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Moche Civilization Timeline

Moche Civilization Timeline


Moche is a Inti Quechua native tribe located in the Chimor and Huanuco areas, Peru region, of the South America continent existing at the start of the 'Pre-Roman-Parthian War' era. Present, with cores, at the beginning of the starting year of 2, the tribe will border fellow Inti countries ( Nazca southeast), uncolonized native land north and east and the waters of the Guayaguil Bay and the Coast of Peru (Sea of Grau area, Pacific South America region).

Moche , losing its cores, will be replaced with Inti Huari at the start of the year 500, and will never appear on the map for the rest of the timeline.


Wednesday, December 29, 2010

Mesopotamia Religious spirit.

Mesopotamia , the cradle of civilisation, was a hot spot of human activity five thousand years ago.

Nurtured by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, the lands of Sumer and Akkad bloomed with fertile thought. It was Sumertime and the living was easy - with plenty of spare time to doodle with amazing inventions such as commerce, writing and politics.


Of course, this new-fangled writing did have its downside. For the first time in human history, intelligent people could earn a living by making little squiggles on pieces of paper instead of chasing animals across the landscape. Which soon led to the rise of Accountants, Lawyers. and Bureaucracy. (The world's first rule book was written by King Hammurabi, who explained in detail exactly what part of you would be cut off if you misbehaved.)

But writing also gave us literature the world's first novel was written in Mesopotamia. It's called The Epic Of Gilgamesh and, no, it's not a murder mystery. In fact it's a roller-coaster adventure with the Gods, containing fantasy, love, bloodshed and allegorical insights into the human condition. It was first produced in clay tablet form - we had to wait several thousand years for the paperback edition.

Many Mesopotamian Gods have Sumerian and Akkadian variations. They're virtually identical, but with cunning changes of name. For example, TAMMUZ is the Akkadian equivalent of DUMUZI. (This can become confusing is that one God or two? For the purposes of Godchecker we've tended to treat them separately.) Things became a little easier when the two regions joined together to form Babylonia. At least until the Tower of Babel came along and confused it all again.

Longshan Culture

Longshan Culture that were produced in the late period of the Neolithic Age (2900 BC to 2100 BC) can be found in the old town of Longshan, in the city of Zhangqiu which is located in Shangdong Province. Its influence can be found in the middle and lower areas of the Yellow River Valley flowing thru Shandong, Henan, Shaanxi, and Shanxi Provinces . Artifacts from the Longshan Culture are characterized with the applications of both copper and stone.


Compared with the Yangshao Culture , farming techniques in agriculture and the raising of livestock have greatly improved in the Longshan Culture. Farmers from the Longshan Culture planted millet as the main crop, and raised pigs, dogs, sheep and cattle. They also made great advancements in the area of tool making, and were able to create many tools made of stone that would include stone knives used to drill holes, as well as stone reaping hooks, and stone shovels to name just a few of their more common tools.

The Longshan Culture also made great advancements in the area of pottery making, with black pottery being one of the more striking examples of this remarkable culture. Pottery was made using techniques that enabled the artisans of the Langshan Culture to produce large numbers of pieces while at the same time maintaining a sense of quality. Some of the walls of the pottery were as thin as eggshells with surfaces that were quite bright. Some of the more common pieces produced were bowls, basins, jars, urns and a variety of cooking vessels. Nowadays, the black pottery that was and continues to be produced have been regarded as works of art, and are appreciated and sought after by many people.

In architecture, the rectangular earth-platform pattern buildings were set up during that time which can be seen in the remains of the Longshan Culture found in Shangdong Province. The earth platforms were constructed by a technique known as 'rammed earth' that came into being during the Shang Dynasty (16th B.C-11th B.C.) . In recent years, at least ten of these kinds of platforms have been found with seven of them closely situated in a group in Shandong Province.


The Longshan Culture also had some rather interesting customs when it came to burying their dead family members in a cemetery that was usually separated from the area where they actually lived. It was common for one person to be buried in a rectangle pit, while occasionally a few would be buried together in a single pit. Children, as those of the Bampo Culture period would be put into urns before being buried. Bones used for predicting one's fortune, and made from the bones of sheep, pigs, deer and cow have been found in the graves from that period. With this in mind it is believed that the custom of augury or divination may have been popular and practiced.

With the development of social productivity, women's dominate place in the Longshan Culture began to give way to men as they began to play more important roles in farming and the developing handicrafts industry. Family life based on the principle of monogamy was established, and at the same time polarization between the rich and poor also began to gradually appear. With the advancements being made in so many areas of the society, the Longshan Culture like so many other cultures was subjected to changes that needed to be made in order to continue its remarkable development.


