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Wine used in Ritual Ceremonies 5000 Years Ago in Georgia, the Cradle of Viticulture

Wine used in Ritual Ceremonies 5000 Years Ago in Georgia, the Cradle of Viticulture

A Georgian-Italian archaeological expedition has discovered vine pollen in a zoomorphic vessel used in ritual ceremonies by the Kura-Araxes population.

In the archeological site of Aradetis Orgora, 100 kilometers to the west of the Georgian capital Tbilisi, Ca' Foscari's expedition led by Elena Rova (Ca' Foscari University of Venice) and Iulon Gagoshidze (Georgian National Museum Tbilisi) has discovered traces of wine inside an animal-shaped ceramic vessel (circa 3,000 BC), probably used for cultic activities.

View of the Aradetis Orgora (Dedoplis Gora) mound. Credit: Georgian-Italian Shida Kartli Archaeological Project .

The vessel has an animal-shaped body with three small feet and a pouring hole on the back. The head is missing. It was found, together with a second similar vessel and a Kura-Araxes jar, on the burnt floor of a large rectangular area with rounded corners, arguably a sort of shrine used for cultic activities. Results of radiometric (C14) analyses confirm that the finds date to circa 3000-2900 BC Both zoomorphic vessels are an unicum in the region.

The vessel, examined by palynologist Eliso Kvavadze, contains numerous well-preserved grains of pollen of Vitis vinifera (common grape vine), which shows wine's strategic role in the Kura-Araxes culture for ritual libations.

A pillared portico at Aradetis Orgora. Credit: Georgian-Italian Shida Kartli Archaeological Project .

According to professor Rova, this is a significant discovery, "because the context of discovery suggests that wine was drawn from the jar and offered to the gods or commonly consumed by the participants to the ceremony."

It's a key-finding for Georgia, where grapewine has been cultivated since the Neolithic period. Now the Georgian wine culture has been dated back to the Kura-Araxes period, more than 5,000 years ago and is still continuing: in the course of traditional Georgian banquets, the supra, wine is consumed from vessels derived from animal horns in the context of elaborated ritual toasts.

An example of a drinking horn, 16 th century.

The Kura-Araxes culture (second half of the fourth and first half of the third millennium BC) is the only prehistoric culture of the Southern Caucasus which spread over large areas of the Near East, reaching Iran and the Syro- Palestinian region.

Started in 2013, in only three years Ca' Foscari archeological excavations have achieved this impressive result, thanks also to the support of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 27 researchers and students from both countries and some local collaborators took part in 2015 campaign season, when the Kura-Araxes vessels were unearthed. The 2016 season will take place from June 17 until July 31.


Georgian wine

Georgia is one of the oldest wine regions in the world. The fertile valleys and protective slopes of the Transcaucasia were home to grapevine cultivation and neolithic wine production (Georgian: ღვინო , ɣvino) for at least 8000 years. [1] [2] [3] [4] Due to the many millennia of wine in Georgian history and its prominent economic role, the traditions of wine are considered entwined with and inseparable from the national identity. [1]

Among the best-known Georgian wine regions are Kakheti (further divided into the micro-regions of Telavi and Kvareli), Kartli, Imereti, Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, Adjara and Abkhazia.

In 2013, UNESCO added the ancient traditional Georgian winemaking method using the Kvevri clay jars to the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists. [5]


Associations among Wine Grape Microbiome, Metabolome, and Fermentation Behavior Suggest Microbial Contribution to Regional Wine Characteristics
http://mbio.asm.org/content/7/3/e00631-16

Microbial biogeography of wine grapes is conditioned by cultivar, vintage, and climate
http://www.pnas.org/content/111/1/E139.full

Regional microbial signatures positively correlate with differential wine phenotypes: evidence for a microbial aspect to terroir http://www.nature.com/articles/srep14233

