing B-29 Superfortress (Pressure gauge drop)
2 Boeing F-13 Superfortress (Radiological reconnaissance)
3 Boeing B-29 Superfortress (Spare)

2 Douglas C-54 Skymaster (Photographic)
8 Boeing F-13 Superfortress (Photographic)

10 Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress (Drone samplers)
6 Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress (Drone controllers)

20 Curtiss C-46 Commando (Transport)
10 Douglas C-54 Skymaster (Transport)

This unit was combined with TU 1.5.3 before ABLE and BAKER tests.

3 Boeing WB-29 Superfortress (Weather reconnaissance)

2 Boeing B-29 Superfortress (Radio broadcast, press, observation)
Douglas C-54 Skymaster (Borrowed from TU 1.5.4 on shot days)

2 Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress (Air-sea rescue)

B-29s and F-13s, which were B-29s modified for photography, have become intermingled at some points in the historical accounts of Army Air Group operations. The totals for each shown here are correct by most accounts. TG 1.5 was composed of the following 10 task units [TU].

Task Unit 1.5.1 (Tactical Operations Unit)

TU 1.5.1 trained crews, prepared equipment for the tests, airdropped the test ABLE weapon, set up the air search radar in the Bikini area, and provided radar analyses of practice bomb runs. It also operated two B-29s that dropped pressure gauges during each test. In addition, after each detonation it tracked the radioactive clouds and sampled air around the clouds. The unit was based on Kwajalein Island.
Task Unit 1.5.2 (Army Air Photographic Unit)

TU 1.5.2 conducted air photographic operations and furnished aircraft for radiological reconnaissance flights. It was stationed on Kwajalein Island.

Task Unit 1.5.3 (Instrumentation and Test Requirements Unit)

TU 1.5.3 and TU 1.5.6 (Army Drone Unit) were combined before the operation began. It was responsible for providing the B-17 drone and B-17 drone-controller aircraft for cloud-sampling operations. The drone mission required that the unit provide and maintain special equipment for sampling and for drone control operations. This included special cameras mounted in the drones. This unit was located on Enewetak Island.

Task Unit 1.5.4 (Air Transport Unit)

TU 1.5.4 provided airlift for personnel, supplies, and equipment between Roswell Army Air Field, New Mexico, and the Pacific Test Area. It also provided air shuttle service among Kwajalein, Bikini, and Enewetak Islands. Both C-46s and C-54s were available. This unit, stationed on Kwajalein Island, was responsible to assist in evacuating Enewetak Island in case of radiological danger to personnel on that island.

Task Unit 1.5.5 (Air Service Unit)

TU 1.5.5 serviced and maintained Army aircraft on Kwajalein Island. In addition to service and maintenance personnel, the task unit had engineers, military policemen, and weather-forecasting personnel.

Task Unit 1.5.7 (Army Air Weather Reconnaissance Unit)

TU 1.5.7 had three WB-29 aircraft with crews trained in weather reconnaissance. It flew long- range weather reconnaissance missions before each test. This unit was located on Kwajalein Island.

Task Unit 1.5.8 (Air Orientation Unit)

TU 1.5.8, based on Kwajalein Island, was responsible for accommodating visitors, observers, the press, and news broadcasters. It flew these groups in two B-29s and two borrowed C-54s to witness CROSSROADS detonations.

Task Unit 1.5.9 (Air-Sea Rescue Unit)

TU 1.5.9 was initially part of TU 1.5.3 but was made a separate unit before testing started. It had two B-17 aircraft (called "Dumbos") for air-sea rescue and provided coverage between Enewetak and Bikini. The unit was based on Enewetak Island.

Task Unit 1.5.10 (Headquarters, Air Unit)

TU 1.5.10 contained the command and staff elements of TG 1.5. It was based on Kwajalein Island and operated the task group headquarters. It was also known as Hq TG 1.5.

Task Group 1.6 (Navy Air Group)

TG 1.6 had three different functions: drone plane and drone boat control, aerial photography, and seaplane transportation. TG 1.6 was composed of four task units [TU]:

TU 1.6.1 (Drone Carrier Unit)

USS Charles P. Cecil (DD-835)
USS Furse (DD-882)
USS Newman K. Perry (DD-883)
USS Turner (DD-834)

(Navy Field Recovery Subunit, Naval Air Base Roi-Namur, Kwajalein)

Air Development Squadron 2 (VX-2)

TU 1.6.2 (Photo Carrier Unit)

USS Saidor (CVE-117)
Plane guard destroyers from TE 1.6.12 were assigned.

TU 1.6.3 (Seaplane Unit, Naval Air Base Ebeye Island, Kwajalein)

Patrol Seaplane Squadron 32 (VPB-32)
Air-Rescue Squadron 4 (VH-4)
Carrier Aircraft Service Unit (Fleet) 34 (CASU(F)-34)

TU 1.6.4 (Seaplane Tender, Bikini)

Shangri-La carried drone aircraft and operated off Roi Island, Kwajalein, where an airfield was used for landing and experimenting with drone planes. Between tests, Saidor operated from Bikini Lagoon with drone boat control and photographic unit personnel on board. Except on ABLE and BAKER days, Orca was stationed at Bikini as a terminal and service unit for transport seaplanes. The ship maintained seaplane runways and furnished overhaul servicing required for all planes on turn-around service.