Ancient Civilizations of Peru

The first Peruvians, organized in bands and clans, were hunters and gatherers. The hunting of South American Camelids in the high Andean zones (especially Guanacos) and the fishing and collection of seafood on the coast of the Pacific Ocean (taking advantage of the biological richness of the Humboldt Current) were their primary economic activities. They also made tools of carved stone.
The progressive discovery of agriculture (Archaic Period) permitted a more and more sedentary economy. The agricultural cycles, dominated by astronomer-priests, endowed these priests with great power. Because of this, it is believed that the first complex organizations were of a theocratic type. The first temples arise in the central and north-central coast, and in the central mountain range. With them, the Andean Civilization begins.

Origins of the Peruvian Culture

Peruvian culture is a great mix of components from distinct ethnic groups which inhabited and inhabit what is currently the territory of Peru, the most important are the aboriginal and Creole or Spanish block, followed by the Afro-Peruvian and Asiatic blocks and in smaller measure the Italo-Peruvian, all this is encouraged by the three main natural regions, that is to say the coast, the jungle, and the mountains. It is because of this that the Peruvian culture is considered a Mestiza culture and this is amply demonstrated in its gastronomy which is recognized for its variety of dishes, drinks, and desserts, and the dances like the Marinera, the Festejo, the Tondero, the Huayno, the Huaylas, the Wititi, the Diablada, and the Huayruros among others.

Early Regional Cultures

Towards the year 200 B.C. civilization has evolved to more complex political forms. Agriculture becomes extensive, constructing great irrigation systems over the deserts of the north and central coast and ingenious subterranean aqueducts on the south coast. The societies of the Moche, Nazca, Recuay, Cajamarca, Vicus, Lima and Tiahuanaco (with its capital in a great ceremonial center of the same name in northern Bolivia) are the most known and successful of this period. The majority of them seem to have been ruled by sophisticated warrior-elites who supported the production of artistic objects of great quality, which are considered some of the most important works of Pre-Columbian American art (especially the Moche, Nazca, and Recuay pottery the Nazca textiles, the Moche jewelry, and the Tiahuanacan stone art).

Candelabro de Paracas – Ancient Peru

List of the main early Peruvian cultures where the history is seen from start to finish.

  • Chavín Culture
  • Paracas Culture
  • Pucara Culture
  • Nazca Culture
  • Mochica Culture
  • Recuay Culture
  • Cajamarca Culture
  • Vicús Culture
  • Lima Culture
  • Tiahuanaco Culture
  • Chimu Culture
  • Huari Culture
  • Chincha Culture
  • Chancas Culture
  • Chancay Culture
  • Lambayeque Culture
  • Chachapoya Culture

About the most Ancient Cultures of Peru

Cupisnique Culture (900 B.C. – 200 B.C.)

The Cupisnique culture of the north coast of Peru extends from Virú to Lambayeque. It has to do with a coastal culture contemporaneous to the Chavín culture and which precedes the Moche culture. This culture is located in the region of La Libertad, 600 km to the north of the city of Lima, although it is not known with certainty which was its main center. Various vestiges of this culture exist, which extend along the north coast of the country and reach as far as the region of Piura. The Cupisnique ceramics show anthropomorphic, zoomorphic and phytomorphic figures. In sculpture, their sculpted heads worked in relief represent feline heads. They would constitute a version of the Chavín nailed heads.

Chavín Culture (1000 B.C. – 200 B.C.)

The Chavín culture develops starting from the ceremonial center of Chavín de Huántar, in the mountains of the region of Ancash. Chavín is 300 km to the north of the city of Lima. It is one of the most important and ancient cultures of the Pre-Inca past. This culture is based on agriculture and develops textile making, pottery, metallurgy, and works in stone. It is considered the “Womb of Andean civilization” it extended from Lambayeque to Palpa (Ica) on the coast and from Cajamarca to Ayacucho in the mountains. In the Chavín Temple sculptures are found nailed to the walls with the form of human heads, a mix of feline and man. The Chavín Culture achieved a great mastery of stone, recording, and sculpting anthropomorphic and zoomorphic figures. On the other hand, their ceramics are of a dark gray color, with a tendency to equal the color of the stone (monochrome: only one color), in globular form (round), stirrup-necked with only one mouth and decorations of felines like the jaguar.

Paracas Culture (400 B.C.– 200 A.D.)

