History Podcasts

History of Zaanland - History

History of Zaanland - History


(Freighter: t. 5,417 (gross); l. 389'4''; b. 61'1"; dr. 23'6" (mean); s. 9 k.; cpl. 81)

Zaanland steel-hulled, single-screw cargo vessel completed in 1900 at Port Glasgow, Scotland, by Russell and Co.—was owned by the Koninklijke Hollandsche Lloyd line at the outbreak of World War I. The ship sought security at Hampton Roads, VA., lest, at sea, she fall prey to warships of the Royal Navy. Acquired by the Navy for use by the Naval Overseas Transportation Service (NOTS) on 25 March 1918, the cargo ship was assigned the identification number (Id. No.) 2746 and commissioned at Hampton Roads on 29 March 1918, Lt. Comdr. Daniel Brown, USNRF, in command.

Zaanland was repaired and fitted out at Newport News, VA., by the Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Co., before sailing for the Gulf of Mexico on 4 April. Arriving at New Orleans, La., on the 11th, she simultaneously underwent further repairs and conversion work and loaded 4,946 tons of general cargo consigned by the Army Quartermaster Corps. She later departed from New Orleans on 20 April and arrived back at Hampton Roads five days later.

Zaanland sailed from Norfolk on 30 April in Convoy HN-67, bound for La Pallice, France. During the voyage, in a heavy mist at 2026 on 12 May, she apparently suffered a rudder casualty and was rammed by the tanker Hisko (Id. No. 1953). The collision tore a jagged, 15-foot hole in the cargo ship's starboard side, amidships between her bridge and fireroom. Zaanland soon assumed a heavy list and began to sink by the bow. At 2040, all hands were called topside as boats were launched. Within an hour, all of Zaanland's crew were safely aboard the Army transport Munalbro.

Although settling deeper in the water with each passing hour, the cargo ship remained afloat into the next day. At 0400, Lt. Brown reboarded Zaanland and inspected the ship. He found that there was no hope of towing the vessel to port and predicted that she probably would sink within a few hours. His observation proved to be correct, for Zaanland sank, bow first, at 0710 on 13 May 1918.

Munalbro, while endeavoring to overtake the convoy, soon met SS Minnesota en route, and transferred Zaanland's crew to the west-bound vessel for passage back to the United States.

Historical Events in 1943

    Teams agrees to start season later due to WW II William H Hastie, civilian aide to secretary of war, resigns to protest segregation in armed forces Japanese government in Java limits sale & use of motorcars Soviet offensive against German 6th and 4th Armies near Stalingrad

Event of Interest

Jan 10 1st US President to visit a foreign country in wartime - FDR leaves for Casablanca, Morocco

    US & Britain relinquish extraterritorial rights in China Frankfurters replaced by Victory Sausages (mix of meat & soy meal)

Conference of Interest

Jan 13 British Prime Minister Winston Churchill arrives in Casablanca, French Morocco for a conference of Allied forces in World War II

Event of Interest

Jan 13 Adolf Hitler declares "Total War" against the Allies

    Soviet offensive at Don under general Golikov US infantry captures Galloping Horse Ridge, Guadalcanal

Event of Interest

    World War II: Japan begins Operation Ke, withdrawal of its troops from Guadalcanal World War II: Franklin D. Roosevelt travels from Miami to Morocco to meet with Winston Churchill, becoming the first American president to travel overseas by airplane

Casablanca Conference

Jan 14 World War II: Casablanca Conference begins between Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and other Allied representatives

Henri Giraud, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Charles de Gaulle and Winston Churchill at the Casablanca Conference
    Montreal Canadiens' left wing Alex Smart becomes the first NHL rookie to score a hat trick in his first NHL game, a 5-1 win at home over the Chicago Black Hawks 1st transport of Jews from Amsterdam to concentration camp Vught World's largest office building, the Pentagon is completed to house the US military 1,000 workers complete air conditioning system for Pentagon World War II: The Soviets begin a counter-offensive at Voronezh -60°F (-51°C), Island Park Dam, Idaho (state record) 1st US air raid on Ambon German 2nd SS-Panzer division evacuates Charkow Red Army recaptures Pitomnik airport at Stalingrad Tin Can Drive Day in the US, salvage collected for the war effort

Siege of Leningrad

Jan 18 Soviets announce they have broken the long siege of Leningrad by Nazi Germany by opening a narrow land corridor, though the siege would not be fully lifted until a year later

Event of Interest

    Joint Chiefs of Staff decide on invasion in Sicily Lead, South Dakota, temperature is 52°F, while 1.5 miles away Deadwood records -16°F

Event of Interest

Jan 20 Operation Weiss: German, Italian, Bulgarian & Croatian troops attempt to retake land liberated by Tito's partisans

    Soviet forces reconquer Worosjilowsk Soviet forces reconquer Gumrak airport near Stalingrad Admiral Sir Andrew Cunningham, Royal Navy, promoted to Admiral of the Fleet Allied Joint Chiefs of Staff determine invasion of Sicily for July 10th Temperature rises 49°F (9°C) in 2 minutes in Spearfish, South Dakota 66.34 cm (26.12") precipitation over 24 hour period in Hoegees Camp, California (state record) British 8th army marches into Tripoli Detroit Red Wings scores NHL record 8 goals in 1 period Japanese Mount Austen on Guadalcanal captured

Event of Interest

Jan 23 Duke Ellington plays at Carnegie Hall in New York City for the first time.