Wine enthusiasts may often claim that their favorite bottle has a unique regional flavor, that they can taste the geographic origins of, say, a Cabernet from Napa verses one from the Alexander Valley. There may actually be some truth to this. Recent research has identified the ways that regional microbes contribute to the singular taste of one's favorite wine. Back in 2013, a team of researchers led by David Mills of the University of California, Davis confirmed that grapes grown and harvested in different regions of the world play host to a distinct assemblage of bacteria and fungi, or microbes. This past week, this same team of researchers, in collaboration with two wineries in Oakville, California, published a study in mBio demonstrating that vineyards in the same geographical region also contain unique microbes. After examining grapes grown in the Napa and Sonoma Valleys, Mills and his team discovered that despite physical proximity, each vineyard did indeed host their own signature microbes. Significantly, these studies expand our understanding of terroir, or how a region's climate, soils, terrain, and, now, local organisms affect the taste of wine. [MMB]

The first source links to an NPR article by Carolyn Beans about this recently published study. The second link takes readers to a summary by UC-Davis' Pat Bailey. Bailey notes that Mills' research results may incentivize vineyard owners to employ more environmentally sustainable practices in order to preserve their unique micro-biotic communities. Readers who are interested in perusing the original research papers by Mills and his team can follow the third link to find the full text of this week's mBio publication, or the fourth link to read the team's 2013 publication in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America. Next, readers will find a 2014 article by climatologist Gregory V. Jones about the history and science of terroir and winemaking, highlighting the important role of climate. Until recently, most discussions on terroir centered on aspects such as climate, topography, and geology. Lastly, readers will find a 2015 study published in Nature that details the efforts of New Zealand scientists as they examine regional microbial signatures in wine.


Georgia – Cradle of Wine

Georgia is the cradle of wine and wine making began in the country at least 5,000 years ago. The country in the South Caucasus has an enormous variety in grape species. There are about 500 different kinds, most of them go way back and only grow in Georgia.

There is no argument among specialists that the oldest remains of wine making were found in Georgia.

British newspaper Mirror published an article last year about the discovery in Georgia that proves Georgia is the cradle of wine.

The Mirror says traces of grape pollen from the world's first vineyard were discovered inside an animal-shaped ceramic jar used in ritual ceremonies.

The article also mentions that the jag was dug up at an archaeological site called Aradetis Orgora &ndash 100km west of Georgia&rsquos capital Tbilisi and the pottery dates to around 3,000BC.

The piece also notes the first evidence of domesticated grapes in the form of pips were also unearthed in the southwest of Georgia and date back 6,000 years.

"It means Georgia really was the cradle of viticulture from where the technology spread to the so-called 'Fertile Crescent' of Mesopotamia and the Eastern Mediterranean,&rdquo the article says.

Moreover, according to the newspaper, there was found a second similar vessel and a Kura-Araxes jar on the burnt floor of a large rectangular area with rounded corners - arguably a sort of shrine used for religious activities.

&ldquoScientists used a technique called radiometric (C14) analyses which dates specimens by determining proportions of chemicals to show they go back to 3000-2900 BC,&rdquo the article reads.

Dr Eliso Kvavadze said that the animals on both Georgian vessels could have represented gods and they are a unique discovery in the region.

"The context of discovery suggests wine was drawn from the jar and offered to the gods or commonly consumed by the participants to the ceremony," Professor Elena Rova, of the Ca' Foscari University of Venice, stated after examining the vessels.

The researchers said it's a key-finding for Georgia, where wine culture still continues in the course of traditional banquets called the Supra.


Traces of 5,000 year old grapes from world's first vineyard discovered

Wine making began in the East European country of Georgia at least 5,000 years ago, suggests new research.

Traces of grape pollen from the world&aposs first vineyard have been discovered inside an animal-shaped ceramic jar used in ritual ceremonies.

It was dug up at an archaeological site called Aradetis Orgora - 62 miles (100 km) west of the Georgian capital Tbilisi.

The pottery dates to around 3,000BC and would have been used by an enigmatic village based people called the Kura-Araxes to ferment the fruit.

The discovery adds further weight to Georgia&aposs long-cherished and championed belief that it is the birthplace of wine making.

The first evidence of domesticated grapes in the form of pips have also been unearthed in the south west of the country and date back 6,000 years.

It means Georgia really was the cradle of viticulture from where the technology spread to the so-called &aposFertile Crescent&apos of Mesopotamia and the Eastern Mediterranean.

The vessel has an animal-shaped body with three small feet and a pouring hole on the back. The head is missing.

It was found with a second similar vessel and a Kura-Araxes jar on the burnt floor of a large rectangular area with rounded corners - arguably a sort of shrine used for religious activities.