The Paracas culture developed during the period denominated the Early Horizon. It was discovered by the archaeologist Julio C. Tello, who, on finding the site of Cabezas Largas, believed he had discovered the place of origin of the great cultures of the south. Paracas was divided into two periods, “Paracas Cavernas,” and “Paracas Necropolis.” Studies later than those of Tello demonstrated that the development of this culture had been longer and more complex. In the second phase of Paracas, we can find villages, one of them in the area of Cerro Colorado, and the other in Arenas Blancas. Paracas was the antecedent of the Nazca culture, which developed years later in that area. The men of Paracas dedicated themselves to hunting, fishing and fledgling agriculture (Lima beans, cotton, and corn). They are famous for their fine cloaks, funerary bundles, and cranial trepanations. Paracas was a local civilization of solid southern tradition. Its influence extended from Cañete in the North to the valley of Yauca in Arequipa to the South. Its main center could be the site of Peña de Tajahuana, in the Ica Valley, 300 km to the south of the city of Lima.

Vicús Culture (100 B.C. – 400 A.D.)

The Vicús culture or style occupied the zone of Alto Piura, in the north of Peru, 1050 km to the north of the city of Lima and was discovered by clandestine excavators (“grave robbers”), at the end of the decade of the 1950s, in the area of Frías, in the province of Ayabaca. In the following decade, studies done in the area of Cerro Vicús were able to locate the most extensive cemetery of this style. It is calculated that during the years in which it was clandestinely exploited more than two thousand tombs would have been profaned, whose contents, more than 40 thousand specimens would have passed for the most part into collections in foreign countries. Its ceramics are characterized by their solid and rustic appearance, as well as their realistic sculptural tendency. The metal objects in the Vicús style have very particular characteristics, as they utilized techniques for working with gold, whose area of diffusion corresponds to the basin of Alto Piura.

Moche Culture (0 – 600 A.D.)

It is the most known and admired culture of ancient Peru, having developed during the period considered the Early Intermediate. Towards the year 200 of our time, the dominion of Moche arose on the north coast, which lasted until the year 600, centering itself around the valleys of Moche and Chicama, where great ceremonial centers are found in addition to vast works of irrigation. Its origins are found in the formative cultures of the region, like those of the Jequetepeque river valley. In textiles, their techniques were varied and in addition to that mentioned before they also utilized twilled fabric, double fabric, and gauze. In other areas, the Mochica ceramics were basically dichromatic (red on cream), unusually of an orange color, and very few in smoky transparent black. The most representative are their Huaco portrait vessel sculpted ceramics, which according to the investigator Anne Marie Hocquenghem are real portraits of individuals or representations of characters with precise functions. On the other hand, regarding metallurgy, the origin of the raw materials used by the Moche is unknown however, it is estimated that the gold and silver were exploited from alluvial deposits and from the ore bodies of the region. The inhabitants of the coast were expert metallurgists, having developed techniques like metal beating, hammering, and soldering. In addition to laminating and soldering the metal, they discovered how to solder and inlay it.

Cajamarca Culture (200 A.D. – 1300 A.D.)

In 1948, the investigator Henry Reichlin divided the Cajamarca culture into five stages, according to the influence they held, from Chavín to the Incas. The first phase of Cajamarca happened during the Early Intermediate, located in the Chondorko hills, near the Baños del Inca in Cajamarca. It dealt with a type of association of independent states, which maintained economic relationships with neighboring cultures, like Lambayeque and Chimú. The following phases of the Cajamarca culture had influence from the Wari and the Incas. The territory of Cajamarca covered three large areas: the high basin and the valleys of Chancay, Lambayeque, Chayama, and Chotano. The Pre-Inca center of Cajamarca was located in the area occupied today by the provinces of Cutervo, Chota, Santa Cruz, Hualgayoc, San Miguel, Celendín, Contumazá, San Pablo, San Marcos, Cajabamba and Cajamarca, in the region of Cajamarca and in Huamachuco and Otuzco in the region of La Libertad. Regarding architecture, six distinct types of settlements in Cajamarca have been recognized. The prototype of the settlements of the Cajamarca culture is Cerro Nivel, located in the Pampa de la Culebra, 13 kilometers from the city of Cajamarca. The central part of this site is composed of united groups of enclosed fields, built on terraces. In another area, their ceramics were one of the most significant elements of the material culture of the men of Cajamarca. The changes in their artistic tendencies can be inferred from the changing political situations, which affected the makers just as much as the users. The Cajamarca vessels have decorations of geometric figures, with a rounded base, colored black, red, and white over an orange base, or over the natural background of the clay.

