History Podcasts

Environmental Protection Agency - History

Environmental Protection Agency - History


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) - independent agency in the federal executive branch. Established in 1970, it works to protect and enhance the environment for present and future generations. The EPA's mission is to control and reduce various forms of pollution, including air, water, solid waste, pesticides, radiation and toxic substances. It works with state and local governments to develop and implement policies to attack environmental pollution.

. .



Environmental Protection Agency

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), agency of the U.S. government that sets and enforces national pollution-control standards.

In 1970, in response to the welter of confusing, often ineffective environmental protection laws enacted by states and communities, President Richard Nixon created the EPA to fix national guidelines and to monitor and enforce them. Functions of three federal departments—of the Interior, of Agriculture, and of Health, Education, and Welfare—and of other federal bodies were transferred to the new agency. The EPA was initially charged with the administration of the Clean Air Act (1970), enacted to abate air pollution primarily from industries and motor vehicles the Federal Environmental Pesticide Control Act (1972) and the Clean Water Act (1972), regulating municipal and industrial wastewater discharges and offering grants for building sewage-treatment facilities. By the mid-1990s the EPA was enforcing 12 major statutes, including laws designed to control uranium mill tailings ocean dumping safe drinking water insecticides, fungicides, and rodenticides and asbestos hazards in schools.

One of the EPA’s early successes was an agreement with automobile manufacturers to install catalytic converters in cars, thereby reducing emissions of unburned hydrocarbons by 85 percent. The EPA’s enforcement was in large part responsible for a decline of one-third to one-half in most air-pollution emissions in the United States from 1970 to 1990, and during the 1980s the pollution standards index improved by half in major cities significant improvements in water quality and waste disposal also occurred. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (also called Superfund), providing billions of dollars for cleaning up abandoned waste dumps, was first established in 1980, but the number of those waste sites and the difficulties of the cleanups remained formidable for years thereafter.

Throughout the 1980s and ‘90s the EPA continued to strengthen laws governing air and water quality and toxic substances. However, it also introduced new rules. The EPA’s accomplishments during this period included the requirement that all primary and secondary schools be tested for asbestos starting in 1982, the reauthorization of the Clean Water Act in 1987, the reauthorization of the Clean Air Act in 1990 with amendments that called for reductions in sulfur dioxide generation and the phasing out of chemicals that deplete the ozone layer, and a rule requiring the removal of all remaining lead in gasoline starting in 1996. Other regulations introduced during this time included the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (1982) and the Energy Star program (1992) the latter was implemented to rate the usage costs and energy efficiency of household appliances and other electronic devices. This period also saw the development of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), which allowed local communities to know the nature of the toxic chemicals produced by industries in their areas and assisted communities in developing emergency plans to deal with hazardous substance releases and exposures.

In the early 21st century the EPA’s role expanded to address climate change. In 2007 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in a case brought by the state of Massachusetts against the EPA that failure to regulate greenhouse gas emissions from motor vehicles was contrary to the requirements of the Clean Air Act. As a result, the EPA was given the responsibility to develop strategies to manage emissions of carbon dioxide and five other greenhouse gases. Stemming from this mandate, the EPA worked with the U.S. Department of Transportation to develop standards that would substantially increase vehicle fuel efficiency, and in 2011 it initiated a permitting program that placed the first limits on greenhouse gas emissions from power plants, refineries, and other large, stationary sources.

More Articles on Timeline

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was the largest marine oil spill in history. Learn about the extensive damage this 2010 disaster caused to marine and coastal ecosystems along the Gulf of Mexico.

The Superfund, established in 1980, is a U.S. government fund available for the cleanup of hazardous-waste dump sites and spills.

Earth Day is an annual celebration that honors the achievements of the environmental movement and raises awareness of the importance of long-term ecological sustainability.


EPA History

Born in the wake of elevated concern about environmental pollution, EPA was established on December 2, 1970 to consolidate in one agency a variety of federal research, monitoring, standard-setting and enforcement activities to ensure environmental protection. Since its inception, EPA has been working for a cleaner, healthier environment for the American people.

Learn more about EPA's accomplishments over its close-to-50-year history on the Agency Accomplishments page and on the EPA History timeline.


Before and After: America’s Environmental History

In 1971, about 70 photographers, commissioned by the newly formed Environmental Protection Agency, set out to document the American landscape on just 40 rolls of film each. They trudged through coal mines and landfills, traversed deserts and farms and discovered big cities’ small corridors. The end result was DOCUMERICA, a collection of more than 15,000 shots capturing the country’s environmental problems—from water and air pollution to industrial health hazards—over six years.

Decades later, a new generation of photographers is collecting ”after” pictures. In the past two years, the EPA has collected more than 2,000 photos, all of which loosely depict the environment. The State of the Environment Photography Project, as the effort is called, asks photographers to take shots that match scenes from DOCUMERICA, to show how the landscape has changed since the 1970s. It also asks photographers to capture new or different environmental issues, with the idea that these modern scenes could in turn be re-photographed in the distant future the EPA has released several of these shots for this year’s Earth Day. The project will accept submissions through the end of 2013.

The EPA explains that DOCUMERICA became a baseline for America’s environmental history, and that tracking change is key for public eco-consciousness.