Scientists used a technique called radiometric (C14) analyses which dates specimens by determining proportions of chemicals to show they go back to 3000-2900 BC.

The vessel was examined at the Georgian Museum of Tblisi by palynologist Dr Eliso Kvavadze.

She found it contains numerous well-preserved grains of pollen of Vitis vinifera - a common grape vine that is still used to make wine today.

Dr Kvavadze said it shows wine&aposs strategic role in the Kura-Araxes culture for ritual libations.

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The ritual pourings would have been offered to a god or spirit or in memory of those who have died.

They were common in many religions of antiquity and continue to be offered in various cultures today.

Various substances have been used for libations - most commonly wine or olive oil, and in India, ghee.

The vessels used in the ritual often had a significant form which differentiated them from secular ones.

The libation could be poured onto something of religious significance, such as an altar, or into the earth.

The animals on both Georgian vessels could have represented gods and are a unique discovery in the region.

Professor Elena Rova, of the Ca&apos Foscari University of Venice, described it as a significant piece of history.

She said: "The context of discovery suggests wine was drawn from the jar and offered to the gods or commonly consumed by the participants to the ceremony."

The researchers said it&aposs a key-finding for Georgia, where wine culture still continues in the course of traditional banquets called the Supra.

This is a spirited, lively and overwhelming feast where wine is consumed from vessels derived from animal horns in the context of elaborated ritual toasts.

The Kura-Araxes is the only prehistoric culture of the Southern Caucasus which spread over large areas of the Near East - reaching Iran and the Syro-Palestinian region.

Their pottery was distinctive and spread along trade routes into surrounding cultures. It was painted black and red using geometric designs. Examples have been found as far south as Syria and Israel, and as far north as Dagestan and Chechnya.

The people are also remarkable for the production of wheeled vehicles - wagons and carts - which were sometimes included in burials.


Traces of 5,000 year Old Grapes from World’s First Vineyard Discovered

Traces of grape pollen from the world’s first vineyard have been discovered inside an animal-shaped ceramic jar used in ritual ceremonies.

It was dug up at an archaeological site called Aradetis Orgora – 62 miles (100 km) west of the Georgian capital Tbilisi.

The pottery dates to around 3,000BC and would have been used by an enigmatic village based people called the Kura-Araxes to ferment the fruit.

The discovery adds further weight to Georgia’s long-cherished and championed belief that it is the birthplace of wine making.

The first evidence of domesticated grapes in the form of pips have also been unearthed in the south west of the country and date back 6,000 years.

It means Georgia really was the cradle of viticulture from where the technology spread to the so-called ‘Fertile Crescent’ of Mesopotamia and the Eastern Mediterranean.

The vessel has an animal-shaped body with three small feet and a pouring hole on the back. The head is missing.

It was found with a second similar vessel and a Kura-Araxes jar on the burnt floor of a large rectangular area with rounded corners – arguably a sort of shrine used for religious activities.

Scientists used a technique called radiometric (C14) analyses which dates specimens by determining proportions of chemicals to show they go back to 3000-2900 BC.

The vessel was examined at the Georgian Museum of Tblisi by palynologist Dr Eliso Kvavadze.

She found it contains numerous well-preserved grains of pollen of Vitis vinifera – a common grape vine that is still used to make wine today.

Dr Kvavadze said it shows wine’s strategic role in the Kura-Araxes culture for ritual libations.

The ritual pourings would have been offered to a god or spirit or in memory of those who have died.

They were common in many religions of antiquity and continue to be offered in various cultures today. Various substances have been used for libations – most commonly wine or olive oil, and in India, ghee.

The vessels used in the ritual often had a significant form which differentiated them from secular ones. The libation could be poured onto something of religious significance, such as an altar, or into the earth.

The animals on both Georgian vessels could have represented gods and are a unique discovery in the region.

Professor Elena Rova, of the Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, described it as a significant piece of history.

She said: “The context of discovery suggests wine was drawn from the jar and offered to the gods or commonly consumed by the participants to the ceremony.”

The researchers said it’s a key-finding for Georgia, where wine culture still continues in the course of traditional banquets called the Supra.