Nazca Culture (0 – 800 A.D.)

This local culture emerged as a process of continuation of the Paracas tradition. It began around the first years after Christ and continued in an independent form for approximately 800 years, the time when it received the Huari influence Kawachi was the capital of the Nazca society, located 49 km from the current city of Nazca in the basin of the Rio Grande and 500 km to the south of Lima. The most amazing thing about the Nazca are the lines and figures which were discovered in 1926 by Toribio Mejía Xesspe, a disciple of Julio C. Tello, and later rediscovered by the anthropologist Paúl Kosok in 1939, which are found located in the pampas of San Jose de Socos, between kilometers 419 and 465 of the southern Pan-American highway in an extension of 500 square kilometers it is speculated that it had to do with an enormous calendar-observatory constructed in a period of 800 years to mark the solstices and the equinoxes. In other areas, their textiles maintain the Paracas style, they kept making embroidered cloaks the materials employed are cotton and wool. With respect to their ceramics, they were finely developed and very well decorated, characterized mainly by being polychromatic (the use of various colors). They utilized up to 8 colors with a predominance of ocher, Indian Red, yellow ocher, black and dark gray. The Nazca worked primarily with gold. The most common technique was hammered and cut gold utilized to make garments for important characters and priests. Later on, they used copper and the technique of casting.

Tiwanaku Culture (100 A.D. – 1000 A.D.)

The Tiwanaku or Tiahuanaco culture is found in the high Bolivian plane or the Collao mesa, a territory of great altitude, from 3800 to 4000 meters above sea-level. It has to do with a culture which developed in a rugged territory, where the climatic conditions are extremely tough. Agriculture is restricted to the most restricted tubers however, investigations have demonstrated that the Tiwanaku culture formed a powerful state, as in the center of Tiwanaku, near Lake Titicaca, more than 4 square kilometers of domestic remains have been found, which suggests that there were between 20 and 40 thousand inhabitants. The architectural complex of Tiwanaku is located 20 kilometers to the south of Lake Titicaca. It is an urban center composed of administrative and religious buildings which surround semi-sunk plazas and platforms. At the center of this complex is found the building of Kalasasaya. Other buildings are the Semi-subterranean Pavilion, Keri Cala, Putuni, Laka Kollu and the pyramids Akapana, Pumapunku and Wila Pukara, which served as residences for the priestly elite. In other matters the Tiwanaku style of ceramic presents symmetric details, it is realistic and has a combination of the colors black, ocher, red, white and gray. The most common type of vessel is the “kero,” decorated on one of the sides with a face of apparently human form, presented in bas-relief.


Moche Civilization Timeline - History

245 -66 million years ago Dinosaur Age or Mesozoic Age

60 million years ago Africa formed from tectonic movement out of Gondwanaland
7-5 million years ago Homonines (hominidae--modern humans are the only surviver and members) line diverge from gorillas and chimpanzees

245 -66 million years ago
Dinosaur Age or Mesozoic Age

160,000 Bouri and Omo Kibish (Ethiopia) are the earliest site of Early Modern humans (EMH)

40,000 Denisovians extinct

35,000 neanderthals extinct

16,000 Khoisan linguistic family 60,000 to 50,000 BP(Before Present) Modern humans leave Africa to populate the world

40,000 Denisovians extinct

40,000 Denisovians extinct

10,000 bp cassava domesticated in Brazil


12,700-10,900 BCE expansion of the three major linguistic group--Afroasiatic, Niger-Congo , and Nilo-Saharan -Sahara is wet, green, and occupied by lakes 10,000 wheat domesticated

6000 Proto-Indo European in Anatolia or 4,000 BC in Pontic-Caspian steppe

2100 Ziggurat of Ur built

c. 1900 Tichitt Civilization stone towns founded
1700-1550
Classic Kerma
1800 Bantu Expansion reaches Gabon
1700-1601 building of the Deffufa
1650 Kerma gains control of Lower Nubia, rules Upper/Lower Nubia 1900 Wadi el-Hol Inscriptions developed from hieroglyphs
1782-1574 Second Intermediate Period
1700
Hyksos invasion and rule of Delta, Lower Egypt-Horse, chariot , bronze