Both images, taken by Michael Philip Manheim, show a section of East Boston in the 1970s and present day. Decades ago, rows of triple-deckers lined the streets of the neighborhood. Today, only one remains, the sole survivor of nearby airport expansion. Credit: Michael Philip Manheim/US EPA

There’s more to capturing environmental issues on camera than shooting smoke stacks and nuclear plants. The most effective way to convey them is to photograph people, says Michael Philip Manheim. Manheim, one of DOCUMERICA’s photographers, documented noise pollution in East Boston in the 󈨊s, portraying the deterioration of a close-knit community as nearby Logan Airport expanded its runways. That’s what made DOCUMERICA strike a chord with the public years ago, providing closeups of miners suffering from black lung and kids playing basketball in cramped housing developments.

“Meet the affected people, let them know how you care, find out what impacts them the most,” advises Manheim about matching his photos today. He still has the cameras he used for his assignment, which he treats as “sculptures” that stay hidden in closets. “After that, it’s time to energize a camera, and not by posing pictures but by reacting candidly to what is going on in the lives of your subjects.”

At left, DOCUMERICA photographer David Falconer’s shot of the Weyerhaeuser Paper Mills and Reynolds Metal Plant along the Columbia River in Washington State. At right, Craig Leaper’s re-creation. Credit: US EPA

Though some landscapes remain the same, Manheim says what’s changed since DOCUMERICA is the level of awareness of environmental issues. The photographer attributes this increase to the rapid spread of digital information, a visual online petition that he says Bostonians could have used to fight back in the 1970s.

At left, the Great Falls of Maine’s Androscoggin River, with the city of Lewiston in the background, captured by Charles Steinhacker in 1973. At right, a replication of the same scene by Munroe Graham. Credit: US EPA

The “now” and “then” photos show varying degrees of change when placed side-by-side, funky fashions and clunky cars aside. Clumps of unnatural foam continue to bob along polluted waters near industrial buildings, but considerably less smog hangs in the air of some urban cities. In an “after” shot of a section of John Day Dam between Oregon and Washington State, a set of wind turbines appear on the background terrain.

At left, the John Day Dam viewed from the Washington side of the Columbia River, photographed by David Falconer in 1973. At right, a similar view, including wind turbines along the ridge, taken by Scott Butner in 2012. Credit: US EPA

The ease of digital photography will help propel the current iteration of an environmental snapshot, Manheim says. When shooting on film, photographers can’t know right away whether they’ve taken “the shot.” Digital allows them to examine the first few shots of a scene, and then find better ways to convey its details.

“You don’t stand around, waiting for something to happen. You exert mental and physical energy,” Manheim says. For anyone wanting to participate in the State of the Environment project, the photographer has some advice: “Set the scene in your coverage, and then you go for the ‘good stuff.’ You get close, closer, closest. You move in to explore and find the epitomizing image, close and meaningful, that symbolizes the situation.”

In the 1970s, Manheim got to know the people who lived in the colorful triple-decker row houses lining Neptune Road in East Boston. Planes soared overhead nearly every three minutes, prompting the nearby residents to cover their ears from the deafening roar of the engines. He captured one of these low-flying planes in a photograph, shown above. In 2012, Manheim returned to the site to document it yet again. The “then” and “now” pairing tells a story that has played out over decades. Eventually, the adjacent airport built runways flush to the streets’ backyards and driveways, and today, only one home remains.

South Boston’s Moakley Park. At left, Ernst Halberstadt smog-heavy shot in 1973 at right, Roger Archibald’s 2012 take. Once a muralist for the Works Progress Administration (WPA), Halberstadt documented city life in Boston for DOCUMERICA. Credit: US EPA

In 1971, about 70 photographers, commissioned by the newly formed Environmental Protection Agency, set out to document the American landscape on just 40 rolls of film each. They trudged through coal mines and landfills, traversed deserts and farms and discovered big cities’ small corridors. The end result was DOCUMERICA, a collection of more than 15,000 shots capturing the country’s environmental problems—from water and air pollution to industrial health hazards—over six years.

Decades later, a new generation of photographers is collecting ”after” pictures. In the past two years, the EPA has collected more than 2,000 photos, all of which loosely depict the environment. The State of the Environment Photography Project, as the effort is called, asks photographers to take shots that match scenes from DOCUMERICA, to show how the landscape has changed since the 1970s. It also asks photographers to capture new or different environmental issues, with the idea that these modern scenes could in turn be re-photographed in the distant future the EPA has released several of these shots for this year’s Earth Day. The project will accept submissions through the end of 2013.

The EPA explains that DOCUMERICA became a baseline for America’s environmental history, and that tracking change is key for public eco-consciousness.

Both images, taken by Michael Philip Manheim, show a section of East Boston in the 1970s and present day. Decades ago, rows of triple-deckers lined the streets of the neighborhood. Today, only one remains, the sole survivor of nearby airport expansion. (Michael Philip Manheim/US EPA)

There’s more to capturing environmental issues on camera than shooting smoke stacks and nuclear plants. The most effective way to convey them is to photograph people, says Michael Philip Manheim. Manheim, one of DOCUMERICA’s photographers, documented noise pollution in East Boston in the 󈨊s, portraying the deterioration of a close-knit community as nearby Logan Airport expanded its runways. That’s what made DOCUMERICA strike a chord with the public years ago, providing closeups of miners suffering from black lung and kids playing basketball in cramped housing developments.

