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Raglan: From the Peninsula to the Crimea, John Sweetman

Raglan: From the Peninsula to the Crimea, John Sweetman



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Raglan: From the Peninsula to the Crimea, John Sweetman

Raglan: From the Peninsula to the Crimea, John Sweetman

Lord Raglan is now rather unfairly best known for his role in the Charge of the Light Brigade, but as this biography shows he actually had a much longer and rather more impressive career than is generally realised.

The key to his success was his close association with the Duke of Wellington. Raglan served as his military secretary in the Peninsular, and then worked for him in government until the Duke's death.

There is a slight tendency in the chapter on the Peninsular War to overdo the comparisons between the events in Portugal and Spain and Raglan's own command in the Crimea, but this is soon replaced by a more balanced assessment of the role his closeness to Wellington played in Raglan's career, both positive and negative (as he became associated with Wellington's later military conservatism).

Sweetman takes a generally positive view of Raglan's abilities. Raglan often takes much of the blame for the charge of the Light Brigade and for the poor conditions in the British camps on the Crimea. Sweetman defends him against both of these charges - the first by looking at the entire sequence of orders sent to Lord Lucan, the cavalry commander, before the charge began, the second by looking at the command structure in the British Army, which meant that Raglan had no authority over significant parts of his command.

This is a detailed well researched biography of a major figure in Victorian military history, painting a picture of a capable general and dedicated family man.

Chapters
1 - Childhood, Adolescence and Military Service (1788-1808)
2 - The Peninsular War (1809-1814)
3 - Diplomacy and Warfare (1814-1815)
4 - Bureaucracy and Politics (1816-1827)
5 - Military Secretary, the Horse Guards (1827-1842)
6 - Wellingtonian Twilight, The Horse Guards (1842-1852)
7 - Disillusionment, The Ordnance (1852-1853)
8 - Advance to Contact (January to August 1854)
9 - Into Battle, The Crimea (September to December 1854)
10 - Defeat, Despair and Death (January-June 1854)
Epilogue: Burial and Memorial
Conclusion: In Retrospect

Author: John Sweetman
Edition: Hardcover
Pages: 384
Publisher: Pen & Sword Military
Year: 2010 edition of 1993 original



Gallery

Field Marshal FitzRoy James Henry Somerset, 1st Baron Raglan, GCB, PC (30 September 1788 – 28 June 1855), known before 1852 as Lord FitzRoy Somerset, was a British Army officer. When a junior officer, he served in the Peninsular War and the Waterloo campaign, latterly as military secretary to the Duke of Wellington. He also took part in politics as Tory Member of Parliament for Truro, before becoming Master-General of the Ordnance. He became commander of the British troops sent to the Crimea in 1854: his primary objective was to defend Constantinople, and he was also ordered to besiege the Russian Port of Sevastopol. After an early success at the Battle of Alma, a failure to deliver orders with sufficient clarity caused the fateful Charge of the Light Brigade at the Battle of Balaclava. Despite further success at the Battle of Inkerman, a poorly coordinated allied assault on Sevastopol in June 1855 was a complete failure. Raglan died later that month, after suffering from dysentery and depression.

Born at Badminton House in Gloucestershire as the ninth and youngest son of Henry Somerset, 5th Duke of Beaufort and his wife Elizabeth (daughter of Admiral the Hon. Edward Boscawen),Somerset was educated at Westminster School and was commissioned as a cornet in the 4th Light Dragoons on 16 June 1804.


Brudenell, James Thomas, seventh earl of Cardigan

Brudenell, James Thomas, seventh earl of Cardigan ( 1797–1868 ), army officer , only surviving son of Robert, sixth earl of Cardigan (d. 1837) , and his wife, Penelope Ann Cooke (d. 1826) , was born at the Manor House, Hambleden, Buckinghamshire, on 16 October 1797 he had seven sisters. He grew tall and slender, with long golden hair and whiskers, pale blue eyes, and an aristocratic nose. From 1811 until 1813 he attended Harrow School, and then lived at the family home of Deene Park, Northamptonshire, before studying at Christ Church, Oxford (1815–17). Subsequently, he undertook the grand tour, and became an accomplished shot, swordsman, and horseman. In 1823 Captain Frederick Johnstone obtained £1000 damages from Brudenell for holding ' criminal conversation ' with his wife, but declined further satisfaction with duelling pistols. A life of adultery and bravado had truly begun. Following her divorce, Brudenell married Elizabeth Johnstone (née Tollemache) (1797–1858) on 26 June 1826 in the chapel at Ham House, Richmond, Surrey.