1766-1050 Shang Dynasty
1766-Chinese writing

1600-1200 Mycenaean Civilization in the Mediterranean

1500-1000 Late Minoan
1500 BC-1401 BC Linear A Script

1400 Mycenaean
Civilization becomes dominant in Aegean

1500 Hittite Empire,
iron working discovered

800 Etruscan Civilization in the Mediterranean

753 Rome founded

760 Kashta receives mandate from the Priestess of Amun to conquer Egypt
747-716 Piye conquers upper Egypt
716-702 Shabaqo conquers all of Egypt, 25th Dynasty
700-500 Kingdom of Damot founded
700-400 Pre-Aksumite
300-201 Rise of Aksum as most important Ethiopian state, demise of Damot
700-500 Ge'ez Abugida Script 883-859 Neo-Assyrian Empire
(Afroasiatic-semitic)

218 Hannibal crosses the Alps amassing numerous victories against Rome
146 Carthage defeated in Punic Wars, becomes Roman province of Africa
10 0 Camels being used increasingly in trans-Saharan trade

200 Meroitic Abugida Script, Nubians cease using Hieroglyphic Script
50-150 Early Aksumite
31 Rome captures Egypt in Battle of Actium, Egypt Roman province
24 bc Kushite military lead by Kandake Amanirenas defeats Roman military at Aswan, Philae, and Elephantine initiating stalemate war with Rome to 21 bc
21 bc Kandake Amanirenas makes treaty with Roman Emperor Augustus, favorable to Kushite Meroitic Kingdom in trade and political concession 221-642 Sasaniad Period of Persia

221-206 compass invented in China

206-8 Han Dynasty-

According to Chinese scholars, Han Dynasty in contact with Kush and Axum

193-211 Septimius Severus-Berber Roman emperor

217-218 Marcus Opellius Macrinus, Berber Roman Emperor

324-337 Reign of Emperor Constantine
(Unified Rome)

312 Constantine of Rome converts to Christianity

392 Christianity official Roman Religion

450 Germanic tribes Jutes, Angles, Saxons invade England, beginning of the English

105 Ts´ai Lun invents paper

200 Kushan Kingdom ends

320 Gupta Kingdom

600-1200 Islamic Golden Age of Science

800s First record of written Dutch(Old Franconian), Laws of the Salic Franks, Psalms

800s First record of written Portuguese

842 AD First record of written French Strasbourg Oaths

1000 First record of written Spanish Glosas Emilianenses

1000-1300 High Middle Ages

800-1400 Building of Benin Walls
900 Igbo-Ukwu brass making
969-1171 Fatimid Caliphate
999 Sarki (king) Bogoda becomes first king of Kano 869 Zanj Rebellion

869 Zanj Rebellion spread to west Iran, town of Ahwaz captured

1095-1099 First Crusade 800s chinese gunpowder

960-1279 Song Dynasty

900s increased African trade with China, Chinese artifact dot African east coast, slaves, rhinoceros horns, exported

1066 Norman conquest of England

1150s Geomancy introduce to Spain by Hugo of Santalla from Arabs,based on African sand divination

1237 Mongols invade Russia

1300-1500 Later Middle Ages

1337-1453 Hundred Years War came to an end

1270 Seventh Crusade and last

1100s African slaves being imported in the ports of southern India--the Deccan etc.

1127-1279 Southern Song Dynasty

1206 Ghengis Khan comes to power

1221 Invasion of northern India by Mongols

1236-1240 Jamal al-Din Yaqut, a royal courtier in the kingdom of Delhi, favorite of Queen Radiyya

1279 Mongols conquer China, Kublai Khan, Yuan Dynasty

1415 Admiral Zhen He visits the Sultan of Kilwa, increase chinese trade with East African coast under Ming Dynasty

1519 Magellan´s expedition
around the world--completed in 1522--18 survivors from 260, one ship from five

1520 Martin Luther's ideas take off, Protestant Reformation

1648 Treaty of Westphalia, French ascendancy in Europe and Spanish decline

1687 Newton´s Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica

1595 black eunuch is administrator for Medina/Mecca mosque under Ottoman control

1600 Malik Ambar comes to power in the Deccan--Ahmadnagar Sultanate

1603-1867 Tokugawa Shogunate

1620-1825 Siddis rule Kingdom of Janjira

1701-1800 6.5 mil Africans shipped across, mainly English ships

1704 Abram Hannibal sold to czar Peter the Great

1760 the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in Britain

1769 steam engine invented

1861 Gatlin Gun invented-US

1865 13th Amendment ends slavery in all USA territory

1883 Maxim Gun invented -USA

1888 Golden Law ends slavery in Brazil

1801 Achard opens first sugar beet refinery in Prussia

1802 Napoleon absolute ruler of France

1833 British Emancipation Act, ends slavery

1837-1901 Reign of Queen Victoria in Britain

1848 Slavery abolished, finally, in all French territories

1859 Charles Darwin publishes the Origins of Species

1863 Netherlands bans slavery in all her territories

1870s Social Darwinism spreads throughout Europe, North America, and Latin America

1870 Moret Law ends slavery in Spain & colony(Cuba, PR)

1877 Portugal ends slavery

1878 Germany becomes the largest producer of sugar in the world

1884 Berlin Conference, Scramble for Africa


Wednesday, December 29, 2010

Mesopotamia Religious spirit.