“Meet the affected people, let them know how you care, find out what impacts them the most,” advises Manheim about matching his photos today. He still has the cameras he used for his assignment, which he treats as “sculptures” that stay hidden in closets. “After that, it’s time to energize a camera, and not by posing pictures but by reacting candidly to what is going on in the lives of your subjects.”

At left, DOCUMERICA photographer David Falconer’s shot of the Weyerhaeuser Paper Mills and Reynolds Metal Plant along the Columbia River in Washington State. At right, Craig Leaper’s re-creation. (US EPA)

Though some landscapes remain the same, Manheim says what’s changed since DOCUMERICA is the level of awareness of environmental issues. The photographer attributes this increase to the rapid spread of digital information, a visual online petition that he says Bostonians could have used to fight back in the 1970s.

At left, the Great Falls of Maine’s Androscoggin River, with the city of Lewiston in the background, captured by Charles Steinhacker in 1973. At right, a replication of the same scene by Munroe Graham. (US EPA)

The “now” and “then” photos show varying degrees of change when placed side-by-side, funky fashions and clunky cars aside. Clumps of unnatural foam continue to bob along polluted waters near industrial buildings, but considerably less smog hangs in the air of some urban cities. In an “after” shot of a section of John Day Dam between Oregon and Washington State, a set of wind turbines appear on the background terrain.

At left, the John Day Dam viewed from the Washington side of the Columbia River, photographed by David Falconer in 1973. At right, a similar view, including wind turbines along the ridge, taken by Scott Butner in 2012. (US EPA)

The ease of digital photography will help propel the current iteration of an environmental snapshot, Manheim says. When shooting on film, photographers can’t know right away whether they’ve taken “the shot.” Digital allows them to examine the first few shots of a scene, and then find better ways to convey its details.

“You don’t stand around, waiting for something to happen. You exert mental and physical energy,” Manheim says. For anyone wanting to participate in the State of the Environment project, the photographer has some advice: “Set the scene in your coverage, and then you go for the ‘good stuff.’ You get close, closer, closest. You move in to explore and find the epitomizing image, close and meaningful, that symbolizes the situation.”

In the 1970s, Manheim got to know the people who lived in the colorful triple-decker row houses lining Neptune Road in East Boston. Planes soared overhead nearly every three minutes, prompting the nearby residents to cover their ears from the deafening roar of the engines. He captured one of these low-flying planes in a photograph, shown above. In 2012, Manheim returned to the site to document it yet again. The “then” and “now” pairing tells a story that has played out over decades. Eventually, the adjacent airport built runways flush to the streets’ backyards and driveways, and today, only one home remains.

South Boston’s Moakley Park. At left, Ernst Halberstadt smog-heavy shot in 1973 at right, Roger Archibald’s 2012 take. Once a muralist for the Works Progress Administration (WPA), Halberstadt documented city life in Boston for DOCUMERICA. (US EPA)


Records of the Environmental Protection Agency [EPA]

Established: As an independent agency by Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1970, effective December 2, 1970, consolidating Federal Water Quality Administration, Department of the Interior Federal Radiation Council, an independent agency and Environmental Health Service (Environmental Control Administration and National Air Pollution Control Administration), Public Health Service (PHS), Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW).

Predecessor Agencies:

Federal Radiation Council (1959-70)

In the Public Health Service, Federal Security Administration (FSA, 1949-53) and HEW (1953-70):

Division of Water Supply and Pollution Control (DWSPC, 1949-65)
Federal Water Pollution Control Administration (FWPCA, 1965-66, to Interior)

Bureau of Disease Prevention and Environmental Control (BDPEC, 1966-68)

In the Consumer Protection and Environmental Health Service (CPEHS, 1968-70), PHS, HEW and Environmental Health Service (EHS, 1970), PHS, HEW:

Environmental Control Administration (ECA, 1968-70)
National Air Pollution Control Administration (NAPCA, 1968-70)

In the Department of the Interior:

Federal Water Pollution Control Administration (1966-70)
Federal Water Quality Administration (1970)

Functions: Coordinates federal action to reduce environmental pollution.

Finding Aids: Preliminary inventory in National Archives microfiche edition of preliminary inventories.

Related Records: Record copies of publications of the Environmental Protection Agency and its predecessors in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government. Records of the Public Health Service, 1912-1968, RG 90.

412.2 RECORDS OF PREDECESSORS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
AGENCY
1944-71

History: Bureau of Disease Prevention and Environmental Control established in PHS, HEW, by HEW reorganization order, June 29, 1967, pursuant to Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1966, effective September 25, 1966, absorbing certain environmental and health functions of abolished PHS Bureaus of Medical Services and Health Services. BDPEC abolished by HEW reorganization order, July 1, 1968, with environmental functions vested in Environmental Control Administration and National Air Pollution Control Administration, which, together with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), constituted Consumer Protection and Environmental Health Service. Upon separation of FDA, effective July 1, 1970, by HEW reorganization order, January 16, 1970, CPEHS redesignated Environmental Health Service. EHS abolished by Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1970, and its functions, together with those of ECA (except Bureaus of Environmental Management Occupational Safety and Health and Radiological Health) and NAPCA, consolidated with functions of Federal Water Quality Administration (SEE 412.2.1) and Federal Radiation Council (SEE 412.2.2) to form EPA. SEE 412.1.