Task Group 1.7 (Destroyer Surface Patrol Group)

TG 1.7 performed the following tasks during CROSSROADS:

A. Furnished radsafe patrols
B. Anchored one ship at Bikini Atoll lagoon entrance, except when it was evacuated, and supplied arrival information to incoming vessels
C. Advised the Senior Officer Present Afloat (SOPA) about each arrival and departure from Bikini Lagoon
D. Deployed two destroyers to act as approach markers for the bombing aircraft in test ABLE.

TG 1.7 was composed of only one task unit [TU], TU 1.7.1 (Destroyer Squadron Unit), and contained the following ships:

Destroyer Division 71 [DESDIV 71]

USS Barton (DD-722) (Flagship)
USS Laffey (DD-724)
USS Lowry (DD-770)
USS O'Brien (DD-725)
USS Walke (DD-723)

Destroyer Division 72 [DESDIV 72]

USS Allen M. Sumner (DD-692)
USS Ingraham (DD-694)
USS Moale (DD-693)
USS Robert K. Huntington (DD-781)

Task Group 1.8 (Service Group)

This task group had the following responsibilities:
A. Base facilities and services including repair, fuel, water, mail service (USS LST-861) general supply, provisions, hospital, and recreation (USS LST-388)
B. Island commander functions for land areas of Bikini Atoll, such as policing recreational areas, conducting shore patrol, and controlling boat traffic at landings
C. Boat services
D. Medical and hospital services
E. Quarters and laboratory facilities on USS Fulton (AS-11) for the Oceanographic Wave Measurement Group
F. Surveys in accordance with the Oceanographic Survey Plan
G. Construction in accordance with Logistics Plan
H. LCI shuttle service between Bikini and Kwajalein atolls
I. Evacuation of Rongerik Atoll population if necessary.

TG 1.8 was composed of the following six task units [TU]:

TU 1.8.1 (Repair and Service Unit)

USS Ajax (AR-6)
ARD-29
ATA-124
ATA-187
USS Cebu (ARG-6)
USS Chikaskia (AO-54)
USS Chowanoc (ATF-100)
USS Coasters Harbor (AG-74)
USS Creon (ARL-11)
USS Dixie (AD-14) (Flagship)
USS Enoree (AO-69)
USS Fulton (AS-11)
USS Hesperia (AKS-13)
USS Limestone (IX-158)
USS LST-388
USS LST-861
USS Munsee (ATF-107)
USS Phaon (ARB-3)
USS Pollux (AKS-4)
USS Quartz (IX-150)
USS Severn (AO-61)
USS Sioux (ATF-75)
USS Sphinx (ARL-24)
USS Telamon (ARB-8)
USS Tombigbee (AOG-11)
USS Wenatchee (ATF-118)
USS Wildcat (AW-2)
YC-1009
YF-385
YF-733
YF-734
YF-735
YF-752
YF-753
YF-754
YF-990
YF-991
YF-992
YO-132
YO-199
YOG-63
YOG-70
YW-92

TU 1.8.3 (Dispatch Boat and Boat Pool)

USS Gunston Hall (LSD-5)
LCI(L)-977
LCI(L)-1062
LCI(L)-1067
LCI(L)-1091
LCT-1361
LCT-1461
PGM-23
PGM-24
PGM-25
PGM-29
PGM-31
PGM-32
USS Presque Isle (APB-44)
USS San Marcos (LSD-25)

USS Benevolence (AH-13)
USS Bountiful (AH-9)

USS Bowditch (AGS-4)
USS James M. Gillis (AGS-13)
USS John Blish (AGS-10)
YMS-354
YMS-358
YMS-413
YP-636

53RD Construction Battalion (later, Construction Battalion Detachment 1156)

TU 1.8.7 (Rongerik Evacuation Unit)

Post-Operation Organization and Activities

After 7 September all survey and construction activities at Bikini were rapidly brought to a close, and the atoll was evacuated by 26 September 1946. Following a meeting on the West Coast from 17 to 20 September concerning decontamination procedures, some officers from JTF 1 were ordered to temporary duty under Commander Western Sea Frontier to follow up and coordinate the decontamination, monitoring, and clearance of exposed ships. On 24 September, in a joint speedletter, the Bureau of Ships and the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery assumed responsibility for giving final radiological ship clearances and prescribed detailed decontamination and clearance procedures. JTF 1 was formally dissolved on 1 November its successor was a Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) committee, the Joint CROSSROADS Committee, whose task was to oversee the final test activities, publish the final reports, and supervise the Bikini Resurvey Operation of summer 1947.