Event of Interest

Jan 24 Jewish patients, nurses and doctors incinerated at Auschwitz-Birkenau

    1st US air attack on Germany (Wilhelmshafen) Chic Blackhawks beats NY Rangers 10-1, Max Bentley scores 4 goals

Nazi General Friedrich Paulus Surrenders

Jan 30 Adolf Hitler promotes Friedrich Paulus, commander of the 6th Army, to Field Marshal in the hope that he will not surrender

German field marshal Friedrich Paulus, the highest-ranking German officer to surrender during World War II
    Illegal opposition newspaper Loyal begins publishing USS Chicago sinks in Pacific Ocean Chile breaks off relations with Germany & Japan

Victory in Battle

Jan 31 Field Marshal Friedrich Paulus surrenders to Soviet troops at Stalingrad

Event of Interest

Feb 1 German occupiers make Vidkun Quisling Norwegian premier

    Mussert forms pro-Nazi shadow cabinet in Netherlands Cubs return to original uniform after experimenting with a vest German 6th Army surrenders after Battle of Stalingrad in a major turning point in Europe during World War II 4 chaplains drown after giving up their life jackets to others Bertolt Brecht's play "The Good Person of Szechwan" premieres in Zurich Amsterdam resistance group CS-6 shoots nazi general Seyffardt Clandestine Radio Atlantiksender, Germany, 1st transmission

Event of Interest

Feb 5 Jake LaMotta defeats future multi-weight world boxing champion Sugar Ray Robinson by unanimous points decision in Detroit in the 2nd of their 6 meetings his only win of their rivalry Robinson’s first loss in his first 40 pro bouts

Event of Interest

Feb 6 Singer Frank Sinatra debuts on radio's "Your Hit Parade"

    Shoe rationing begins in US (may purchase up to 3 more pairs in 1942) Red Army recaptures Kursk US President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs an executive order setting a minimum 48-hour work week in a number of critical war industries Japanese troops evacuate Guadalcanal, ending the epic World War II battle on the Solomon Islands in the Pacific National League of Baseball seeks a buyer for the Philadelphia Phillies as owner Gerry Nugent falls in arrears "Manifesto of Algerian People" calls for equality & self-determination British 8th Army sweeps through North Africa to Tunisia Van der Veen Resistance starts fire in Amsterdam employment bureau

Event of Interest

Feb 11 US General Eisenhower selected to command the allied armies in Europe British General Montgomery not best pleased

    Transport #47 departs with French Jews to nazi-Germany General Eisenhower departs Algiers for Tebessa German assault on Sidi Bou Zid Tunisia, General Dwight D. Eisenhower visits front Women's US Marine Corps created German offensive against US troops through de Faid-pass, Tunisia begins, starting the Battle of Sidi Bou Zid The Soviet Union recaptures the city of Rostov-on-Don, liberating Russia from the German 17th Army during WWII Women's camp Tamtui on Ambon (Moluccas) hit by allied air raid

We Can Do It!

Feb 15 Wartime propaganda poster "We Can Do It!" produced by J. Howard Miller and posted on the walls of Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company's plants in the Midwest

American wartime propaganda poster produced by J. Howard Miller in 1943 for Westinghouse Electric

Event of Interest

Feb 17 Major General Omar Bradley flies to Washington, D.C.

Event of Interest

Feb 17 NY Yankee Joe DiMaggio enlists into the US army

Event of Interest

Feb 17 Dow Chemical and Corning Glass Works form a joint venture to explore and produce silicon materials, based off of the work of James Franklin Hyde

    1st edition of Dutch resistance newspaper "Trouw" Munich resistance group "White Rose" captured by Nazis A syndicate headed by New York lumberman William D Cox buys MLB's Philadelphia Phillies for $850,000 33 year-old Cox is youngest owner in baseball German Propaganda Minister Josef Goebbells demands "total war" from German citizens in speech at Berlin Sportpalast German tanks under Generalmajor Karl Buelowius attack Kasserine Pass, Tunisia Allied troops occupy Kasserine pass in Tunisia New volcano Paracutin erupts in farmer's corn field (Mexico) Phil Wrigley & B Rickey charter All-American Girls Softball League American movie studio executives agree to allow the Office of War Information to censor movies. Dutch RC bishops protest against persecution of Jews Members of White Rose are executed in Nazi Germany.

Event of Interest

Feb 22 Plane crash in the Tagus River, Lisbon, Portugal kills 23 with 15 survivors including singer Jane Froman

    Major General Omar Bradley arrives in Dakar & Marrakesh German troops pull back through Kasserine-pass Tunisia Major General Omar Bradley flies to Algiers Texas League announces it will quit for the duration of WW II Vietminh forms Indo Chinese Democratic Front German assault moves to Beja, North Tunisia The Smith Mine #3 in Bearcreek, Montana, explodes, killing 74 men The Rosenstrasse protest starts in Berlin George Gershwin's "Porgy & Bess" opens on Broadway with Anne Brown & Todd Duncan Jewish old age home for disabled in Amsterdam raided 1st transport from Westerbork Netherlands to Sobibor concentration camp Bethnal Green Tube disaster: 173 die in a stampede sheltering in an air raid, UK's greatest loss of civilian life in WWII (details censored till January 20 1945) F Ryerson & Cohn Claues' "Harriet" premieres in NYC Battle of the Bismarck Sea: Australian and American air forces devastate Japanese navy convoy Transport #50 departs with French Jews to Maidanek/Sobibor

Academy Awards

Battle of Interest

Mar 6 Battle at Medenine, North Africa: Rommel's counterattack

Event of Interest

Mar 6 Sukarno asks for cooperation with Japanese occupiers

Event of Interest

Mar 7 US General George S. Patton arrives in Djebel Kouif, Tunisia

    335 allied bombers attack German city of Nuremberg, a centre for military production Limited gambling legalized in Mexico US Ladies' Figure Skating championship won by Gretchen Merrill Delft opposition group-Pahud de Mortanges overthrown Greek Jews of Salonika are transported to Nazi extermination camps Nazi Militia forms in Netherlands Soviet troops liberate Wjasma Baseball approves official ball (with cork & balata) Failed assassin attempt on Adolf Hitler during Smolensk-Rastenburg flight Frank Dixon wins Knights of Columbus mile (4:09.6)

Event of Interest

Mar 13 Nazis liquidate the Jewish ghetto in Kraków Oskar Schindler with advance information, saves his workers by keeping them in his factory overnight

Event of Interest

Mar 14 World War II: Kraków Ghetto is "liquidated"