412.2.1 Records of the Division of Water Supply and Pollution Control and its successors, the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration and the Federal Water Quality Administration

History: Division of Water Supply and Pollution Control established in PHS, FSA, to administer the Water Pollution Control Act (62 Stat. 1155), June 30, 1948. Transferred with PHS from abolished FSA to newly created HEW by Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1953, effective April 11, 1953. Abolished and functions assigned to newly established Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, HEW, by Water Quality Act of 1965 (79 Stat. 903), October 2, 1965. FWPCA transferred to the Department of the Interior by Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1966, effective May 10, 1966. Redesignated Federal Water Quality Administration, Interior, by the Water Quality Improvement Act of 1970 (84 Stat. 113), April 3, 1970. Abolished by Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1970 and functions consolidated with those of EHS and Federal Radiation Council to form EPA. SEE 412.1.

Textual Records: River basin water pollution control studies ("River Basin Files"), 1944-59. Legislative history files, 1948- 71. Organizational history files, 1948-70. General program planning files, 1953-70. Pollution control program agency resource projections ("Needs Program"), 1956-70. Policy documents, 1949-70. Publications and speeches of DWSPC Chief Gordon E. McCallum, 1949-65. Correspondence of FWPCA Commissioner James Quigley, 1962- 67.

412.2.2 Records of the Federal Radiation Council

History: Established as an independent agency by EO 10831, August 14, 1959, to advise the President on health effects of radiation and develop radiation exposure standards. Given statutory recognition by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 Amendments (73 Stat. 690), September 23, 1959. Abolished by Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1970 and functions consolidated with those of Federal Water Quality Administration and EHS to form EPA. SEE 412.1.

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1959-70. Minutes of council meetings, 1959-70. Records relating to hearings held before the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy concerning uranium mining and electric power production, 1967-70. Organizational and budgetary records, 1959-70. Reports and other records relating to the development of radiation protection standards, 1960-69. Reports and miscellaneous studies, 1959-70.

412.3 RECORDS OF THE EFFLUENT GUIDELINES DIVISION, EPA
1973-79

Textual Records: Technical reports on effluent guidelines and performance standards, 1973-76, 1979.

412.4 RECORDS OF ADVISORY AND INTERNATIONAL BODIES
1945-70

412.4.1 Records of Water Pollution Advisory Boards

History: First Water Pollution Advisory Board established in PHS, FSA, by the Water Pollution Control Act (62 Stat. 1158), June 30, 1948. Abolished and second board established under PHS, HEW, by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (70 Stat. 498), July 9, 1956.

Textual Records: Reports, bibliographies, membership lists, and biographical sketches of members, 1960-68.

412.4.2 Records of the International Joint Commission (IJC)

History: Established pursuant to a treaty of January 11, 1909, between the United States and Great Britain (on behalf of Canada), with jurisdiction over all cases involving use, obstruction, or diversion of boundary waters, waters flowing from boundary waters, and waters at a lower level than the boundary in rivers flowing across the boundary.

Textual Records: General records, 1959-68. Records relating to pollution of waters along the Canadian-U.S. border, including correspondence and other records of an investigation of pollution sources on Lake St. Clair and on the St. Clair, Detroit, and St. Marys Rivers, 1945-57. Minutes of meetings of IJC advisory boards, 1946-70.

412.5 HEADQUARTERS RECORDS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 1948-96

412.5.1 Records of the Office of the Administrator

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1971-83. Letters sent, 1977-82. Intra-agency memorandums, 1977-84. Records of the office of regional liaison, 1972-81. Policy decision files, 1979-82. Management files of the Federal Water Quality Administration, 1966- 71. Issuances of predecessor agencies, 1966-70.

412.5.2 Records of the Associate Adminstrator for Regional Operations and State/Local Relations

Textual Records: Records of the Office of Regional and Intergovernmental Operation, consisting of regional correspondence, 1976-77.

412.5.3 Records of the Associate Adminstrator for Communications, Education and Public Affairs

Textual Records: Records of the Office of Public Affairs, consisting of transcripts of press conferences and other related records, 1971-73.

412.5.4 Records of the Associate Adminstrator for Congressional and Legislative Affairs

Textual Records: Records of the Office of Federal Activities, consisting of Federal environment impact reports and related records, 1973-79.

412.5.5 Records of the Assistant Adminstrator for Adminstration and Resources Management

Textual Records: Records of the Office for Planning and Management, consisting of administrative records, 1971-75 records relating to the consolidated grant system, 1971-78 contract files relating to environmental research, 1966-72 Congressional correspondence regarding EPA regulations, 1975-76 and comments received regarding EPA regulations, 1975-78.

412.5.6 Records of the Assistant Administrator for Enforcement

Textual Records: Records of the Office of Enforcement and General Counsel, consisting of records pertaining to regulation of interstate bodies of water, 1948-75 and transcripts of hearings regarding 180 day violations, 1969-72. Records of the Office of General Counsel, consisting of landmark litigation appeals case files, 1970-84 and landmark litigation appeals case files, 1972-79. Records of the Office of General Enforcement, consisting of technical reports and related records pertaining to hearings and conference, 1968-79 cases filed in the United States District Courts under the Refuse Act of 1899, 1970-73 criminal and civil case files regarding the Refuse Act of 1899, 1970-73 records of air pollution abatement conferences, 1964- 76 charts monitoring industrial compliance with clean air act regulations and standards, 1970-74 records relating to 180-day notices issued to violators of water quality standards, 1970-74 records of hearings conducted by the EPA on automobile emission standards, 1973 Mercedes Benz applications for suspension of automotive emission standards and related records, 1973 applications for delayed compliance orders to emission standards of the Clean Air Act, 1974-83 records of regulatory hearings concerning sulphur oxide emissions, 1973 unsigned enforcement actions, 1971-75 administrative orders, 1974-75 quarterly non-compliance reports, 1976 and municipal audit checklists, 1975-76. Records of the Office of Water Enforcement, consisting of quarterly and interim non-compliance reports, 1977-78 and records of the Permit Division, including records of the Secretary of the International Joint Commission of the Working Group on the Abatement and Control of Pollution from Dredging Activities, 1972-75 and records relating to the consolidation of permit policies and regulations, 1976-80.