Mesopotamia , the cradle of civilisation, was a hot spot of human activity five thousand years ago.

Nurtured by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, the lands of Sumer and Akkad bloomed with fertile thought. It was Sumertime and the living was easy - with plenty of spare time to doodle with amazing inventions such as commerce, writing and politics.


Of course, this new-fangled writing did have its downside. For the first time in human history, intelligent people could earn a living by making little squiggles on pieces of paper instead of chasing animals across the landscape. Which soon led to the rise of Accountants, Lawyers. and Bureaucracy. (The world's first rule book was written by King Hammurabi, who explained in detail exactly what part of you would be cut off if you misbehaved.)

But writing also gave us literature the world's first novel was written in Mesopotamia. It's called The Epic Of Gilgamesh and, no, it's not a murder mystery. In fact it's a roller-coaster adventure with the Gods, containing fantasy, love, bloodshed and allegorical insights into the human condition. It was first produced in clay tablet form - we had to wait several thousand years for the paperback edition.

Many Mesopotamian Gods have Sumerian and Akkadian variations. They're virtually identical, but with cunning changes of name. For example, TAMMUZ is the Akkadian equivalent of DUMUZI. (This can become confusing is that one God or two? For the purposes of Godchecker we've tended to treat them separately.) Things became a little easier when the two regions joined together to form Babylonia. At least until the Tower of Babel came along and confused it all again.

Longshan Culture

Longshan Culture that were produced in the late period of the Neolithic Age (2900 BC to 2100 BC) can be found in the old town of Longshan, in the city of Zhangqiu which is located in Shangdong Province. Its influence can be found in the middle and lower areas of the Yellow River Valley flowing thru Shandong, Henan, Shaanxi, and Shanxi Provinces . Artifacts from the Longshan Culture are characterized with the applications of both copper and stone.


Compared with the Yangshao Culture , farming techniques in agriculture and the raising of livestock have greatly improved in the Longshan Culture. Farmers from the Longshan Culture planted millet as the main crop, and raised pigs, dogs, sheep and cattle. They also made great advancements in the area of tool making, and were able to create many tools made of stone that would include stone knives used to drill holes, as well as stone reaping hooks, and stone shovels to name just a few of their more common tools.

The Longshan Culture also made great advancements in the area of pottery making, with black pottery being one of the more striking examples of this remarkable culture. Pottery was made using techniques that enabled the artisans of the Langshan Culture to produce large numbers of pieces while at the same time maintaining a sense of quality. Some of the walls of the pottery were as thin as eggshells with surfaces that were quite bright. Some of the more common pieces produced were bowls, basins, jars, urns and a variety of cooking vessels. Nowadays, the black pottery that was and continues to be produced have been regarded as works of art, and are appreciated and sought after by many people.

In architecture, the rectangular earth-platform pattern buildings were set up during that time which can be seen in the remains of the Longshan Culture found in Shangdong Province. The earth platforms were constructed by a technique known as 'rammed earth' that came into being during the Shang Dynasty (16th B.C-11th B.C.) . In recent years, at least ten of these kinds of platforms have been found with seven of them closely situated in a group in Shandong Province.


The Longshan Culture also had some rather interesting customs when it came to burying their dead family members in a cemetery that was usually separated from the area where they actually lived. It was common for one person to be buried in a rectangle pit, while occasionally a few would be buried together in a single pit. Children, as those of the Bampo Culture period would be put into urns before being buried. Bones used for predicting one's fortune, and made from the bones of sheep, pigs, deer and cow have been found in the graves from that period. With this in mind it is believed that the custom of augury or divination may have been popular and practiced.

With the development of social productivity, women's dominate place in the Longshan Culture began to give way to men as they began to play more important roles in farming and the developing handicrafts industry. Family life based on the principle of monogamy was established, and at the same time polarization between the rich and poor also began to gradually appear. With the advancements being made in so many areas of the society, the Longshan Culture like so many other cultures was subjected to changes that needed to be made in order to continue its remarkable development.