美國海軍兩棲作戰艦艇列表

美國海軍的直昇機登陸突擊艦(Landing Helicopter Assault)是一種擁有可供直昇機起降的大型甲板,與容納與維修直昇機的機庫之大型兩棲突擊艦,在垂直起降(VTOL)定翼機出現之後,此類船艦也肩負起輕至中型航空母艦的任務角色。LHA通常也擁有可收納、操作登陸艇或氣墊船的井圍甲板(well deck)與閘門設備,但最新銳的美利堅級之前兩艘(LHA-6及LHA-7)卻完全不擁有操作登陸作戰艦艇的能力,而以空中武力的強化為重點,是此類船艦的特例。但自本級第三艦「布干維爾號(USS Bougainville)」(LHA-8)後,又將再重新加設井圍甲板,以增強操作登陸艇或氣墊船之能力。

舷號 艦名 級別 狀態 註釋
LHA-1 Tarawa 塔拉瓦號 ( 英语 : USS Tarawa (LHA-1) ) 塔拉瓦級 除役
LHA-2 Saipan 賽班號 ( 英语 : USS Saipan (LHA-2) ) 塔拉瓦級 除役
LHA-3 Belleau Wood 貝勒森林號 ( 英语 : USS Belleau Wood (LHA-3) ) 塔拉瓦級 除役
LHA-4 Nassau 拿騷號 ( 英语 : USS Nassau (LHA-4) ) 塔拉瓦級 除役
LHA-5 Peleliu 貝里琉號 塔拉瓦級 除役
LHA-6 America 美利堅號 美利堅級 服役中
LHA-7 Tripoli 的黎波里號 ( 英语 : USS Tripoli (LHA-7) ) 美利堅級 服役中
LHA-8 Bougainville 布干維爾號 ( 英语 : USS Bougainville (LHA-8) ) 美利堅級 建造中
LHA-9 美利堅級 已簽約

美國海軍的直昇機登陸船塢艦(Landing Helicopter Dock)大體上擁有與LHA類似的大型飛行平台與井圍甲板,用途幾乎相同。LHD與LHA之間主要的差異在於LHD擁有較大的船塢空間以容納較多的登陸艇或氣墊船,側重水面登陸作戰能力,而有別於以空中武力為主的LHA。

舷號 艦名 級別 狀態 註釋
LHD-1 Wasp 胡蜂號 ( 英语 : USS Wasp (LHD-1) ) 胡蜂級 服役中
LHD-2 Essex 艾賽克斯號 ( 英语 : USS Essex (LHD-2) ) 胡蜂級 服役中
LHD-3 Kearsarge 基薩奇山號 胡蜂級 服役中
LHD-4 Boxer 拳師號 ( 英语 : USS Boxer (LHD-4) ) 胡蜂級 服役中
LHD-5 Battan 巴單號 ( 英语 : USS Bataan (LHD-5) ) 胡蜂級 服役中
LHD-6 Bonhomme Richard 好人理查號 胡蜂級 除役
LHD-7 Iwo Jima 硫磺島號 ( 英语 : USS Iwo Jima (LHD-7) ) 胡蜂級 服役中
LHD-8 Makin Island 馬金島號 ( 英语 : USS Makin Island (LHD-8) ) 胡蜂級 服役中

美國海軍的兩棲指揮艦主要是作為兩棲艦隊指揮官的旗艦,因此側重其通訊設備與指揮官及其幕僚的會議及生活空間。在二戰時代美國海軍原本將指揮艦的艦級命名為「兩棲艦隊旗艦」(Amphibious Force Flagship),但是其艦級代號「AGC」卻是源自「C類通用輔助艦」(General Auxiliary, sub-class C)的縮寫,起因於早期的此類船艦通常是由其他類的 輔助艦 ( 英语 : Auxiliary ship ) (運輸艦、登陸艦,甚至商船)加強通訊設備之後改裝而來而非特別建造。麥金利山號(USS Mount McKinley AGC-7)是美國海軍第一艘專為了作為指揮艦而建造的此級軍艦,雖然在啟用時仍沿用AGC的艦級代碼,但在1969年1月1日時更改類別,命名為「兩棲指揮艦」(Amphibious Command Ship),其艦級代號「LCC」是「指揮與通訊登陸艦」(Landing ship Command & Control)的縮寫,自此之後的指揮艦皆開始改用LCC的艦級代號。