412.5.7 Records of the Assistant Administrator for International Activities

Textual Records: Records of the Office of International Affairs, consisting of records of the U.S./U.S.S.R. Joint Commission on Environmental Programs, 1972-76.

412.5.8 Records of the Assistant Administrator for Research and Development

Textual Records: Records of the Office of Research and Development, consisting of forms describing research objectives, 1970-77 management and budgetary plans and other related records, 1970-77 studies and other related records assessing the health and ecological effects of pollution, 1971-77 studies and other related records regarding air, land, and water use, 1971-77 studies of monitoring and technical support programs and other related records, 1971-77 studies of acid rain and other related records, 1971-77 studies of energy, minerals, and industry programs and other related records, 1971-81 and reports of environmental impact assessment studies relating to utilities on the Lower Ohio River Basin, 1976-80.

412.5.9 Records of the Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation

Textual Records: Records of the Office of Air Program, consisting of adminstrative subject files, 1966-72 contractors final reports, 1974-84 and final reports of the Air Quality Technical Assistant (AQTA) demonstration grant program, 1979-82. Records of the Office of Noise Abatement and Control, consisting of motor carrier, railroad, and aircraft noise abatement dockets, 1966-74 and records pertaining to Federal agency noise abatement and control programs, 1972-82. Records of the Office of Mobile Source Pollution Control Programs, consisting of records relating to vehicle certification under National Emissions Standards Act of 1967, 1970-76 and records relating to air standards and regulations, 1966-77. General correspondence of the Transportation and Land Use Policy, 1979-82.

412.5.10 Records of the Assistant Administrator for Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances

Textual Records: Records of the Office of Pesticide Programs, consisting of copies of USDA Summary of Registered Agricultural Pesticide Chemical Uses and related records, 1961-73.

412.5.11 Records of the Assistant Administrator for Water

Textual Records: Clean water needs survey reports to Congress, 1973-96. Records of the Office of Water Programs Operations relating to policy and planning, 1970-81. Records of the Water Regulations and Standards, consisting of state plans for water quality standards, 1966-71 records relating to water quality problem areas, 1972-82 and records related to pollution control in the photoprocessing industry, 1973-82. Records of the Office of Drinking Water, consisting of records relating to program establishment, 1968-78 and records relating to state underground injection control programs, 1975-78.

412.6 RECORDS OF EPA FIELD ORGANIZATIONS
1951-92

412.6.1 Records of EPA Region I, Boston, MA (CT, MA, ME, NH, RI, VT)

Textual Records (in Boston): Records of the regional administrator, documenting the decision to build the Seabrook (NH) Nuclear Power Plant and subsequent program development and litigation with anti- nuclear citizen groups, 1973-79. Records of the Enforcement Division, 1974-78. Records of the Regional Air Pollution Control Director, 1969-71. "Superfund removal" case files and related records of the Environmental Services Division, 1971-93.

412.6.2 Records of EPA Region III, Philadelphia, PA (DC, DE, MD, PA, VA, WV)

Textual Records (in Philadelphia): Daily activity reports of the Regional Administrator, 1981-89. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System hearing files, 1977-83.Records of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Branch consisting of preparation files, 1976-83. Conference transcripts, 1975-76. Program development files, 1972-79. Adjudicatory hearing files, 1983. Hazardous waste superfund files-southern Maryland wood treating, 1977.

412.6.3 Records of EPA Region IV, Atlanta, GA (AL, FL, GA, KY, MS, NC, SC, TN)

Textual Records (in Atlanta): Adjudicatory hearings files of the Office of Regional Counsel, 1972, 1974-81. Records of the Legal Support Branch, consisting of 180 Notice Files--Water, 1972-85. Records of the Water Quality Standards Section, Water Projects Branch, relating to water quality standards conferences, 1969-71. Water Enforcement Branch compliance files, 1975. Kentucky-Tennessee drainage well inventory, 1984. Records of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Branch, consisting of coordination files, 1973-75 preparation files, 1974-80 and studies, 1970-78, with accompanying photographs (65 images). State implementation plan files, 1970-80. Records relating to public hearings, 1973-85. Underground injection control files, 1988. Records of the Emission Standards and Engineering Division, consisting of air quality in-house project files, 1978-87. Water grant project files for Florida, 1969-73.

Sound Recordings (139 items, in Atlanta): Audio tapes of public hearings, 1970-85. SEE ALSO 412.10.

412.6.4 Records of EPA Region V, Chicago, IL (IL, IN, MI, MN, OH, WI)

Textual Records (in Chicago): Records of the Mobile Source Air Pollution Control, Ann Arbor, MI, consisting of certification applications, 1968-74 test records, 1972 and test packets, 1974-75.