    Allied reconnaissance flight over Java Red Army evacuates Kharkov Ships Elin K (Norway) and Zaanland (Netherlands) torpedoed by German U-boats and sink Aldemarin (Ned) & Fort Cedar Lake (US) torpedoed & sinks F Hugh Herbert's "Kiss & Tell" premieres in NYC Physician Willem J Kolff performs the world's first 'hemodialysis' using his artificial kidney machine, however the treatment is unsuccessful and the patient dies, in the Netherlands

Event of Interest

Mar 27 Blue Ribbon Town (with Groucho Marx) 1st heard on CBS Radio

Poon Lim's 133 Day South Atlantic Odyssey

Apr 5 Chinese steward Poon Lim is found off the coast of Brazil by a Brazilian fisherman family after being adrift 133 days, after British ship SS Benlomond torpedoed by german U-boat

The American in Holland/Charming Little Zaandijk

Kennemer Land stretches along the coast of North Holland from Haarlem to Alkmaar and beyond. The name is a reminiscence of the ancient days when the old Kin-heim meer, or the "sea" of Kinheim, filled much of this whole region.

Just north and west of Amsterdam there is Zaanland, a region wherein are many names ending or beginning with Zaan, which "lost to sight " in canals is "to memory dear" on mediæval maps. Here is Zaandam, known all over the world as the place where the greatest of the Muscovites began to learn his trade as carpenter, or - what the word carpenter originally meant - shipwright. To the east is Oostzaan, further up is Koog-aan-de-Zaan, toward the North Sea is Westzaan. Still further north is Zaandijk, whither I wend my way.

I was invited by a quondam ship-passenger, a physician, whose society at sea I had greatly enjoyed, to come into this region and ancient valley, rich in windmills. Once a wide natural stream, the Zaan River is now a settled-down old canal. Taking the Alkmaar packet, a trim little steamer, from the pier behind the great Central Station below the Bible Hotel, in Amsterdam, I started off on the cool morning, in the loveliest of the months, - June 28. The glistening tile roofs, gayly painted houses, fields full of mustard flowers, yellow enough for the Emperor of China, and a lavish use of bright colors generally, seemed to show how necessary it is in this land of dull sky and chronic damp weather to offset the general grayness of nature with bright hues.

I was met on the landing-stage at Zaandijk by the doctor, who had come to those "years which bring the philosophic mind," as well as to a general mellowness of spirit and judgment. He led me up the narrow little way to the main thoroughfare, which consisted of a canal with many bridges. There was a pavement for wagons on one side, with a diminutive sidewalk along the one-storied houses which seemed to have been dipped in paint-pots. Outside of the land of Colorado beetles, it seemed to me as if I never had seen so much Paris green on bridges, fences, doors, windows, and walls. The trees were clipped because, except heavenward, there is no room for them to grow.

The doctor's house, by the canal, was large, handsome, and modern, with wide halls, high-ceiled rooms, and imposing stairways and furniture. The walls were lined with trophies of travel and proofs of both wealth and taste. Besides holding an official appointment, the doctor owned a cheese farm, and counted his cows by the score. There was a general atmosphere of plain but rich living and high thinking about his home, such as I have found among the Philadelphia Friends, - those spiritual cousins to the followers of Menno Simons, - whom the world calls Quakers.

After greetings and chat in the family circle, we sallied forth to see the sights of this miniature city. Zaandijk has its coat of arms, its town hall, and a long history. On September 21, 1894, the people celebrated the fourth centennial aniversary of the town. Some one, the doctor explained, had found an old perkament (parchment), which told how the first dam and house were built here in 1494. The Dutch delight in festivals, with fine dressing and good eating, nor do they ever neglect an opportunity of celebrating something. So the Zaandijkers got out old costumes, and renewed, for the nonce, ancient customs.

Two boats, modeled after the Venetian gondolas of the fifteenth century, were built for the occasion and put to use. In the doctor's youth these old gondolas, or trek-schuits, were still used for travel, transportation, love-making, and church-going. Even now the canal, with its many high-arched bridges, suggests Venice itself. As a matter of fact, many details of life in the little confederacy behind the dikes were copied or imported from that southern republic which stood on piles in the lagoons. Both amphibious peoples were fond of republicanism and of bright hues, and from among them sprang artists who lead the world as colorists.

As we were talking, a boat laden with garden produce and propelled by a truck farmer, who peddled his commodities along the way at the different houses by the water's edge, brought up a vision of the manner in which one of the greatest of American fortunes was initiated in the hills on and off Staten Island.

We walked to the tiny museum founded in this town long ago by Mynheer Jacob Honig. His name suggests sweets, and his coat of arms very appropriately is embroidered with bees. From his youth he enjoyed collecting things old, curious, and obsolete. Whatever had been stranded by fashion and left, as "dead fact … on the shores of the oblivious years," was his delight and quest. He made a curiosity shop which illustrates local and social history in epitome. Here is a model of the first windmill erected in Zaandam. It stood in the water, and had to be towed round and round by a boat in order to wake the sails face the wind. Later on, the mill was set on a post, and the whole structure turned upon this as an axis, as in a revolving library. Still later the edifice was made to revolve from the bottom, like a monitor's turret. Finally, the comparatively modern Dutch invention of a cap, holding the axle and sails with cog-wheel and spindle inside and easily moved from below by a hand wheel and windlass, secured the proper frontage at will.

As for the modern windmills, - they say there are twelve thousand in Netherland, - even though one can still see battalions of them deployed along the canals and over against the horizon, their days are numbered. Already they are much less numerous than fifty years ago. A new one is rarely if ever built, since steam is more to be depended upon than wind. No more as of yore will there be lawsuits, as between the Lord of Woerst and the Over-Ijssel monastery, as to who owns the wind and has a right to use it. The old feudal master claimed that he owned Boreas, and all his breath that blew over his fields, as well as Neptune and all his puddles. The suit was referred to the Bishop of Utrecht, who decided in favor of the lord. Even the hundred proverbs that stick to the subject, as barnacles to a ship, will soon bear the flavor of mythology.