Brudenell sat in parliament for the corporation borough of Marlborough, controlled by his cousin Charles, second earl of Ailesbury , from 1818 until 1829, when his tenure was terminated for opposing the Catholic Relief Bill . He represented another rotten borough, Fowey in Cornwall (1830–32), until its abolition by the Reform Act . He was then elected MP for the northern division of Northamptonshire in December 1832 and re-elected three years later, but left the Commons in 1837 after succeeding to a peerage.

Never devoted to politics, Brudenell instead yearned to join the army . In November 1819 he raised a troop of yeomanry from the tenants at Deene Park, and on 6 May 1824 purchased a regular commission as cornet in the 8th hussars . Gazetted lieutenant on 13 January 1825, after three months on half pay he secured a vacancy in the 8th hussars , advancing (again by purchase) to captain on 9 June 1826 and major on 3 August 1830. Four months later, on 3 December 1830, Brudenell went on half pay as a lieutenant-colonel until 16 March 1832, when he reputedly paid over £35,000 for command of the 15th hussars . His overbearing manner and violent temper brought frequent clashes with regimental officers. He twice put Captain Augustus Wathen under arrest and, when a court-martial vindicated Wathen , he was removed from command, returning to the half-pay list on 21 March 1834. Thoroughly incensed, Brudenell lobbied furiously for another regiment. Through his sister Harriet , married to Queen Adelaide's chamberlain, Lord Howe , he sought royal support and he subjected senior politicians and influential officers to personal pressure. The military secretary at the Horse Guards, Lord Fitzroy Somerset (later Lord Raglan ) , after one of many confrontations, remarked: ' Lord Brudenell favoured me with another of his disagreeable visits yesterday ' ( Sweetman , 94 ). Brudenell's offensive paid off: on 30 March 1836 he obtained command of the 11th hussars for some £40,000 , joining his new regiment in India shortly before it returned to England.

Brudenell's father died on 14 August 1837 (his mother had died in 1826), and he succeeded as seventh earl of Cardigan . He inherited an estimated annual income of £40,000 with Deene Park and other properties in Northamptonshire, Leicestershire, Yorkshire, and London, where one house (17 Carlton House Terrace) was later leased to the French exile Louis Napoleon (afterwards Emperor Napoleon III) . Cardigan rode with the Quorn, Pytchley, and Cottesmore hunts, frequented London clubs (the Travellers', White's, Boodle's, and the short-lived Military and Country Service Club), gambled excessively, bought the steam yacht Dryad for £10,000 , and entertained lavishly at Deene Park. His marriage, however, had by then failed, though the Cardigans would never divorce. The seventh earl found solace elsewhere, reputedly siring several illegitimate offspring, and being publicly accused by Lord William Paget of conducting an affair with his wife.

Cardigan petitioned in vain to become lord lieutenant of Northamptonshire and to be awarded the Garter. Professionally, his eccentric and authoritarian behaviour brought no better relations with officers of the 11th hussars than with those of the 15th , though a letter in the United Service Gazette (12 October 1850) would praise his concern for the welfare of his soldiers. He had Captain John Reynolds arrested for supposedly drinking porter at a mess dinner in the notorious ‘Black Bottle’ incident, court-martialled Captain Richard Reynolds , placed Lieutenant William Forrest under arrest for a minor offence, causing that officer to complain to the commander-in-chief, and verbally harassed and bullied others. On 12 September 1840, Cardigan fought a duel with a former officer, Harvey Tuckett , and was arrested but in April 1841 the House of Lords, before whom he had opted to be tried, acquitted him on a legal technicality. Attacked in the press, hissed and booed at in theatres, Cardigan was further reviled for the ' atrocity ' of ordering a flogging after divine service on Easter Sunday 1841. In exasperation the commander-in-chief, Lord Hill , exclaimed: ' I am thoroughly sick of the 11th ! And all that belongs to it! ' ( Sweetman , 96 ). The United Service Club repeatedly blackballed him.