412.6.5 Records of EPA Region VI, Dallas, TX (AR, LA, NM, OK, TX)

Textual Records (in Fort Worth): Program planning and evaluation files, 1970-75. Records of public hearings on requests for ocean dumping and pollutant discharge permits, 1970-78. State water quality management plans for river basins in LA, OK, and TX, 1973-83.

Subject Access Terms: Arkansas River Brazos River Canadian River Colorado River Cypress Creek E. I. Du Pont Ethyl Corp. Guadalupe River International Paper Kennecott Copper Kerr- McGee Nuclear Corp. Lavaca River Neches River Red River Rio Grande River Sabine River San Antonio River San Jacinto River Shell Sulphur River Texaco Trinity River Weyerhaeuser Co.

412.6.6 Records of EPA Region VII, Kansas City, MO (IA, KS, MO, NE)

Textual Records (in Kansas City): Missouri and Upper Mississippi River Basin studies, 1951-71. Adjudicatory hearings files, 1972- 75. Enviromental impact statement coordination files, 1971-82.

Map (1 item, in Kansas City): Southeast quadrangle, St. Onge, SD (1954), annotated to show Crow Creek diversion, ca. 1971.

Photographs (19 images, in Kansas City): Effects of pollution and of abatement measures on tributaries of the Missouri River in WY, NE, and SD, 1951-71. SEE ALSO 412.12.

412.6.7 Records of EPA Region VIII, Denver, CO (CO, MT, UT, WY)

Textual Records (in Denver): Final report of a special study of the Garrison Diversion Project, ND, 1976-78. Regional director's schedule of daily activities, 1984-92. Speeches prepared for delivery at civic functions, professional conferences, and meetings, 1985-87.

412.6.8 Records of EPA Region IX, San Francisco, CA (AZ, CA, HI, NV)

Textual Records (in San Francisco): Enforcement Division administrative files, 1971-79. Public hearings files, 1971-79. Microfilm copy of records relating to public hearings, 1971-79 (22 rolls). Adjudicatory hearings files, 1973-79. . Evidentiary hearing files, 1979. Santa Barbara, CA, oil spill study, 1968-69. Emergency preparation progress files, 1973. Environment impact state preparation files, 1979-80.

Photographs (312 images, in San Francisco): Santa Barbara oil spill, 1968-69. SEE ALSO 412.12.

412.6.9 Records of EPA Region X, Seattle, WA (AK, ID, OR, WA)

Textual Records (in Seattle): Public hearings files, 1971-79, including records relating to the public hearing in Bellingham, WA (June 22, 1971), before the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle District, on the application by the Atlantic Richfield Company to construct an outfall pipe and discharge effluent from the Cherry Point Refinery in the Strait of Georgia, 1971. State implement plans, 1972. Technical reports, 1973. Files relating to public hearings on noise, 1971-80. Removal records, 1974-92.

412.7 CARTOGRAPHIC RECORDS (GENERAL)

412.8 MOTION PICTURES (GENERAL)
1964-76

Office of Public Awareness films on environmental pollution and its ill effects, 1969-71.

412.9 VIDEO RECORDINGS (GENERAL)
1972-90
900 items

Agency-created video recordings and video recordings of privately produced television programs relating to a wide variety of EPA activities and policies, 1969-71.

412.10 SOUND RECORDINGS (GENERAL)

412.11 MACHINE-READABLE RECORDS (GENERAL)
1987-90
7 datasets

Toxic chemical release inventory system (TRIS), 1987-90.

412.12 STILL PICTURES (GENERAL)
1959-95

Photographs (4,183 images): Air and water pollution from various sources, effects of pollution, pollution control activities and quality control systems, EPA tests and experiments, and EPA officials, 1962-72 (G, 1,400 images). Citizens, events, and activities in Mascoutah, IL, taken by Ken Heyman for EPA DOCUMERICA program, 1971, 1973-74 (DAH, 720 images). Air and water pollution control activities, Federal Water Quality Administration personnel, 1959-72 (GA, 1,920 images). Environmental impact of air and water pollution, ca. 1970 (PP, 143 images).

Color Photographs (22,221 images): Air and water pollution, urban blight, land erosion, natural resource destruction, and other subjects used in EPA DOCUMERICA program, 1972-77 (DA, DAS, DAB, DAD, DAF, DAFC 17,024 images). Similar subjects produced for, but not used in, DOCUMERICA program, 1972-77 (DM, 5,060 images). Selected subjects produced for use in DOCUMERICA 1 exhibit at the Corcoran Gallery of Art, 1972 (DOC, 137 images).

Color Slides (3,982 images): Environmental issues during the 1970's used in EPA DOCUMERICA program, 1973-75 (DAZ, 499 images). Environment-related topics such as solid waste disposal, clean air, clean water, asbestos, pesticides, and fluoride, 1974-82, with accompanying audio recordings and textual scripts (S, 3,200 images). Views of the Mississippi exhibit at the 1974 Smithsonian Folk Life Festival activities near an EPA designated ocean dumping site east of Ambrose Light in the Atlantic Ocean near New York "Saved from Extinction" pertaining to an Atlantic Loggerhead turtle conservation program on Cumberland Island, GA and the effects of various industries on the environment used in studies of lands to be included in proposed national parks, 1967-74 (MI, 283 images).