In the old days of inundation and heavy rains, the water lay upon the land so long that malaria and sickness were often epidemic and continuous. Since the use of steam power, which can raise water and saw wood, even when Boreas refuses to blow, the flooded areas have been quickly pumped dry. Improved health is everywhere the result.

The museum shows a schoolmaster's implement of correction, the klap, with which, during a century or two, small boys were spanked also the little stoves once used to warm the feet of wives and maidens in church, - almost exactly like the same contrivances still used for hands in Japan.

Zaandijk once derived great wealth from its fisheries. The whale also brought comfort to many homes and prosperity to the city. Its oil filled the lamps and cheered the soap-maker. Its "bone" gave steadiness to unstable busts. Here are pictures of the oil refineries, and of ships and boats home from the Arctic Sea. The whale has had a mighty influence upon the civilization of Holland, of the United States, and upon Japan. First the English and then the Yankee borrowed the idea of whale-hunting from the Dutch. The whale was our pilot into the Pacific. The skeleton of one of these great mammals hangs from the museum's ceiling.

The crockery of Zaandijk shown is ancient, wonderful, and abundant. In its decoration one local subject is constantly repeated. A furious bull tossed a woman, and while she was some twelve feet up in the air, she was delivered of a child, who was thus actually born between heaven and earth. Both parent and babe survived for a number of days, and the husband and father, who had been gored, even longer. In the eyes of the realistic Zaandijk keramists, judging from their various art products, Mahomet's coffin was a circumstance hardly to be compared with this event.

The fireplace in Holland is the centre not only of comfort and social life, but also of domestic art and education. Beside its warmth and light were the tiles with Scripture story, and above it was the mantelpiece rich in ornament and artistic suggestion. The hearth was the focus of council, meditation, æsthetics, instruction, and comfort.

Everything relating to the nursery is well illustrated in this little museum. Pins are plenty in Dutch proverbs and idioms, and so they are in the home. Here is a pin-cushion. On one side the name of a girl is tricked out in the little silvery disks, and on the other is the name of a boy, - provision being thus made for nature's uncertainties. Whether for Hannah or for William, every thing is ready. One cushion provides for a possible pair of twins. Then, there are cradles and baptismal quilts, besides clothing of men, women, and children in all sorts of fashion, even to a set of mourning clothes, from scalp to sole. Not far apart are the cradle and the tomb.

How inventors toiled to anticipate the steamship and the balloon is shown by the model of a boat warranted to go against wind and tide. The thing had no "go" in it, and was called "The Fool's Ship." Another machine was called the flying ship, but it would not fly. A table is spread with all the eating and drinking implements of the former days, including that very late corner, the fork. Here were tea trays decorated with pictures of whales and whalers. Bowls and plates made at Delft have names of the owners and pictures of their ships, or legends in old Dutch celebrating their success, that is, "Goedt success na London." The Honig family, with more right than Napoleon in his ermined robe copied from Charlemagne's, has a tablecloth embroidered with bees. The smoker's outfit is remarkably rich. Here are pipe-cases, stoves to hold fire for lighting pipes, and tobacco boxes in all forms, one being a half-bound book with the motto, " Human life is short."

My cicerone chats, laughs, and delightfully explains everything with wit and jokes meanwhile smoking his cigar until short as a chincapin, without any fear of burning his lips. He shows the carved wooden schoolbook bags, once daily carried by boys and girls a quill pen with a tassel on the end of a long feather all sorts of linen dresses, mangles and bangles, and baby chairs, such as one sees in Jan Stem's pictures a Bible, hung on silver chains and carried to church by rosy-checked maidens bedwarmers, cake moulds, and a hundred other knickknacks, suggesting the good old times, and tempting one to see and think out, if not to write, a story.

Yet, rich as is this wonderful collection, I believe that almost everything in it, except the purely local and marine wonders, either actually was or could have been duplicated in 1880, when we held in Schenectady our Loan Exposition at the celebration of the two hundredth anniversary of the founding of the Reformed Dutch Church. A "kermis," the latter might have been called, but was not. Besides home-made colonial and Iroquois relics was a mighty host of articles of use, beauty, and luxury brought over from Patria.

Both Waterland and the Zaanland have been famous in the history of the Mennonites, my hostess being one of them. Wishing to see a modern Mennonite meeting-house, we took carriage and rode down toward Zaandam. We called on the Domine, who lived next door to the edifice, and so had a good guide. The structure was reared in 1680, and restored in 1873. The floor, scrubbed as clean as a butter firkin, was covered with fine sand. Beside the organ were the usual psalm books, and the long poles with silver-rimmed bag and tassels hung up against the wall on books by the ring, which, like plumpers in sleeves, kept the bag open. At the bottom of each was a little bell.

I noticed many quaint bas-reliefs on the house fronts. Soon we came to the huisje, that is, the hut of Peter the Great. The workman's shanty, in which the Czar lived for only a week, is rather groggy looking, and leans over from age. Inside is the sleeping-room or bed-closet, made in the style of a bunk. Everything belonging to the original structure suggests lowly life, but the chimney - the typical part of a Dutch domestic interior - has been restored and decorated with tiles. On the walls are tablets of Russian monarchs. The window-panes are diamond-scratched by many fools, and some other people. Like the little worm-eaten meeting-house - perhaps the oldest extant wooden church edifice in America - at Salem, Mass., Peter's hut is inclosed by an outer wooden building of some pretensions. Close to the portraits of Peter and Catherine is inscribed a Russian proverb, meaning "Nothing too little for a great man." Some years ago a Muscovite general, who visited this place, gave money to institute a prize fund, the interest of which goes yearly to some Zaandam boy in the higher public schools.

The yard and site of the hut belong to the Russian government, being the gift of the royal family of Holland. In the Russian navy to this day, many of the nautical terms are Dutch. Mighty was the influence which the great Czar took with him from the little country which then led the world in civilization. Our own William Penn, who anticipated disarmament and "the parliament of the world," once had an interview with Peter, holding a long conversation in Dutch, which was spoken by both the founder of Pennsylvania and of New Russia. Penn presented the Czar with Dutch translations of friends' books. With all his potency to compel reform among his people, the Czar had little moral power to civilize himself.