This is a spirited, lively and overwhelming feast where wine is consumed from vessels derived from animal horns in the context of elaborated ritual toasts.

The Kura-Araxes is the only prehistoric culture of the Southern Caucasus which spread over large areas of the Near East – reaching Iran and the Syro-Palestinian region.

Their pottery was distinctive and spread along trade routes into surrounding cultures. It was painted black and red using geometric designs. Examples have been found as far south as Syria and Israel, and as far north as Dagestan and Chechnya.

The people are also remarkable for the production of wheeled vehicles – wagons and carts – which were sometimes included in burials.


Ancient Artifact Proves Humans Have Been Drinking Wine for at Least 8,000 Years

Turns out, Neolithic-era hunter-gatherers liked wine just as much as you do.

Humans, according to new discoveries in the Republic of Georgia, have been drinking wine for 8,000 years&mdashabout 600 to 1,000 years longer than previously believed.

Excavations by the Gadachrili Gora Regional Archaeological Project Expedition (yes, their acronym is GRAPE) in a collaboration between University of Toronto and the Georgian National Museum have discovered ancient jars coated with chemical evidence of winemaking. The jars were discovered at two early ceramic Neolithic sites called the Gadachrili Gora and Shulaveri Gora, which are about 30 miles south of Georgia's capital, Tbilisi. These sites&mdashremnants of two ancient villages dating back to 15200 B.C.&mdashare nestled in the South Caucasus region on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.

Prior research dated the earliest evidence of winemaking to an area in the Zagros Mountains of Iran to between 5400 and 5000 B.C. The latest evidence in Georgia dates back to between 6000 and 4500 B.C.

"We believe this is the oldest example of the domestication of a wild-growing Eurasian grapevine solely for the production of wine," Stephen Batiuk, senior research associate in the near and middle Eastern civilizations department and the archaeology center at the University of Toronto, said in a press release. "Georgia is home to over 500 varieties of wine alone, suggesting that grapes have been domesticated and cross-breeding in the region for a very long time."

Chemical evidence of winemaking was found on eight jars using the latest methods of chemical extraction to find tartaric acid, a compound that signifies grape residues, and three organic acids called malic, succinic and citric. Archaeological, botanical, climatic and radiocarbon data further demonstrated that the Eurasian grapevine Vitis vinifera flourished in those two ancient villages.

The findings are more than just proof that wine has infiltrated human culture for even longer than previously understood&mdashit is also evidence of the deep, historical roots winemaking has in Georgia. The massive ancient jars recently discovered are similar to those used to make wine in Georgia today, according to David Lordkipanidze, director of the Georgian National Museum.

The method used in Georgia today&mdashdubbed "Qvevri" for large jar&mdashuses an egg-shaped vessel for making, aging and storing the wine. They are buried halfway underground in order for wine to ferment for five to six months and are used by farmers and people in the city. Wine cellars are still considered the holiest place in the home, according to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), which deemed the winemaking method as intangible cultural heritage of humanity.

Viniculture illustrates ingenuity, according to Lordkipanidze and Batiuk. It also encourages artistic, linguistic, and technological expressions.

The domestication of grapes led to "the emergence of wine culture," Lordkipanidze told Newsweek. "This is already a society in which drinking and offering wine penetrate in every aspect of life&mdashstarting from medical practice to religious rituals."

The latest finding connects the ancient winemaking around 8,000 years ago to modern Georgia, but also further explains humanity's history. The Neolithic era is marked with the beginning of farming, the domestication of animals, and the development of crafts such as pottery and weaving and polished stone tools. It is not production of wine alone that matters, but rather wine as a part of culture as a whole, especially in Georgia, Lordkipanidze said.

"Wine is not just a beverage," he said. "We started to produce wine, we are producing and we will produce."

The study, published in Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences with lead author Patrick McGovern, said that wine is central to civilization as it's known in the West. Wine has been as a medicine, social lubricant, mind-altering substance, and highly valued commodity, and became the focus of religious cults, pharmacopoeias, cuisines, economies,and society in the ancient Near East. That wine culture has spread across the globe.

"The Eurasian grapevine that now accounts for 99.9 percent of wine made in the world today has its roots in Caucasia," said Batiuk.