Posters (16 items): Issued in commemoration of Earth Day 1995, the posters relate to environmental issues and worker safety, ca. 1990-95 (AEP, ARP, EDP, PIP, RP, SWP, WP).

SEE Photographs UNDER 412.6.6. and 412.6.8.

Finding Aids: Image and caption color microfiche (534 fiche) and computer printout index to series DA.

Related Records: Miscellaneous correspondence, office memorandums, and records relating to exhibits and publication of DOCUMERICA photographs in newspapers and periodicals, 1972-77 (M). Paper records relating to the assignment of photographers' contracts for the DOCUMERICA project, 1972-77 (P).

Subject Access Terms: Nixon, President Richard M. (photographs of, G).

Bibliographic note: Web version based on Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives of the United States. Compiled by Robert B. Matchette et al. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995.
3 volumes, 2428 pages.

This Web version is updated from time to time to include records processed since 1995.


The History of Earth Day

Every year on April 22, Earth Day marks the anniversary of the birth of the modern environmental movement in 1970.

Let’s take a look at the last half-century of mobilization for action:

ORIGINS OF EARTH DAY

Earth Day 1970 gave a voice to an emerging public consciousness about the state of our planet —

In the decades leading up to the first Earth Day, Americans were consuming vast amounts of leaded gas through massive and inefficient automobiles. Industry belched out smoke and sludge with little fear of the consequences from either the law or bad press. Air pollution was commonly accepted as the smell of prosperity. Until this point, mainstream America remained largely oblivious to environmental concerns and how a polluted environment threatens human health.

However, the stage was set for change with the publication of Rachel Carson’s New York Times bestseller Silent Spring in 1962. The book represented a watershed moment, selling more than 500,000 copies in 24 countries as it raised public awareness and concern for living organisms, the environment and the inextricable links between pollution and public health.

Earth Day 1970 would come to provide a voice to this emerging environmental consciousness, and putting environmental concerns on the front page.

EARTH DAY FOR A NEW MILLENNIUM

As the millennium approached, Hayes agreed to spearhead another campaign, this time focused on global warming and a push for clean energy. With 5,000 environmental groups in a record 184 countries reaching out to hundreds of millions of people, Earth Day 2000 built both global and local conversations, leveraging the power of the Internet to organize activists around the world, while also featuring a drum chain that traveled from village to village in Gabon, Africa. Hundreds of thousands of people also gathered on the National Mall in Washington, DC for a First Amendment Rally.

30 years on, Earth Day 2000 sent world leaders a loud and clear message: Citizens around the world wanted quick and decisive action on global warming and clean energy.

EARTH DAY 2010

As in 1970, Earth Day 2010 came at a time of great challenge for the environmental community to combat the cynicism of climate change deniers, well-funded oil lobbyists, reticent politicians, a disinterested public, and a divided environmental community with the collective power of global environmental activism. In the face of these challenges, Earth Day prevailed and EARTHDAY.ORG reestablished Earth Day as a major moment for global action for the environment.

Over the decades, EARTHDAY.ORG has brought hundreds of millions of people into the environmental movement, creating opportunities for civic engagement and volunteerism in 193 countries. Earth Day engages more than 1 billion people every year and has become a major stepping stone along the pathway of engagement around the protection of the planet.

EARTH DAY TODAY

Today, Earth Day is widely recognized as the largest secular observance in the world, marked by more than a billion people every year as a day of action to change human behavior and create global, national and local policy changes.

Now, the fight for a clean environment continues with increasing urgency, as the ravages of climate change become more and more apparent every day.

As the awareness of our climate crisis grows, so does civil society mobilization, which is reaching a fever pitch across the globe today. Disillusioned by the low level of ambition following the adoption of the Paris Agreement in 2015 and frustrated with international environmental lethargy, citizens of the world are rising up to demand far greater action for our planet and its people.

The social and cultural environments we saw in 1970 are rising up again today — a fresh and frustrated generation of young people are refusing to settle for platitudes, instead taking to the streets by the millions to demand a new way forward. Digital and social media are bringing these conversations, protests, strikes and mobilizations to a global audience, uniting a concerned citizenry as never before and catalyzing generations to join together to take on the greatest challenge that humankind has faced.

By tapping into some of the learnings, outcomes, and legacy of the first Earth Day, EARTHDAY.ORG is building a cohesive, coordinated, diverse movement, one that goes to the very heart of what EARTHDAY.ORG and Earth Day are all about — empowering individuals with the information, the tools, the messaging and the communities needed to make an impact and drive change.

We invite you to be a part of Earth Day and help write many more chapters—struggles and victories—into the Earth Day book.


Environmental Protection Agency

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY. Following a decade of growing concern about pollution, and less than two months after the first Earth Day celebration in 1970, President Richard M. Nixon proposed creating the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Nixon presented the EPA proposal to Congress as a reorganization plan to consolidate the Federal Water Quality Administration, the National Air Pollution Control Administration, the Bureau of Solid Waste Management, and the Bureau of Water Hygiene, along with certain functions of the Council on Environmental Quality, the Atomic Energy Commission, and various other agencies into one agency. The primary mission of the new agency was to research the adverse effects of pollution and to establish and enforce standards to protect human health and the environment. Congress approved, and on 2 December 1970, the EPA opened its doors.