舷號 艦名 級別 狀態 註釋
AGC-1 Appalachian 阿帕拉契號 ( 英语 : USS Appalachian (AGC-1) ) 阿帕拉契級 除役
AGC-2 Blue Ridge 藍嶺號 ( 英语 : USS Blue Ridge (AGC-2) ) 阿帕拉契級 除役
AGC-3 Rocky Mount 洛磯山號 ( 英语 : USS Rocky Mount (AGC-3) ) 阿帕拉契級 除役
AGC-4 Ancon 國旗山號 ( 英语 : USS Ancon (AGC-4) ) 阿帕拉契級 除役 起造時原為越洋客輪,曾陸續用於陸軍運輸艦(USAT Ancon)、海軍運輸艦(USS Ancon AP-66)等用途
AGC-5 Catoctin 凱托克廷號 ( 英语 : USS Catoctin (AGC-5) ) 阿帕拉契級 除役 起造時原為越洋客輪瑪麗·惠特里奇號(SS Mary Whitridge)
AGC-6 Duane 杜恩號 ( 英语 : USCGC Duane (WPG-33) ) 阿帕拉契級 除役 起造時原為海岸警備隊緝私艦威廉·J·杜恩號(USCGC William J. Duane WPG-33),原本預計改造後交由海軍使用,但計畫從未實行,因此保留海岸警備隊的代號「W」而成為WAGC-6,之後變更艦級為 高續航力緝私艦 ( 英语 : High endurance cutter ) WHEC-6。
AGC-7/LCC-7 Mount McKinley 麥金利山號 ( 英语 : USS Mount McKinley (AGC-7) ) 麥金利山級 除役
AGC-8 Mount Olympus 奧林帕斯山號 ( 英语 : USS Mount Olympus (AGC-8) ) 麥金利山級 除役
AGC-9 Wasatch 瓦薩奇號 ( 英语 : USS Wasatch (AGC-9) ) 麥金利山級 除役
AGC-10 Auburn 奧本號 ( 英语 : USS Auburn (AGC-10) ) 麥金利山級 除役 起造時原名卡特凱號(Katkay),建造半途改名。
AGC-11/LCC-11 Eldorado 艾多拉多號 ( 英语 : USS Eldorado (AGC-11) ) 麥金利山級 除役
AGC-12/LCC-12 Estes 埃斯特斯號 ( 英语 : USS Estes (AGC-12) ) 麥金利山級 除役
AGC-13 Panamint 帕那敏號 ( 英语 : USS Panamint (AGC-13) ) 麥金利山級 除役
AGC-14 Teton 提頓號 ( 英语 : USS Teton (AGC-14) ) 麥金利山級 除役
AGC-15 Adirondack 亞迪朗達克號 ( 英语 : USS Adirondack (AGC-15) ) 麥金利山級 除役
AGC-16/LCC-16 Pocono 波科諾號 ( 英语 : USS Pocono (AGC-16) ) 麥金利山級 除役
AGC-17/LCC-17 Taconic 塔科尼克號 ( 英语 : USS Taconic (AGC-17) ) 麥金利山級 除役
AGC-18 Biscayne 比斯開號 ( 英语 : USS Biscayne (AVP-11) ) 麥金利山級 除役 啟用時原為 巴尼給級水上飛機母艦 ( 英语 : Barnegat-class seaplane tender ) AVP-11,1943年時改用途為兩棲艦隊旗艦。
AGC-369 Williamsburg 威廉斯堡號 ( 英语 : USS Williamsburg (AGC-369) ) - 除役 啟用時原為私人遊艇亞拉斯號(Aras),二戰時由海軍徵用改裝為砲艇威廉斯堡號(USS Williamsburg PG-56),二戰結束前進行指揮艦改造並賦予舷號AGC-369,但改造還沒完成對日作戰就結束,因此改作總統遊艇用途。1962年時除役,交由伍茲霍爾海洋研究所使用,成為海洋研究船安東·布魯號(Anton Bruun)。
LCC-19 Blue Ridge 藍嶺號 藍嶺級 ( 日语 : ブルー・リッジ級揚陸指揮艦 ) 服役中
LCC-20 Mount Whitney 惠特尼山號 藍嶺級 服役中

船塢平台登陸艦(Landing Platform Dock, LPD),或稱為兩棲運輸船塢艦(Amphibious transport dock),是一種擁有井圍甲板與直昇機起降平台的兩棲作戰艦艇。在近代的美國海軍兩棲船艦劃分中,LPD與船塢登陸艦(Landing Ship Dock, LSD)、LHA、LHD全都是同時擁有井圍甲板與飛行甲板的登陸作戰艦艇,其主要不同點在於與飛行有關的設備完整程度,其中航空武力最弱的LSD只擁有一個簡單的飛行甲板,LPD除了飛行甲板外還設有機庫,LHD、LHA則是擁有全通式的飛行甲板(LSD、LPD通常是配置艦尾飛行甲板)。