Wine used in Ritual Ceremonies 5000 Years Ago in Georgia, the Cradle of Viticulture - History

Posted on 05/21/2020 7:06:24 PM PDT by SunkenCiv

Microscopic signatures of malting could help reveal which prehistoric people had a taste for beer.

Ancient beer is difficult to trace, because many of beer’s chemical ingredients, like alcohol, don’t preserve well (SN: 9/28/04). But a new analysis of modern and ancient malted grain indicates that malting’s effects on grain cell structure can last millennia. This microscopic evidence could help fill in the archaeological record of beer consumption, providing insight into the social, ritual and dietary roles this drink played in prehistoric cultures, researchers report online May 7 in PLOS ONE.

Malting, the first step in brewing beer, erodes cell walls in an outer layer of a grain seed, called its aleurone layer. To find out whether that cell wall thinning would still be visible in grains malted thousands of years ago, Andreas Heiss, an archaeobotanist at the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Vienna, and colleagues simulated archaeological preservation by baking malted barley in a furnace. Using a scanning electron microscope, the researchers observed thinned aleurone cell walls in the resulting malt residue. Heiss’s team found a similar pattern of thinning in residues from 5,000- to 6,000-year-old containers at two Egyptian breweries.

The researchers then inspected grain-based remains from similarly aged settlements in Germany and in Switzerland. These sites didn’t contain any tools specifically associated with beer-making. But grain-based residues from inside containers at the settlements did show thin aleurone cell walls, like those in the Egyptian remains — offering the oldest evidence of malting in central Europe, the researchers say.


Wine used in Ritual Ceremonies 5000 Years Ago in Georgia, the Cradle of Viticulture - History

Posted on 06/10/2019 7:26:31 PM PDT by SunkenCiv

A grape variety still used in wine production in France today can be traced back 900 years to just one ancestral plant, scientists have discovered.

With the help of an extensive genetic database of modern grapevines, researchers were able to test and compare 28 archaeological seeds from French sites dating back to the Iron Age, Roman era, and medieval period.

. a team of researchers from the UK, Denmark, France, Spain, and Germany, drew genetic connections between seeds from different archaeological sites, as well as links to modern-day grape varieties.

It has long been suspected that some grape varieties grown today, particularly well-known types like Pinot Noir, have an exact genetic match with plants grown 2,000 years ago or more, but until now there has been no way of genetically testing an uninterrupted genetic lineage of that age.

Dr Nathan Wales, from the University of York, said: "From our sample of grape seeds we found 18 distinct genetic signatures, including one set of genetically identical seeds from two Roman sites separated by more than 600km, and dating back 2,000 years ago.

"These genetic links, which included a 'sister' relationship with varieties grown in the Alpine regions today, demonstrate winemakers' proficiencies across history in managing their vineyards with modern techniques, such as asexual reproduction through taking plant cuttings."

One archaeological grape seed excavated from a medieval site in Orléans in central France was genetically identical to Savagnin Blanc. This means the variety has grown for at least 900 years as cuttings from just one ancestral plant.

The researchers now hope to find more archaeological evidence that could send them further back in time and reveal more grape wine varieties.


Interesting Facts About Georgia, Europe

If you’re a caver, head out to Georgia immediately. This country has the world’s deepest cave – the Krubera Cave, which is hidden amongst the mountains. The almost vertical Krubera Cave is 7,200 ft. deep and it takes about 27 days for a caver to reach the cave’s bottom. Krubera Cave is located in the Arabika Massif of the Western Caucasus’s Gagra Range, in the Gagra district of Abkhazia. The largest pit in the cave is named the Big Cascade it plunges to a depth of 152 meters (499 feet). The Krubera Cave is one of the best Georgia country facts that we know!

2. The Very First Europeans Actually Originated From Georgia

The Caucasus Mountains yielded the oldest human skulls during an archeological expedition in Dmanisi. Research on the 1.8 million-year-old skulls indicates that the early man traveled from Africa to Europe through Georgia. So apparently, Georgia is the cradle of the European civilization.