Nixon chose thirty-eight-year-old Assistant Attorney General William D. Ruckelshaus as EPA's first administrator. Dubbed Mr. Clean, Ruckelshaus wasted no time explaining that the EPA's primary obligation was the protection of the environment, not the promotion of commerce or agriculture. Under Ruckelshaus, the EPA first attempted to establish and enforce air quality standards. It also went after water polluters. Immediately, EPA threatened Cleveland—whose Cuyahoga River was so polluted that it had recently caught fire—Detroit, and Atlanta with lawsuits if they did not clean up their waterways. The EPA warned business and local governments that it would use the power of the courts to enforce the nation's environmental laws. Initially, however, the agency's authority was limited because few strong federal environmental laws existed.


Brief History

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is the regulatory Institution of the Government of Liberia for the sustainable management of the environment and its natural resources. The Agency was established by an act of the Legislature November 26, 2002 and published into hand bill on April 30, 2003.

The EPA operates on three basic legal Instruments: The National Environmental Policy (NEP), The Environmental Management and Protection Law of Liberia and the Act Creating the Environmental Protection Agency. Of these three instruments, the National Environmental Policy ordered the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency to ensure sound environmental management and put in place measure to avoid irreparable damage to the country’s natural resources. The NEP seeks to harmonize cross cutting functions between and amongst agencies. The NEP seeks to ensure long-term economic prosperity of Liberia through sustainable social and economic development of the generation without endangering the potential of future generation. The objective of the NEP is to improve the physical environment, the quality of life and the improvement of economic and social living condition of the citizenry present and future generations. It also seeks to ensure reconciliation and coordination between economic development and growth with the sustainable management of the natural resources. A National Environmental Policy provides a broad framework for the implementation of national objectives and plans.

The Environmental Protection and Management Law (EPML) of Liberia establishes a legal framework for the sustainable development, management and protection of the environment by the Environment Protection Agency in partnership with regulatory Ministries and organizations and in a close and responsive relationship with the people of Liberia and to provide high quality information and advice on the state of the environment and for matters connected therewith. The EMPL have several principles and objectives to include but not limited to the following: The principle of sustainable development The pre-cautionary principle, The polluter - pays principle, The principle of inter-generational equity, The principle of public participation, The principle of international co-operation in the management of environmental resources shared by two or more states and Other principles of natural resources and environmental management.

The Act creating the Agency provides the legal mandates and authority to manage coordinate, monitor and supervise in consultation with relevant line Ministries, Agencies and organization, and other relevant stakeholders for the protection of the environment and sustainable use of natural resources. The act details the functions of the EPA from the Policy Council to environmental inspectors. The Act also clearly explain the entire environmental impact assessment (EIA) process in its totality.


The History of the California Environmental Protection Agency

The California Environmental Protection Agency has led California in creating and implementing some of the most progressive environmental policies in America, from negotiating the Global Warming Solutions Act (AB 32), to launching the Green Chemistry Initiative. CalEPA has also established Environmental Justice programs, adopted a Tribal Policy, and expanded enforcement efforts. CalEPA was formally established on July 17, 1991 although its foundation was laid decades earlier through the hard work of multiple administrations.

In 1961, Governor Edmund G. Brown oversaw a comprehensive reorganization of the Executive branch, which established state agencies and placed most of the state’s environmental quality programs within the Resources Agency.

When Governor Edmund G. Brown, Jr. took office in 1975, one of his first actions was to propose establishing a separate agency dedicated to the environment. While the plan was not adopted by the Legislature, Governor Brown was able to successfully establish a new Cabinet-level position – Secretary of Environmental Affairs – tasked with advising the Governor and broadening environmental protections.

While this Cabinet-level role continued under Governor George Deukmejian, it was not until 1991, when Governor Pete Wilson took office, that CalEPA as we now know it was established.

Today’s CalEPA consists of the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the Department of Pesticide Regulation (DPR), the Department of Resources Recycling and Recovery (CalRecycle), the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC), the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA), and the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB).


Ohio Environmental Protection Agency

The Ohio state government established the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) on October 23, 1972. The OEPA is to safeguard Ohio's environment. This state agency's mission is to "protect the environment and public health by ensuring compliance with environmental laws and demonstrating leadership in environmental stewardship." The OEPA sets standards for water and air and develops programs for waste management and the clean-up of contaminated sites that pose a hazard to people's health and to the environment.

For example, concerns of an increased rate of cancer, especially leukemia, among students at Marion, Ohio's River Valley Schools arose. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) investigated the situation. This state agency discovered that some of the schools were built on land formally used by the United States Army as a waste dump. The site contained hazardous levels of at least seventy-five chemicals. The OEPA negotiated with the school district and the United States Army Corps of Engineers to have the schools relocated, resulting in a new high school, a new middle school, and two new elementary schools for the River Valley School District. At the OEPA's urging, the Ohio government earmarked 8.9 million dollars for the construction of the new schools, which were completed in 2003, and also convinced federal government authorities to contribute fifteen million dollars. Clean-up of the former dump site began in 2004.



Comments:

  1. Zule

    Why will all the laurels go to the author, and we will also hate him?

  2. Kalani

    I believe that you are wrong. Let's discuss this. Email me at PM.

  3. Mooguktilar

    And anyway I need to go

  4. Whitfield

    effectively ?

  5. Huxly

    In my opinion you are not right. I am assured. Let's discuss it. Write to me in PM.

  6. Taurg

    What suitable words ... the phenomenal phrase, admirable

  7. Melville

    I consider, that you are not right.



Write a message