Chavin Archaeological Complex

One of the oldest pre-Inca cultures in Peru, the Chavín people lived in the northern Andean highlands from approximately 900 B.C. to around 200 B.C., with their influence spreading to the northern coastal-dwelling populations too.

They were adept metalworkers, capable of producing some rather fine gold pieces, as well as growing potatoes, quinoa and corn and rearing llamas both for their meat and wool. They were also responsible for coming up with ch’arki – dried, salted meat (in their case llama), which would later gain fame as “jerky.”

If you are keen to learn more about the Chavín people during your luxury trip to Peru, then head for the UNESCO-listed Chavín de Huantar, a ceremonial center dating back to around 900 B.C. Kuoda can arrange for your very own personal guide to show you around the site, which is located around 155 miles north of Lima.


Moche warrior pot

  1. Pot in the form of a kneeling warrior from the Moche civilisation in Peru. Copyright Trustees of the British Museum
  2. More pots from Peru. Copyright Trustees of the British Museum
  3. Pyramids at Sipan, where Moche culture officals are entombed. Photo: Bill Ballenberg/ Time Life Pictures/ Getty Images
  4. Map showing where this object was found. Copyright Trustees of the British Museum

This pot was made in Peru by the Moche. It shows a kneeling Moche warrior holding a club in one hand and a shield in the other. Warfare, warriors and prisoners are a recurring theme in Moche art. They testify to the violent, inter-valley rivalries that frequently occurred over agricultural land. Skeletal evidence reveals injuries sustained by blows from clubs as part of active war service. The pots themselves seem to have served as symbolic tomb guardians, as they are frequently found in high-status burials

The Moche were one of the first South American cultures to develop a state structure. Peru's coastline provided them with a rich and nutritious diet that was able to support a dense population. The Moche were skilled builders, constructing irrigation canals, pyramids and palaces. They also mass-produced hundreds of pots, like this one, depicting the different ranks of Moche society. The Moche kingdom came to an end as a result of climatic changes and drought.

In 1997 skeletons of five Moche men were found, all over six feet tall. A foot taller than the Moche average, they were named Moche giants

Finding the future in the past

The first time I visited the work of del Luna – and the work of del la Sol – was in 1978, and back then the work of del Luna was a mound, eroded mud bricks, and in the middle of that you had thousands of potholes and indeed people were still looting by day at the site trying to find the tombs and extracting the parts they could sell and so forth to tourists.

Now, today, the work of del Luna has changed completely you see part of the city, the work of del Luna is open to tourism, and there are numerous, gorgeous murals inside the building. When you get there, there is a new museum being built at the foot of the temple itself. People are still excavating there and will be excavating probably after we are long gone and your children as well probably – for another 100 years at least.

I think one of the fascinating things I am looking at when I look at Peru today is that they are in fact in the process of doing what also happened in Mexico, perhaps in Egypt, and eventually I would believe China, where these countries that have a great ancient past build their identity through this past and it becomes part of their present.

So the past of Peru will be its future, and eventually the Moche will become a name just as much as the Maya or the Inca or the Aztec for that matter. Eventually it will become part of the world legacy. I think this is a great thing and the work of del Luna is part of this process.

The first time I visited the work of del Luna – and the work of del la Sol – was in 1978, and back then the work of del Luna was a mound, eroded mud bricks, and in the middle of that you had thousands of potholes and indeed people were still looting by day at the site trying to find the tombs and extracting the parts they could sell and so forth to tourists.

Now, today, the work of del Luna has changed completely you see part of the city, the work of del Luna is open to tourism, and there are numerous, gorgeous murals inside the building. When you get there, there is a new museum being built at the foot of the temple itself. People are still excavating there and will be excavating probably after we are long gone and your children as well probably – for another 100 years at least.

I think one of the fascinating things I am looking at when I look at Peru today is that they are in fact in the process of doing what also happened in Mexico, perhaps in Egypt, and eventually I would believe China, where these countries that have a great ancient past build their identity through this past and it becomes part of their present.

So the past of Peru will be its future, and eventually the Moche will become a name just as much as the Maya or the Inca or the Aztec for that matter. Eventually it will become part of the world legacy. I think this is a great thing and the work of del Luna is part of this process.

Steve Bourget, Department of Art and Art History, University of Texas at Austin

Discovering the Moche

We excavated this sacrificial site which included about 75 male warriors sacrificed during various rituals, and we also found the tombs of two ‘sacrificers’. One of the tombs also included a wooden club covered with human blood. So we had indeed the smoking gun and also the victims themselves side by side within the temples – so it was a great discovery.