3. Wine Making Began In Georgia

Georgian wines have been in production since at least 8,000 years that makes Georgia the birthplace of wines. Apparently, the production of the wine was purely accidental at first. Apparently, 8000 years ago, grape juice was poured by accident into a shallow pit and rock was placed on top to prevent people from falling into the pit. The grape juice in the pit turned into wine slowly and the Georgians have been making wine since. The traditional Georgian winemaking method in a clay jar called a Qvevri is listed by UNESCO on its Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity list. This is one of the most interesting facts about Georgia, the country.

4. Only The Georgians Speak Georgian – No One Else

Georgian is among 14 unique global languages that have their own alphabet. Georgian script was drawn from three different languages– Nuskhuri, Asomtaruli, and Mkhedruli. The present-day script is that of Mkhedruli, with 33 letters. The Georgian script is influenced by Greek and Iranian languages. You can notice the Greek influence in the way the letters are ordered, and the Iranian influence in the cursive shapes.

5. The Country’s Actual Name Is Not Georgia At All!

We call it Georgia, but the residents of the country call it Sakartvelo. The country does not have an English name by default, but we now knew it as Georgia. There’s a theory as to Georgia’s name, though. St. George is Georgia’s patron saint and it’s believed that the Christian reformers in the Middle Ages might have coined the name Georgia.

6. Georgia Has Mindblowing Ecological Diversity

Georgia is an ecologist’s dream come true, with 12 different climate zones (ranging all the way from subtropical semi-desert to alpine), and literally 49 types of soil. The country’s dense forests house fabulous creatures like lynxes, bears, and leopards in huge numbers. From every respect, Georgia is very ecologically diverse and offers many exciting changes to the watchful eye.

7. A Georgian Folk Song Is Actually Floating Around In Space

A Georgian folk named ‘Chakrulo’ that is sung during festivals was actually recorded and sent into space on the spacecraft Voyager as part of the Golden Record. The Golden Record is similar to a message in a bottle, just in case there are aliens out there and they want to know who we are.

8. Two Ancient Cities Exist Within Georgia

Europe has 16 old cities that go back to 2,000 to 5,000 years. Of these are the two former Georgian capitals, Mtskheta and Kutaisi. Kutaisi was the capital of the Kingdom of Colchis, a region in the southern Caucasus which was inhabited during the second millennium BC. Mtskheta was founded about 3,000 years ago.

9. Georgia Has One Of The Oldest Traditional Jewish Communities

The Georgian Jews have lived in Georgia for more than 2600 years, while the Ashkenazi Jews only arrived in Georgia in the 19th century. The Georgian Jews are the oldest Jewish community in the world. This community is a tradition and still practices the oldest form of Judaism.

10. Georgia’s Newly-discovered Heli-Ski Destination!

Georgia’s ski resort Gudauri is a fabulous destination for lovers of freeriding and heli-skiers. Consider this – abundant crisp snowy powder, wide-open slopes and magnificent views – why wouldn’t you sign up for heli-skiing over here? You can ski and snowboard here as well if you’re not into heli-skiing. No wonder Georgia is quickly developing into Europe’s hottest winter destinations.

11. The Word Tbilisi Comes From The Georgian Word For Warmth

The Georgian word ‘tbili’ in Georgian represents warm or warmth. The word ‘Tbilisi’ translates to ‘warm location.’ This is how the name was derived – during the 5th century AD, King Vakhtang went on a hunt with his team in the general area of the present-day Tbilisi. The king’s team discovered the wonderful natural hot springs in the area during the hunt, and they were so delighted that they named the entire city a warm location!

12. Georgia’s Folk Music Is UNESCO Listed!

Georgia’s choral folk music is uniquely polyphonic and has been listed in the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity list in 2008 by UNESCO. The music involves three kinds of polyphony: • A musical dialogue in the complex Svaneti dialect

• An East Georgian polyphonic dialogue sung over the background of a bass beat

• Three sung parts that are partially improvised as the music goes on.

This unique polyphony is strangely harmonious and pleasant to listen to.

Georgia has it all for travelers – great food, culture, history, music and dance, and wine. For adventurers, there’s climbing, trekking, caving, horse riding, heli-skiing, winter sports and much more. There is any number of reasons to visit Georgia. Consider this – Georgia has some of the cheapest ski resorts in all of Europe! If you’re a culture vulture, you’ll love to explore Georgia’s medieval architecture and its wonderful music and dances.

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Watch the video: Georgias Ancient Wine History (January 2022).