We rode back along the painted houses and bridges. I was constantly reminded of the old joke and picture - "Do you see anything green?" The various shades, when fresh, suggested peas, apples, olives, grass, malachite, or beryl the older and more weather-worn, old bottles and verdigris.

We discussed the Anabaptists and Mennonites as we rode, and then visited another house of worship, where the sand on the floor was wrinkled and ribbed in patterns of decorative art imitative of the seashore. A broomstick had been the only tool used.

The doctor declared that the disciples of Menno Simons were excellent people, but in modern days so rich, close, and thrifty, that "Jews cannot live in the same place with Mennonites." As to religion in Holland, the doctor thought that the burghers, city folk, and professionals were mostly "Modernen," while the common country people and the aristocracy were "Orthodox."

While waiting under the walnut and plum trees in the garden, expecting the Alkmaar packet back to Amsterdam, we branched off into some of the metaphysical aspects of religion. Just as we were getting warm and intense, the sound of the whistle announced the cowing boat. Shaking hands, we agreed to resume the discussion when we next met. So ended a happy June day.

It is generally agreed that the Gallipoli during the First World War fostered a sense of national identity in New Zealand and Australia. One in four New Zealand men between the ages of 20 and 45 who were sent to battle were either killed or wounded – this in turn affected many families and communities back home. In Gallipoli, there were 2,779 New Zealand casualties, as well as 8,700 Australian deaths. ANZAC Day on 25 April remembers the death of these soldiers.

Forty-five years ago, on 19 June 1971, the first all-container ship to visit New Zealand arrived in Wellington. Columbus New Zealand was part of a worldwide revolution in shipping. These simple steel boxes would change our transport industry, our ports and how we work and shop.

Related keywords

Largest urban centre and city in Bay of Plenty, 107 km east of Hamilton. Tauranga dates from the establishment of a Church Missionary Society mission at Te Papa, as it was then known, in the 1830s. During the wars of the 1860s the government established two redoubts (fortifications) there. The original mission house, The Elms, still stands, as do the remains of the Monmouth redoubt. From the 1910s, as dairying developed in neighbouring districts, the population grew. Growth was further fostered in the later twentieth century by horticulture – in particular kiwifruit growing – in surrounding districts and by the lifestyle appeal of the town.

History of Zaanland - History

This list contains 377 cargo ships used by the Navy during World war I. Between its establishment in January 1918 and late 1919 the U.S. Navy's Naval Overseas Transportation Service (NOTS) operated nearly all of these ships, primarily to carry supplies to American forces in the European combat zone and then help bring Army supplies and equipment back to the United States. Thirteen of these cargo ships were lost during the war, both to enemy action and by accident. (The ships lost were Buenaventura , Californian , Herman Frasch , Lake Bloomington , Lake Borgne , Lake Damita , Lakemoor , Oosterdijk , Saetia , Ticonderoga , Westgate , Westover , and Zaanland .) After the November 1918 armistice some of the larger NOTS cargo ships and some similar newly acquired vessels were hastily converted into troop transports and reassigned to the Cruiser and Transport force to help bring the soldiers home. (These are listed both here and on the page for "World War I Era Transports" in a section entitled "Freighters Converted to Transports.") For some special-purpose cargo ships see the pages on "World War I Era Supply Ships and Refrigerated Cargo Ships" and "World War I Era Colliers."

This large number of U.S. Navy cargo ships is divided here into eighteen groups, each containing between 3 and 55 vessels. The cargo ships differ from World War I era transports, which are easily categorized by number of smokestacks and number of masts, because all but a relative few of the cargo ships had two single masts, one fore and one aft, and one smokestack. (In addition, nearly all had plumb bows and counter sterns.) Instead the groups of cargo ships are defined by basic characteristics of their entire rig (the number of single and paired uprights--masts and kingposts respectively) and the basic features of their deck lines (the number and location of hull islands). In some cases the ships are further subdivided by the location of the uprights. Nearly all kingposts did double duty as ventilators--many had fancy tops and some looked like cowl ventilators with booms. Although mainly intended as a tool for ship picture identification, these groups and the similar groups on the "World War I Era Transports" page are also useful for analysis and understanding of the Navy's huge but temporary World War I inventory of large non-combatant vessels.

Some of these cargo ships are listed as having been built to Emergency Fleet Corporation Designs or as being precursors to those designs. Beginning in 1916 U.S. shipyards received a surge of orders for new ships, mostly from Great Britain, as the Allies strove to offset heavy losses to the German U-Boat campaign. The designs for these ships were mostly developed by the individual shipyards according to their individual practices with inputs from the foreign buyers. In April 1917, following U.S. entry into World War I, the U. S. Shipping Board established a commercial enterprise, the Emergency Fleet Corporation (EFC), to build the huge number of merchant ships that the U.S. would need to prosecute the war. As it placed its contracts, the EFC generally adopted and assigned numbers to the designs already being used by the shipbuilders. In August 1917 the EFC requisitioned all ships in U.S. shipyards that had not already been completed and delivered to their owners--this order affected around 434 ships including most of the ones ordered by the British and their allies. Technically, only the ships ordered under EFC contracts were built to the EFC designs, but many of the ships built under the earlier foreign orders were constructed to essentially identical designs and are listed here as precursors to the EFC designs. The design with the greatest number of representatives in this list is Emergency Fleet Corporation Design 1013 , with 58 ships (including precursors ) in two groups that differ only in their rigs.

Special Features of the Groups
During the war some U.S.-built ships were given modified rigs, probably intended to reduce vulnerability to submarine attack. In these ships, the topmasts on the single masts fore and aft were removed and a single topmast was fitted on a kingpost near the smokestack. (If there were no kingposts near the stack, a light pole was added to support the topmast. At this time the main purpose of this topmast--or of the two regular topmasts in the ships that retained them--was to support radio antennas.) In order not to separate these ships from their normally-rigged sisters, the topmasts and light poles amidships are excluded from the definitions of the ship groups presented here.