The ceramic of the British Museum that portrays a magnificent warrior dates from around 500 – 550 years AD and represents one of these ritual warriors: in the pose of a warrior with a conical helmet, with a shield around its arm and all that so he is literally prepared to enter into this duel which eventually led to the defeat of one of these warriors, and this warrior is eventually sacrificed within the temple.

The information that we have retrieved from the site is impressive: first we found that these were male warriors aged between 18 to more or less 39 years of age. They had a lot of ancient injuries consistent with battles but they also had a lot of fresh injuries consistent with having fought and perhaps lost their last encounter.

And then we have a plethora of sacrificial acts on the human remains themselves - on the bones - a lot of cut marks on the throats, on the arms and on the faces indicating that most of them have had their throat cut with a special knife, a kind of mys-spheric blade made of copper. A few of them had the skin of their face removed, arms separated from their bodies and some of them were de-fleshed completely and transformed into skeletons – even in one case in one part of the work of del Luna one of my colleagues discovered two human heads transformed into some kind of container.

We excavated this sacrificial site which included about 75 male warriors sacrificed during various rituals, and we also found the tombs of two ‘sacrificers’. One of the tombs also included a wooden club covered with human blood. So we had indeed the smoking gun and also the victims themselves side by side within the temples – so it was a great discovery.

The ceramic of the British Museum that portrays a magnificent warrior dates from around 500 – 550 years AD and represents one of these ritual warriors: in the pose of a warrior with a conical helmet, with a shield around its arm and all that so he is literally prepared to enter into this duel which eventually led to the defeat of one of these warriors, and this warrior is eventually sacrificed within the temple.

The information that we have retrieved from the site is impressive: first we found that these were male warriors aged between 18 to more or less 39 years of age. They had a lot of ancient injuries consistent with battles but they also had a lot of fresh injuries consistent with having fought and perhaps lost their last encounter.

And then we have a plethora of sacrificial acts on the human remains themselves - on the bones - a lot of cut marks on the throats, on the arms and on the faces indicating that most of them have had their throat cut with a special knife, a kind of mys-spheric blade made of copper. A few of them had the skin of their face removed, arms separated from their bodies and some of them were de-fleshed completely and transformed into skeletons – even in one case in one part of the work of del Luna one of my colleagues discovered two human heads transformed into some kind of container.

Steve Bourget, Department of Art and Art History, University of Texas at Austin

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The Inca were fond of gold and silver and used it for ornaments and for decorating their temples and palaces, as well as for personal jewelry. The Inca also practiced basic mining. As the Andes Mountains are rich in minerals, the Incans accumulated a great deal of gold and silver by the time the Spaniards arrived

Few criminals are able to make a successful living out of bank robbery over the long run. Bank robberies are still fairly common and are indeed successful, although eventually many bank robbers are found and arrested.


Cultures

In the game, cultures are divided into groups. Every province has one dominant culture, and every country has a primary culture with at least one accepted culture. Each culture has its name in the game files written beneath in italics, and the two may not be the same (Egyptian Arab and al_misr_arabic).

Colonial Cultures

Colonial cultures with generic names (like "Basque Californian") with simply be displayed as "[Culture Group] [Region]", though not every culture group has all colonial cultures. Unique colonial culture names will be displayed separately (examples being Mexican and Brazilian of the Iberian culture group, and Canadian and Australian of the British culture group).

Primary Nations

Many cultures also have a Primary Nation, which is a nation that will never lose its core as long as the province culture does not change.

For example,  Tibet is the primary nation of ​Tibetan, and it owns the core province ​ ​Shigatse in the year 58 A.D. Even if  Limbuwan conquers Shigatse, Tibet will never lose its core there, even if the nation has been fully annexed. However, if the culture of ​Shigatse changes, Tibet will lose its core eventually.

  • If the new culture is in the same culture group as ​Tibetan (e.g. Qiang),  Tibet will lose its core in 300 years.
  • If the new culture is not in the same culture group as ​Tibetan (e.g. Kochi),  Tibet will lose its core in just 100 years.


Zhangzhung is also of the Tibetan culture, but since it is not the primary nation, it does not enjoy the same bonus as  Tibet if its provinces are conquered.

Some primary nations may have a different primary culture. The primary nation of Northern Bantu is  Cameroon, but its primary culture is ​Sawabantu. These nations have been marked with a star (⋆) next to their names.

Some nations are the primary nations of multiple cultures. For example,  Najd is the primary nation of both Bedouin and Nabataean.

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Watch the video: Who Created Ancient Megalithic Structures In Mexico Before Any Known Culture? (January 2022).