Promoted colonel on 9 November 1846, Cardigan still eschewed popularity, concentrating on rigorous discipline and creating a sartorially elegant regiment, towards which he contributed a considerable amount of his own money. When the Crimean War broke out he was appointed brigadier-general in command of the light brigade of the cavalry division . With no experience of active service and aged fifty-six, Cardigan suffered from piles, constipation, chronic bronchitis, and urinary discomfort. Nevertheless, he set out enthusiastically from London on 8 May 1854, reaching Scutari sixteen days later. On 20 June 1854 he became a major-general, which did not prevent confrontation with his brother-in-law and tetchy superior officer, the earl of Lucan . When the light brigade moved to Bulgaria, Lucan remained at Scutari Cardigan therefore believed himself to be independent of the divisional commander, which Lucan hotly disputed. Raglan's appeal to them as ' both gentlemen of high honour, and of elevated position in the country, independently of their military rank ' ( Sweetman , 235 ) failed to quell the acrimony. Raglan unwittingly exacerbated the situation by praising Cardigan for his conduct during a lengthy reconnaissance with his brigade along the Danube in June and July, and at the first skirmish in the Crimea on the Bulganek River on 19 September, where ' it was impossible for any troops to exhibit more steadiness ' ( Sweetman , 220 ).

When the allied invaders laid siege to Sevastopol from uplands to the south, the cavalry division camped on the plain below ready to protect the British supply port of Balaklava . Owing to his medical condition, Cardigan dined and slept on the Dryad in Balaklava harbour. Thus he was not with the brigade shortly after dawn on 25 October, as Russian troops overran a line of redoubts along a ridge north of Balaklava and an enemy cavalry squadron was turned back near the village of Kadikoi by the ‘thin red line’ . He had assumed command when another, stronger cavalry force swept over the captured ridge, to be checked by the heavy brigade as the light brigade remained immobile on its left flank. Criticized for lethargy, Cardigan replied that Lucan had ordered him to move only if attacked by the Russians. Lucan maintained that he had required Cardigan ' to attack anything and everything that shall come within reach of you ' ( Sweetman , 247 ).

The main action (the ' charge of the light brigade ') took place shortly after 11 a.m. Seeing the Russians about to withdraw captured British guns from the redoubts, Raglan sent Captain L. E. Nolan with a written order to Lucan for ' the cavalry to advance rapidly to the front, and try to prevent the enemy taking away the guns ' ( Sweetman , 249 ). Instead of advancing towards the ridge, Cardigan led his brigade down the valley against enemy cannon drawn up ahead: they advanced ' to the front ', certainly, but the guns were not being taken away. Of the 673 men and horses that started out, 113 men and 475 horses were killed, 247 men and 42 horses badly injured. Rebuked by Raglan , Cardigan pointed to a direct order from Lucan . Lucan in turn blamed Nolan , who had died in the action, for imprecise clarification of the order but Raglan officially censured Lucan . Whoever was at fault, Cardigan's personal bravery was acknowledged by a survivor, Captain William Morris : ' He led like a gentleman ' ( Thomas , 253 ).

Before the close of the year Cardigan had been invalided home. In England he was lauded in the press, dined with the queen, attended banquets in his honour, and was greeted in Northampton by the strains of 'See the conquering hero comes' . The United Service Club even made him an honorary member. He was also created KCB (7 July 1855), commander of the Légion d'honneur, and knight second class of the Mejidiye. Cardigan's querulous nature, though, had not been calmed. Learning that A. W. Kinglake was writing an account of the charge, Cardigan subjected him to lengthy and tedious correspondence. He reacted vigorously to the assertion by one of Raglan's aides-de-camp, the Hon. S. J. G. Calthorpe , in his book Letters from Headquarters , that he had returned down the valley at Balaklava without waiting to rally survivors: he started legal proceedings and challenged Lucan to a duel for supporting Calthorpe . Farce then ensued when Lucan arrived in Paris after his would-be opponent had recrossed the channel. Cardigan's legal action also failed, having been initiated five years after the alleged libel.