舷號 艦名 級別 狀態 註釋
LPD-1 Raleigh 羅里號 ( 英语 : USS Raleigh (LPD-1) ) 羅里級 ( 英语 : Raleigh-class amphibious transport dock ) 除役
LPD-2 Vancouver 溫哥華號 ( 英语 : USS Vancouver (LPD-2) ) 羅里級 除役
LPD-3/AGF-3 La Salle 拉沙爾號 ( 英语 : USS La Salle (AGF-3) ) 羅里級 除役 拉沙爾號在1972年時改裝為指揮艦,賦予AGF-3的舷號(AGF是輔助指揮艦、Auxiliary Command Ship的縮寫)。
LPD-4 Austin 奧斯丁號 ( 英语 : USS Austin (LPD-4) ) 奧斯丁級 除役
LPD-5 Ogden 奧格登號 ( 英语 : USS Ogden (LPD-5) ) 奧斯丁級 除役
LPD-6 Duluth 杜魯斯號 ( 英语 : USS Duluth (LPD-6) ) 奧斯丁級 除役
LPD-7 Cleveland 克利夫蘭號 ( 英语 : USS Cleveland (LPD-7) ) 奧斯丁級 除役
LPD-8 Dubuque 迪比克號 ( 英语 : USS Dubuque (LPD-8) ) 奧斯丁級 除役
LPD-9 Denver 丹佛號 ( 英语 : USS Denver (LPD-9) ) 奧斯丁級 除役
LPD-10 Juneau 朱諾號 ( 英语 : USS Juneau (LPD-10) ) 奧斯丁級 除役
LPD-11/AGF-11 Coronado 科羅納多號 ( 英语 : USS Coronado (AGF-11) ) 奧斯丁級 除役 在1980年時進行通訊用上層結構的改裝,而成為兩棲指揮艦AGF-11。
LPD-12 Shreveport 什里夫波特號 ( 英语 : USS Shreveport (LPD-12) ) 奧斯丁級 除役
LPD-13 Nashville 納什維爾號 ( 英语 : USS Nashville (LPD-13) ) 奧斯丁級 除役
LPD-14 Trenton 特倫頓號 ( 英语 : USS Trenton (LPD-14) ) 奧斯丁級 除役 2007年時售予印度海軍,改名為 河馬號 ( 英语 : INS Jalashwa (L41) ) (INS Jalashwa L41)。
LPD-15 Ponce 龐塞號 奧斯丁級 除役 經改裝作為 漂浮前線發動基地 ( 英语 : Mobile Landing Platform ) (Afloat Forward Staging Base, AFSB)與雷射武器系統(Laser Weapon System, LaWS)等新技術的實驗平台使用。
LPD-17 San Antonio 聖安東尼奧號 ( 英语 : USS San Antonio (LPD-17) ) 聖安東尼奧級 服役中
LPD-18 New Orleans 紐奧良號 聖安東尼奧級 服役中
LPD-19 Mesa Verde 梅薩維德號 ( 英语 : USS Mesa Verde (LPD-19) ) 聖安東尼奧級 服役中
LPD-20 Green Bay 綠灣號 ( 英语 : USS Green Bay (LPD-20) ) 聖安東尼奧級 服役中
LPD-21 New York 紐約號 聖安東尼奧級 服役中
LPD-22 San Diego 聖地牙哥號 聖安東尼奧級 服役中
LPD-23 Anchorage 安克拉治號 ( 英语 : USS Anchorage (LPD-23) ) 聖安東尼奧級 服役中
LPD-24 Arlington 阿靈頓號 ( 英语 : USS Arlington (LPD-24) ) 聖安東尼奧級 服役中
LPD-25 Somerset 桑莫塞特號 ( 英语 : USS Somerset (LPD-25) ) 聖安東尼奧級 服役中
LPD-26 John P. Murtha 約翰·穆爾沙號 ( 英语 : USS John P. Murtha (LPD-26) ) 聖安東尼奧級 服役中
LPD-27 Portland 波特蘭號 ( 英语 : USS Portland (LPD-27) ) 聖安東尼奧級 服役中
LPD-28 Fort Lauderdale 勞德代爾堡號 ( 英语 : USS Fort Lauderdale (LPD-28) ) 聖安東尼奧級 建造中
LPD-29 Richard M. McCool Jr. 小理查德·M·麥庫爾號 ( 英语 : USS Richard M. McCool Jr. (LPD-29) ) 聖安東尼奧級 合約已簽訂

直昇機平台登陸艦(Landing Platform Helicopter, LPH)是一種主要供直昇機與垂直升降定翼機起降的兩棲作戰用艦艇,可以說是直昇機航空母艦的延伸。美國海軍只曾開發過一個LPH專用艦級( 硫磺島級 ( 英语 : Iwo Jima-class amphibious assault ship ) ),但曾將三艘二戰時代建造的航空母艦改作LPH用途。LPH是同時擁有飛行甲板與水面作戰用井圍甲板的兩棲突擊艦類軍艦之先驅者,但其角色之後被LHA與LHD給取代。