A more extreme variation, seen primarily in the earliest war-built ships, also included the replacement of the single masts fore and aft with short paired uprights (kingposts). These ships, which thus lacked any single masts besides the single topmast amidships, are covered separately in their own group at the top of this list.

Some Dutch-origin ships had an unusual type of very tall paired mast instead of the standard type of single mast. To avoid arbitrarily separating these ships from their normally-rigged Dutch counterparts, these special Dutch uprights are treated here as single masts even though they are paired.

A few ships, mostly ex-German, had a single short upright in the extreme stern, usually rigged with a boom. Because of its height, location, and use, this is counted as a kingpost (if it is counted at all) even though it is not paired. USS Pensacola (ex German Nicaria ) also had an upright in this position but it was a full-height mast.

The few cargo ships that had their engines (and their smokestacks) aft are covered in a separate category near the end of the list, as are a few passenger-type ships used as cargo ships and the 23 ships for which configuration information was unavailable.

Caution: Not every ship bearing the characteristics shown on these pages was commissioned in the U.S. Navy. There were many World War I era ships, large and small, that were employed by the U.S. Government under commercial charter, or which operated under the flags of the United Kingdom, France, Italy and other nations. Many of these closely resemble ships that did serve in the U.S. Navy, and a large proportion wore pattern camouflage schemes very much like those carried by the Navy's ships. Approach any ship identification task with this firmly in mind!

A Note on Sources: The basic source for the cargo ships serving in NOTS is the book by Lewis P. Clephane, History of the Naval Overseas Transportation Service in World War I , published by the Naval History Division, Washington, D.C., in 1969. Tonnage (in gross tons except for ships built by the Navy) and dimensions were taken from a file of World War I-era ship data cards now in the custody of the Naval History and Heritage Command and from the 1918 and 1919 editions of the official Ships Data Book (whose data usually matches that on the cards). Additional information came from the 1918-1919 and 1919-1920 editions of Lloyds Register of Shipping and from the Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships .

This page features a list of World War I era U.S. Navy cargo ship groups, defined by ships' physical characteristics, with links to pages dedicated to each group of ships. Those pages provide further links to the individual ships in each group. Representative photographs are also presented for ship groups and for individual vessels.

Note: In the listings below, and on the pages directly linked from them, PRINCIPAL RECOGNITION FEATURES are given in UPPER CASE. Recognition features that differentiate a group of ships from those listed previously are given in ITALICIZED UPPER CASE .

Draft history curriculum misses 600 years of Aotearoa New Zealand's past

An expert panel has criticised Aotearoa New Zealand's Histories curriculum draft for omitting topics, including women, labour and economics, and the single largest block of the country's human history - the 600 years of pre-European Māori life.

In a report on the draft version of Aotearoa New Zealand's Histories curriculum, the panel convened by the Royal Society of New Zealand to advise the Education Ministry said it strongly supported the introduction of New Zealand's histories into the core curriculum and strongly commended placing Māori history central to New Zealand history.

The report said it was impossible for students to understand citizenship without knowledge of history.

However, it said the panel "has concerns about the brevity, fragmentation, and, therefore, coherence of the curriculum draft".

"While no curriculum can be comprehensive in telling all of Aotearoa New Zealand's histories, the effect of overly compacting the curriculum has led to major gaps, which in turn may make a good deal of the existing content partial or even incomprehensible," the report said.

It said the draft included almost nothing on two areas that were initially intended to be key themes in the curriculum – first encounters between Māori and Europeans, and late 20th century New Zealand and the emergence of national identity.

It said major topics were missing or very lightly covered, including women and wāhine Māori, labour, welfare, disease and demographics, and economic activity as a driver of New Zealand history.

The report also criticised a big gap in Māori history.

"Despite the prominence given to Māori history, there is a 600-year gap between the arrival of Māori and the arrival of Europeans. It is almost as if Māori arrive in New Zealand and become instantly the victims of colonialism," the report said.

"While all these topics cannot be included in detail, some of them are so essential to understanding those that are, particularly those that relate to economic and demographic change, that not to include them seriously compromises the proposed curriculum as a whole," it said.

The draft curriculum was based on three big ideas. They were that Māori history was the foundational and continuous history of Aotearoa New Zealand colonisation and its consequences were central to the country's history and the course of its history had been shaped by the exercise and effects of power.

The panel said it should include a fourth big idea: the movement of people and ideas, technologies and institutions across national boundaries.

"The global and interconnected nature of Aotearoa New Zealand's Histories is critical to understanding almost every aspect of our past. People have been actors on a historical stage that extends far beyond these islands. The report said the curriculum should include the skill of assessing which evidence was strong and which was weak," the report said.

It also said the draft presented a series of conclusions to be demonstrated and "directs students to judge the past before allowing them to ask questions, explore and find out what the past was".

It said the panel had reservations about the curriculum's intention that students would make "ethical judgement concerning right and wrong".

The report said the New Zealand Wars were included in a way that would define them, incorrectly, as land wars, and expressed concern that it would lead to a focus on a couple of battles at the expense of other conflicts.

Automotive History: The First Articulated Buses – 1938 Twin Coach and 1940 Isotta Fraschini TS40

Sleuthing out who built the first of any new significant automotive development can be a fraught undertaking. When I wrote up the remarkable 1946 Kaiser articulated bus, I really thought it was the first of its kind. Well, in some ways it still is, in terms of an IC engine powered highway coach. But there were two previous pioneers of the articulated bus, for transit use. Somewhat oddly though, the first one, the 1938 Twin Coach (above) was only articulated vertically. But in another (presumably) pioneering way, it had a diesel-electric propulsion system, which of course made it also very suitable to be used as a trolley-bus with overhead lines, or to operate in either configuration.

As to the first fully articulated bus, it appears to be the Italian Isotta Fraschini TS40. More on that further down.