In 1859 Cardigan became colonel of the 5th dragoon guards , relinquishing that post the following year for a similar one with the 11th hussars , at whose annual dinner in 1865 he and ‘Black Bottle’ Reynolds , now both white-haired but erect, made their peace. In May 1866 Cardigan reviewed his old regiment on its departure for India. Appointed inspector-general of cavalry in 1855, after the normal period in post he retired in 1860, and he was promoted lieutenant-general on 9 March 1861.

At the age of sixty-five Cardigan fell badly while hunting and thereafter suffered occasional seizures. His taste for flirtation hardly diminished, however: he seduced Sir William Leeson's young wife, and in 1857 took as his mistress Adeline De Horsey [see Lancastre Saldanha, Adeline Louisa Maria de (1824-1915) ]. Elizabeth , Cardigan's estranged wife, died on 12 July 1858, and on 28 September Cardigan married Adeline in the garrison chapel, Gibraltar, though his new bride was never fully accepted by his social circle. Cardigan still frequented race meetings, owned an expensive yacht, and remained a member of the Royal Yacht Squadron and commodore of the Royal Southern Yacht Club. His extravagance, however, led to his mortgaging part of the estate in 1864, and when he died on 28 March 1868, two days after again falling from his horse, Adeline faced estimated debts of £365,000 with assets of £60,000 . After lying in state at Deene Park, Cardigan's body was entombed in the Brudenell chapel of St Peter's Church. The earldom devolved on Cardigan's second cousin, the marquess of Ailesbury .

Undoubtedly bad tempered, intolerant, and ultra-conservative, Cardigan was nevertheless motivated by a perverse sense of duty, which caused him bravely to advance at the head of the light brigade , be solicitous towards old soldiers, and encourage others formally to adhere to the Anglican faith, as he did himself. Belying the mischievous contention that a childhood riding accident had left him empty-headed, Cardigan published two books, Eight Months on Active Service (1855), and Cavalry Brigade Movements (1861) and three pamphlets, Trial of James Thomas, earl of Cardigan, before the Right Honourable House of Peers, for felony (1841), The Earl of Cardigan v Lieutenant-Colonel Calthorpe, Proceedings in the Queen's Bench (1863), and Statement and Remarks upon the Affidavits Filed by Lieutenant-Colonel Calthorpe (1863).


The Valley of Death

Just north of Turkey lies the Black Sea, a roughly peanut-shaped saltwater lake the size about the size of Arizona and New Mexico combined. The Crimean Peninsula juts out into the Black Sea from the north, on which sits the port city of Sevastapol. In 1853, the weakening Ottoman Empire controlled the area known as the Crimea, but Russia, sensing weakness, sent troops into the region in July of that year. Britain and France, hoping to deny the growing Russian Empire the valuable port city, sent warships and troops to aid the Ottomans, signalling the beginning of the Crimean War.

The British military had advanced very little, either technologically or strategically, since the close of the Napoleonic Wars twenty years earlier. Most of their commanders were over 60 and had fallen comfortably into peacetime mindsets. Queen Victoria appointed General FitzRoy James Henry Somerset, First Baron Raglan and former understudy to the Duke of Wellington, as overall commander of the British forces in the Crimea despite the fact that since losing an arm at Waterloo, he served mostly as an administrator and saw no active service. His cavalry commander, Major General George Charles Bingham, 3rd Earl of Lucan, greatly valued the appearance of his beloved horsemen, spending great amounts of his own money to improve their outfits and the gleam of their silver swords. Major General James Thomas Burdenell, 7th Earl of Cardigan, who also had very little practical experience, commanded the lighter of the two cavalry brigades he and his immediate commander, the Earl of Lucan, who were also brothers-in-law, hated each other passionately.