舷號 艦名 級別 狀態 註釋
CVE-106
LPH-1
Block Island 布洛克島號 ( 英语 : USS Block Island (CVE-106) ) 啟航灣級 除役 布洛克島號是啟航灣級護衛航空母艦的二號艦,建造時原名日落灣號(Sunset Bay),但卻是以布洛克島號之名完工下水,賦予CVE-106的舷號。1957年時,原本預計改造為一艘兩棲突擊艦LPH-1但計畫沒有實現,直到1959年除籍時仍然維持CVE-106之舷號。
LPH-2 Iwo Jima 硫磺島號 ( 英语 : USS Iwo Jima (LPH-2) ) 硫磺島級 ( 英语 : Iwo Jima-class amphibious assault ship ) 除役
LPH-3 Okinawa 沖繩號 ( 英语 : USS Okinawa (LPH-3) ) 硫磺島級 除役
CV/CVA/CVS-21
LPH-4
Boxer 拳師號 艾賽克斯級 除役 原為一艘長體艾賽克斯級航空母艦,但在1958年時開始進行實驗性的船身內部改裝,成為直昇機平台登陸艦LPH-4。
CV/CVA/CVS-37
LPH-5
Princeton 普林斯頓號 艾賽克斯級 除役 原為一艘長體艾賽克斯級航空母艦,起造時原名福治谷號(Valley Forge),下水時改名普林斯頓。
CVE-90/CVHA-1
LPH-6
Thetis Bay 西提斯灣號 ( 英语 : USS Thetis Bay (CVE-90) ) 卡薩布蘭卡級 除役 原為一艘卡薩布蘭卡級護衛航空母艦,1955年時改裝為直昇機突擊航空母艦並賦予CVHA-1的舷號,是美國海軍第一艘此類型的船艦。1959年時再次更改舷號成為LPH-6,以便與其他LPH的編號統一。
LPH-7 Guadalcanal 瓜達康納爾號 ( 英语 : USS Guadalcanal (LPH-7) ) 硫磺島級 除役
CV/CVA/CVS-45
LPH-8
Valley Forge 佛吉谷號 艾賽克斯級 除役 原為一艘長體艾賽克斯級航空母艦CV-45,1952年時更改艦級為攻擊航空母艦CVA-45,1954年又改為反潛航空母艦CVS-45。1961年時進廠改裝為直昇機兩棲攻擊母艦後,賦予LPH-8的新舷號。
LPH-9 Guam 關島號 ( 英语 : USS Guam (LPH-9) ) 硫磺島級 除役
LPH-10 Tripoli 的黎波里號 ( 英语 : USS Tripoli (LPH-10) ) 硫磺島級 除役
LPH-11 New Orleans 紐奧良號 ( 英语 : USS New Orleans (LPH-11) ) 硫磺島級 除役
LPH-12 Inchon 仁川號 ( 英语 : USS Inchon (LPH-12) ) 硫磺島級 除役

船塢登陸艦(Dock landing ship,又稱為Landing Ship, Dock,縮寫為LSD)是一種配置有井圍甲板的兩棲作戰艦艇,這類船隻通被用作登陸艇或氣墊船等更小型登陸船隻的母艦,可在惡劣的海象中直接裝卸物資、設備與人員。美國海軍的LSD通常不配置LST(戰車登陸艦)那般的船艏可開啟吊橋式閘門,能直接搶灘卸下戰車與士兵,而是將閘門設於艦尾。美國海軍是以與航空能力相關的設備等級來區別同樣設置有井圍甲板與飛行甲板的幾種兩棲突擊艦,其中只配置直昇機甲板的稱為LSD,配有機庫乃至於全通式飛行甲板的則分類為LPD、LHD與LHA。

艾許蘭級 ( 英语 : Ashland-class dock landing ship ) (Ashland-class)是美國最早的LSD艦級,此級軍艦在開發出期原本是歸類為「機械化砲兵運輸艦」(Mechanized Artillery Transports, APM)類別,屬於 輔助艦 ( 英语 : Auxiliary ship ) (Auxiliary ship)的大類底下。但在實際建造之前就已轉分類至兩棲作戰艦類別之下。