Let’s first take a look at this remarkable invention by Fageol, at their Twin Coach division. In the 1930s, during the Depression, there was a need for relatively low-cost transit solutions that didn’t require laying more expensive track. I’m going to just copy the twin Coach press release from 1938, via coachbuilt.com:

“Kent, Ohio, June 15—The largest, capacity passenger vehicle for public carrier service, without the use of tracks, has been announced this month by Frank R. and William B. Fageol, President and Vice President, respectively, of the Twin Coach Company of this city. The vehicle seats 58 passengers on a single deck, and will transport readily, a passenger load of 120, including standees. The unit is designed to operate as an electric trolley coach or by Diesel-electric propulsion. The vehicle has four axles, eight wheels and bears its lead on 12 tires, the four center wheels taking dual rubber equipment. It weighs 27,500 pounds and is known as the Super-Twin.

“This unit will be capable of 50 miles per hour top speed, and, therefore, in regular schedule traffic, should have no difficulty in maintaining average schedule speed of 13 to 14 miles per hour, which is within one or two miles per hour of the average speed on principal subway lines.

apparently there were both three and four axle versions

“The new vehicle, on the fiftieth anniversary of the operation of electric trolley cars operating upon steel rails in the United States, immediately becomes a threat to continued large city street car operation, because it is the first seemingly practical unit created as a rubber tired public carrier capable of equaling the capacity of the largest city street cars, and at the same time, being able to turn on a radius no greater than the many 35-passenger gasoline coaches already in service in great numbers in this country. This is done by means of the synchronous steering of the front and rear wheels. The four wheels at the center of the job operate on the principle adapted to the many six-wheel vehicles already in use.

this is a later version, but it shows how it was articulated vertically

“Because of its 47 foot length, the body is hinged perpendicularly at the center, and the space covered by a newly developed flexible rubber hood, the perpendicular articulation allowing it to take with ease, bridge, viaduct and other sharp grades oftentimes found within the confines of the metropolitan area. There is no horizontal articulation and the width of the vehicle may be made to equal that of the large capacity trolley cars. The floor has no obstructions of any kind.

“As in a trackless trolley coach, the propulsion is through two 125-horse-power electrical motors placed under the floor of each body unit and driving into the two center axles. The first vehicle for practical demonstrating purposes is a Diesel-Electric vehicle with 175-horsepower Hercules Diesel motor with electric generator in the rear compartment, supplying current to the two electric motors located under the floor adjacent to the two center axles. The electrical equipment has been supplied by General Electric Company.

“The oil-electric propulsion equipment is generally the same as that used to run the Diesel-Electric Zephyr and other crack high speed transcontinental trains. It is much easier for the operator to handle than the ordinary bus on account of the simplicity of controls which consist of a reversing lever to get forward and reverse directions and a foot accelerating pedal which operates the same as your automobile. As you press the pedal down it adds more fuel to the Diesel motor, thereby causing the motor to revolve at higher speed and it being connected to the electric generator, there is an immediate increase of motive power from the generator to the motor. In other words, the action on the propulsion motor, when the fuel accelerator is pushed down, is similar to the result when the motorman on a street car turns his controller around. The further he goes with the handle, the more electricity is put in the motors and thus the increase in speed.

“The Diesel motor differs from the gas motor in that it has no spark plugs, therefore, no electric ignition. The fuel used is what is known as distillate or oil similar to that used in oil furnaces.

“The ignition of the fuel is brought about by high compression temperatures and through properly governed and timed oil injection into the cylinders.

“The springing of the job is taken care of by a newly designed type of cantilever spring giving the rider the impression of that of a boat rather than the short, quick impacts of urban rail transportation.

“Control of the new vehicle by the operator is exactly the same as on a conventional motor coach or trolley coach. The steering of the front and rear wheels is accomplished through linkage and the use of air which automatically supplements the manual effort on the driver’s wheel, and trolley buses are in use on urban operating systems, a complete transition to rubber tired vehicles has been held back by the lack of a tired unit capable of carrying as many as a large trolley car. This has been due to inability to produce a trackless vehicle of that size capable of making the necessary street intersection turns.

“It will be recalled it was the Fageol Brothers, who, in 1927, introduced the first transit or metropolitan type gas coach, namely, the box type body with motors inside instead of under the hood as in the old type vehicle. That style of design, in the past ten years, has become universally adopted on major operations.

“Some idea of the significance of this new Fageol development may be gained by such economic facts as the following, pointed out by Ross Schram, Sales Manager for the manufacturer:

1. According to the statistical record of TRANSIT JOURNAL, there were 75,777 urban public carrier vehicles in use December 31st, 1937, and 34,190 of these were street cars, mostly of the large capacity size, while many of the 25,614 motor coaches would have been purchased in larger capacity had there been an available unit.

2. Modern trolley car road bed and track cost per mile is $100,000 for double tracks.

3. The average expenditure per mile for trolley car road-way maintenance in American cities during normal times is 3½ cents per mile.

4. The reduction of fuel cost over gasoline, if Diesel-Electric power plant is adopted.

5. Tremendous sums and engineering efforts have been focused on the development of a new automatic transmission for large trackless gasoline units with questionable results thus far. In this new unit, as in other trolley coaches and Diesel Electric vehicles, there is immediately available the perfect answer to this quest.

6. The large capacity rubber tired trackless ‘street car’ of this type is no longer tied to a strip in the center of the street, and thus traffic weaving, the greatest of all street hazards, should be reduced to a minimum. Recent studies reported by the Director of the American Transit Association show that considering the full capacity of a single traffic lane as 100%, a second lane, where channelized traffic is not enforced is actually only 78% efficient that in the third lane without channelized enforcement the efficiency is only 56% compared with the first lane. Thus is statistically illustrated the waste of street space caused in traffic in our large cities where automotive traffic is weaving in and out between street cars. Of course, it is impossible to furnish accurate figures on the increased safety if all public carrier passengers were enabled to load and unload from a large capacity public carrier operating adjacent to the curb, but such protection would tremendously reduce deaths and injuries in the street.”

Unlike most articulated buses that followed, the joint between the Super-Twin’s front and rear compartments only allowed for the vertical movement of the two attached coaches, no horizontal action was allowed with the turning being accomplished via coordinated action between the two steerable axles – one located at the front, the second at the rear.

Here’s the Italian Stanga-Stanga-BBC, Type Isotta Fraschini TS40 of 1940. It was articulated horizontally and supposedly was steered by the front wheels only.

According to this source, no orders resulted for the lengthy vehicle and it was sold to a Cleveland operator who used it as an electric-powered trolley-bus. Yet this second picture of what is identified as the same vehicle clearly is somewhat different. And both were strictly electric trolley buses.

Although the Twin Coach (and the Isotta Fraschini TS40) articulated trolleybuses were not successful, Twin Coach manufactured fully one-third of all the trolley buses manufactured in North America, manufacturing 670 trolley coaches during its 25 years in business. And of course articulated city buses are now extremely common, and seem to be becoming the default, due to their greater capacity.

But the articulated highway coach never really caught on, as my post on the 1958 Kässbohrer Setra Continental Trailways Super Golden Eagle articulates quite clearly. Now I’m going to have to update those two posts.

New Zealand Culture

Religion in New Zealand

55% Christian: Anglican, Presbyterian, Roman Catholic and Methodist are all represented.

Social Conventions in New Zealand

Should a visitor be invited to a formal Maori occasion, the hongi (pressing of noses) is common. Casual dress is widely acceptable. New Zealanders are generally very relaxed and hospitable. Stiff formality is rarely appreciated and, after introductions, first names are generally used. Smoking is restricted where indicated it is banned in pubs and restaurants as well as on public transport and in public buildings.


…it’s a very good place to start

No, this post is not about “The Sound of Music”, although we ARE going to spend some time in Salzburg this year – on a one week side trip with Gill and Graham – and while the beer, castles and mountains of Bavaria are the main events, some ‘do re mi’ and Mozart, in the city that made them both famous, are highly anticipated attractions.

Instead, this post is the first about the history of our barge, something we will document extensively in its own page, but we’ll drop some highlights in this blog – especially when we are not cruising.

According to the history of ‘Zaanlandse Scheepsbouw Maatschappij 1899-1972‘ (Zaanland Shipbuilding Company), during WW1, the shipyard, which was then known as “Czaar Peter Wharf”, records that “on the 20th July 1915, one P. Verver of Krommenie wants to build a motorboat. He is well known, and good for a loan for f2,000 [sic two thousand florins or guilders] at 5% interest.”

Extract from “Zaanlandse Scheepsbouw Maatschappij 1899-1972”

What we know from a great book compiled by Letty Swart “De Wormerveerse Schipperij” (The Wormerveer Skippers), is that ‘P. Verver’ was actually Pieter Maartenzoon Verwer, who at the time was the owner of 15.5 m motorboat of 36 tons powered by a 12 hp motor that was built in 1891. Pieter Verwer was then the principal of a family shipping company ‘Expeditiebedrijf’, that had been founded in 1777 by his great grandfather Adriaan Verwer. Pieter had decided to build a larger boat, of about 20 m powered by a 28 hp motor. He, and his family lived in Wormerveer, the town next to the locality of Krommenie.

The small, Czaar Peter wharf would go on to be a very large shipbuilding company before eventually falling afoul of competition from overseas.

Czaar Peter Shipyard around the time of WW1

Another piece of information we have is a formal measurement made of the completed vessel on the 8th of May 1916 in the nearby town of Alkmaar. We found this placing our barge’s ‘brandmerk’, a unique identification number, in a database that has been placed online, that contains of all the dutch barge measurements. Her name was ‘Catharina Elisabeth’, she weighed nearly 53 tons and the owner was listed as P. Zermeriks, who lived in Wormerveer.

First Measurement of Catharina Elisabeth

The Verwer family would have known this barge as ‘Catharina Elisabeth II’, as their older, smaller barge was also called Catharina Elisabeth’. The different owner (‘Eigenaar’) name – P Zemeriks – is a little confusing. Perhaps it is someone from the shipyard, or associated with the loan or else simply a transcription mistake whilst copying the measurement record from the paper to electronic version.

The definitive records are those that show the registered owners. These are held by the Kadaster, which holds all the ownership records for large assets such as houses and ships. Peter van der Welle of the Rotterdam Kadaster ([email protected]) provided us with a copy of the first registration document for our barge, and Michel from ‘t Majeur provided us with the transliteration into readable Dutch, and a literal translation.

First Kadaster Entry for Catharina Elisabeth

Journal Part 16 nr. 422, May fourth 1900 sixteen.

Declaration of ownership

The undersigned Pieter Verwer Maartenszoon skipper at Wormerveer declares hereby to be sole owner of the steel motorvessel named Catharina Elisabeth for his expense in 1915/1916 built at Zaandam by the Unlimited Company Zaanlandsche Scheepsbouw-Maatschappij established at Zaandijk measuring about 60 tonnes having a deck and one mast, belonging at Wormerveer, which vessel has never been at the Mortgageoffice been registered and requests the mister Keeper of the mortgages and Shipscertificates above mentioned motorvessel to be in his name registered.

Wormerveer Mai 3rd 1916

(sig) P. Verwer Mz.

Nr. 31 registered at Amsterdam fourth May 1900 sixteen volume 190, folio 164 verso

Section 4, one page, no crossings out. Received for rights f1,20 for 10 cents tax f0,12 for which One guilder two and thirty cent f1,32.

The xx receiver i.a. n x (sig) van’tHaaff.

For certified copy,

The Keeper (signed)

Steel Motorvessel
“Catharina Elisabeth”
±60 tonnes
According declaration
van xxx Ships measurer J. Visser at Alkmaar
dated: 8 May 1916
Branded � Amst: 1916”

Upon that substantial beginning, we plan to discover and document as much of the history of ‘Catharina Elisabeth’ as we can.

List of site sources >>>

Watch the video: Photos Of Slavery From The Past That Will Horrify You (January 2022).