舷號 艦名 級別 狀態 註釋
LSD-1 Ashland 艾許蘭號 ( 英语 : USS Ashland (LSD-1) ) 艾許蘭級 ( 英语 : Ashland-class dock landing ship ) 除役
LSD-2 Belle Grove 貝爾格羅夫號 ( 英语 : USS Belle Grove (LSD-2) ) 艾許蘭級 除役
LSD-3 Carter Hall 卡特莊號 ( 英语 : USS Carter Hall (LSD-3) ) 艾許蘭級 除役
LSD-4 Epping Forest 埃平森林號 ( 英语 : USS Epping Forest ) 艾許蘭級 除役
LSD-5 Gunston Hall 岡斯頓莊號 ( 英语 : USS Gunston Hall (LSD-5) ) 艾許蘭級 除役 1970年時售予阿根廷海軍,改名為「坎迪多·德·拉薩拉號」(ARA Cándido de Lasala Q-43)
LSD-6 Lindenwald 林登瓦德號 ( 英语 : USS Lindenwald (LSD-6) ) 艾許蘭級 除役
LSD-7 Oak Hill 橡樹丘號 ( 英语 : USS Oak Hill (LSD-7) ) 艾許蘭級 除役
LSD-8 White Marsh 白澤號 ( 英语 : USS White Marsh (LSD-8) ) 艾許蘭級 除役 1960年時出借中華民國,成為第一代的「中正號」(ROCS Chung Cheng LSD-191),1977年時正式轉移船籍予中華民國海軍,1985年時除役報廢,「中正號」艦名由另一艘船塢登陸艦 康斯塔克號 ( 英语 : USS Comstock (LSD-19) ) (USS Comstock LSD-19)承襲,成為第二代中正艦。
LSD-13 Casa Grande 卡薩格蘭德號 ( 英语 : USS Casa Grande (LSD-13) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 ( 英语 : Casa Grande-class dock landing ship ) 除役 原本是根據租借法案預計替英國皇家海軍所建造的英國機動化砲兵運輸艦BAPM-5,並命名為「波特威號」(HMS Portway F144)。實際開始建造時更改艦級,成為LSD-13,並改名為「長矛號」(HMS Spear),但在尚未完工前就與姊妹艦LSD-14、LSD-15一同被轉調回美國海軍使用,改名「卡薩格蘭德號」並成為此級登陸艦的一號艦。
LSD-14 Rushmore 拉什摩爾號 ( 英语 : USS Rushmore (LSD-14) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役 原本是根據租借法案預計替英國皇家海軍所建造的英國機動化砲兵運輸艦BAPM-6,並命名為「長劍號」(HMS Sword),之後又改名為「施瓦許威號」(HMS Swashway F145)。實際開始建造時更改艦級,成為LSD-14,但在尚未完工前就與姊妹艦LSD-13、LSD-15一同被轉調回美國海軍使用,以「拉什摩爾號」之名下水。
LSD-15 Shadwell 沙德韋爾號 ( 英语 : USS Shadwell (LSD-15) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役 原本是根據租借法案預計替英國皇家海軍所建造的英國機動化砲兵運輸艦BAPM-7,並命名為「戰斧號」(HMS Tomahawk),之後又改名為「華特威號」(HMS Waterway F146)。實際開始建造時更改艦級,成為LSD-15,但在尚未完工前就與姊妹艦LSD-13、LSD-14一同被轉調回美國海軍使用,以「沙德韋爾號」之名下水。
LSD-16 Cabildo 卡比多號 ( 英语 : USS Cabildo (LSD-16) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役
LSD-17 Catamount 山貓號 ( 英语 : USS Catamount (LSD-17) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役
LSD-18 Colonial 殖民號 ( 英语 : USS Colonial (LSD-18) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役
LSD-19 Comstock 康斯塔克號 ( 英语 : USS Comstock (LSD-19) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役 1984年原本已除役的康斯塔克號在拖曳至台灣拆解時,經中華民國海軍方面要求,將艦體狀況尚佳的康斯塔克號與中正號(LSD-191,原美國海軍白澤號(LSD-8))對調,舊中正號報廢拆解,康斯塔克號改名中正號,並以相同的LSD-191舷號繼續服役,直到2012年時才除役。 [1]
LSD-20 Donner 唐納號 ( 英语 : USS Donner (LSD-20) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役
LSD-21 Fort Mandan 曼丹堡號 ( 英语 : USS Fort Mandan (LSD-21) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役 1971年時轉移至希臘海軍,改名「納夫克拉圖薩號」(Nafkratousa L153),以取代另外一艘原本在希臘海軍服役、同艦名舷號的原英國皇家海軍卡薩格蘭德級登陸艦,伊斯特威號(HMS Eastway)。
LSD-22 Fort Marion 馬里安堡號 ( 英语 : USS Fort Marion (LSD-22) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役 1977年時轉移至中華民國海軍,成為鎮海號船塢登陸艦(ROCS Chen Hai LSD-192),於1999年7月時除役。
LSD-23 Fort Snelling 施奈林堡號 ( 英语 : USNS Taurus (T-AK-273) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役 以船塢登陸艦施奈林堡號起造的LSD-23,由於在建造半途遇到二次大戰結束,因此尚未完工就中止了建造計畫。半完成的船體在幾度轉手後成為滾裝船「加勒比女王號」(SS Carib Queen),之後軍事海運局(Military Sea Transportation Service, MSTS, 軍事海運指揮部 ( 英语 : Military Sealift Command ) 前身)將該艦簽下,成為車輛登陸艦(Vehicle Landing Ship)「 金牛座號 ( 英语 : USNS Taurus (T-AK-273) ) 」。1963年時,車輛登陸艦自輔助艦類別中拆分而出,改編入登陸艦類別,金牛座號舷號也隨之改為LSV-8,作為美軍在越戰的後勤支援。
LSD-24 Point Defiance 抵抗角號 卡薩格蘭德級 未完工 建造計畫終止,其艦名轉由 湯瑪斯頓級 ( 英语 : Thomaston-class dock landing ship ) 的LSD-31繼承。
LSD-25 San Marcos 聖馬可斯號 ( 英语 : USS San Marcos (LSD-25) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役 1971年時轉交由西班牙海軍操作,成為「加利西亞號」(Galicia TA31),之後更改舷號成為L31,並一直服役至1988年。
LSD-26 Tortuga 托圖加號 ( 英语 : USS Tortuga (LSD-26) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役
LSD-27 Whetstone 磨石號 ( 英语 : USS Whetstone (LSD-27) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役
LSD-28 Thomaston 湯瑪斯頓號 ( 英语 : USS Thomaston (LSD-28) ) 湯瑪斯頓級 ( 英语 : Thomaston-class dock landing ship ) 除役
LSD-29 Plymouth Rock 普利茅斯岩號 ( 英语 : USS Plymouth Rock (LSD-29) ) 湯瑪斯頓級 除役
LSD-30 Fort Snelling 施奈林堡號 ( 英语 : USS Fort Snelling (LSD-30) ) 湯瑪斯頓級 除役 LSD-30是美國海軍第二艘使用「施奈林堡」作為艦名的船塢登陸艦,但第一艘的LSD-23並沒有實際以船塢登陸艦的身份完工。
LSD-31 Point Defiance 抵抗角號 ( 英语 : USS Point Defiance (LSD-31) ) 湯瑪斯頓級 除役 LSD-31是美國海軍第二艘使用「抵抗角」作為艦名的船塢登陸艦,但第一艘的LSD-24尚未開工就計畫終止。
LSD-32 Spiegel Grove 史匹格號 ( 英语 : USS Spiegel Grove (LSD-32) ) 湯瑪斯頓級 除役
LSD-33 Alamo 阿拉莫號 ( 英语 : USS Alamo (LSD-33) ) 湯瑪斯頓級 除役 1990年除役並出租給巴西海軍,改名成「里約熱內盧號」(NDD Rio de Janeiro (G31)),並一直服役至2012年中。
LSD-34 Hermitage 隱士廬號 ( 英语 : USS Hermitage (LSD-34) ) 湯瑪斯頓級 除役 1989年除役並出租給巴西海軍,改名成「塞阿臘號」(NDD Ceará (G30))。
LSD-35 Monticello 蒙蒂塞洛號 ( 英语 : USS Monticello (LSD-35) ) 湯瑪斯頓級 除役
LSD-36 Anchorage 安克拉治號 ( 英语 : USS Anchorage (LSD-36) ) 安克拉治級 除役
LSD-37 Portland 波特蘭號 ( 英语 : USS Portland (LSD-37) ) 安克拉治級 除役
LSD-38 Pensacola 朋沙科拉號 安克拉治級 除役 1999年時移交給中華民國海軍,改名為「旭海號」(ROCS Hsu Hai LSD-193)。
LSD-39 Mount Vernon 維農山莊號 ( 英语 : USS Mount Vernon (LSD-39) ) 安克拉治級 除役
LSD-40 Fort Fisher 漁人堡號 ( 英语 : USS Fort Fisher (LSD-40) ) 安克拉治級 除役
LSD-41 Whidbey Island 惠德比島號 ( 英语 : USS Whidbey Island (LSD-41) ) 惠德比島級 服役中
LSD-42 Germantown 日耳曼城號 ( 英语 : USS Germantown (LSD-42) ) 惠德比島級 服役中
LSD-43 Fort McHenry 麥克亨利堡號 ( 英语 : USS Fort McHenry (LSD-43) ) 惠德比島級 服役中
LSD-44 Gunston Hall 岡斯頓莊號 ( 英语 : USS Gunston Hall (LSD-44) ) 惠德比島級 服役中
LSD-45 Comstock 康斯塔克號 ( 英语 : USS Comstock (LSD-45) ) 惠德比島級 服役中
LSD-46 Tortuga 托圖加號 ( 英语 : USS Tortuga (LSD-46) ) 惠德比島級 服役中
LSD-47 Rushmore 拉什摩爾號 ( 英语 : USS Rushmore (LSD-47) ) 惠德比島級 服役中
LSD-48 Ashland 艾許蘭號 ( 英语 : USS Ashland (LSD-48) ) 惠德比島級 服役中
LSD-49 Harpers Ferry 哈普斯渡口號 ( 英语 : USS Harpers Ferry (LSD-49) ) 哈珀斯渡口級 服役中
LSD-50 Carter Hall 卡特莊號 ( 英语 : USS Carter Hall (LSD-50) ) 哈普斯渡口級 服役中
LSD-51 Oak Hill 橡樹丘號 ( 英语 : USS Oak Hill (LSD-51) ) 哈普斯渡口級 服役中
LSD-52 Pearl Harbor 珍珠港號 ( 英语 : USS Pearl Harbor (LSD-52) ) 哈普斯渡口級 服役中

武裝運輸艦起源於二次大戰前,為了應付即將到來的戰事,美國軍方自民間徵調了許多隸屬於 美國商船隊 ( 英语 : United States Merchant Marine ) (United States Merchant Marine)的客輪與貨輪改裝成軍用運輸艦,賦予代表人員輔助艦的「AP」字首的舷號,主要用於士兵的輸送。之後軍方決定特別針對登陸作戰的需求發展一個正式的作戰用艦級,將其稱為武裝運輸艦(Attack Transport),其艦級代號APA是「武裝人員輔助艦」(Attack Personnel Auxiliary)的縮寫,以便與主要用於貨物運送的武裝貨物運輸艦(AKA)做區隔。為了能迅速地自海上將兵員送到陸地上,武裝運輸艦大都設置有大型的 吊艇柱 ( 英语 : davit ) ,可利用收納在甲板或艦橋旁的登陸艇將人員放置到海面上。部分APA甚至有輕型的裝甲或配備有小型的對空對海兩用砲。

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Watch the video: Wayne S01E04 (January 2022).