The British army landed and took control of the village of Balaklava, on the southern tip of the peninsula on the shores of the Black Sea. They drove the Russian forces back, but Lucan decided not to commit his cavalry to pursue the fleeing Russian forces, allowing the Russians time to reform. The reconstituted Russian forces attacked south towards Balaklava, but the 93rd (Sutherland) Highlanders, an infantry troop arrange in a 'thin red line' and firing madly at the opposing horsemen, repelled the attack. The so-called 'Heavy Brigade' of British Cavalry, under the command of General Sir James Yorke Scarlett, charged into a second, larger body of Russian cavalry, and sent them into a panicked rout. Simultaneously, Lucan ordered Cardigan and his 'Light Brigade' to stand still and not participate, meaning they watched while the Heavy Brigade committed this glorious charge. To the towering egos typical of mid-19th century cavalry corps, this was a terribly frustrating ordeal. Cardigan and his Light Brigade fumed.

The Heavy Brigade's charge took place in the South Valley, which ran east to west in a valley north of the coastal city of Balaklava. Further to the north, the land rose to the Causeway Heights before descending once again into another west-to-east valley called the North Valley, and finally rising to the Fedioukine Heights beyond that. This alternating valley-and-hill geography set the stage for the Battle of Balaklava and of the most famous of its actions.

Lord Raglan adopted a vantage point atop a hill on the west end of Causeway Heights, allowing him a view of both valleys. From his elevated position, he saw that Russians on the east end of the Causeway Heights had captured several British cannons and prepared to drag them away. He ordered Lucan, below him on the west end of the North Valley, to recapture those valuable guns unwisely, he trusted the message to Capt. Lewis Edward Nolan, a pompous zealot who had written a much-maligned book on how cavalry was the ultimate weapon in warfare, and who had no respect for either Cardigan or Lucan. Nolan, a skilled horseman, raced down to Lucan's site and presented Raglan's nebulous orders to charge and retake the cannon.

From Lucan's low position, he could not see the captured cannons the only Russian artillery in his view were at the far eastern end of the North Valley, a distance of over a mile. Russian forces controlling both the Fedioukine and Causeway Heights established control over the North Valley. Lucan asked the messenger Nolan for clarification, and Nolan, true to his nature, pointed at the distant Russian guns and said "There, my lord, is your enemy there are your guns." Lucan's pride prevented him from questioning the confusing and misrepresented order, and Cardigan, upon receiving his resulting order, begrudgingly accepted the command owing to his intense hate of his brother-in-law. Cardigan arranged his men into three lines, and prepared to charge through a gauntlet of gunfire toward a barely-visible target on a distant hilltop.

The Light Brigade rode into the North Valley, trotting at first, while Lucan, Scarlett, and the Heavy Brigade followed behind. Cardigan, perhaps sensing his men's enthusiasm or giving way to his own, increased the speed of the Light Brigade, and the Heavy Brigade was soon left lagging behind. Cannon and rifle fire erupted from both sides of the valley, claiming the messenger Nolan as one of its first fatalities, and an enormous cloud of dust obscured the charging British horsemen. Lucan suffered a minor wound to the leg, his horse was hit twice, and one his captains was shot dead by his side he quickly decided that having the Heavy Brigade continue would be a death sentence, and so he ordered them to abandon the charge and fall back. The Light Brigade was left to its own fate.

With drawn sabers and levelled lances, the Light Brigade thundered toward the most distant guns at full speed. They could hardly see the length of their arm for all of the dust, and every second the Russian guns produced more gravely wounded cavalrymen and riderless horses, and yet the charge persisted. Amazingly, some of the Light Brigade reached the Russian gun battery on the far east side of the Valley, and began hacking and chopping at the gun crews. However, a Russian counter-charge forced the Light Brigade to retreat through the same line of fire as they approached, receiving even more gunfire as they went.

The Charge of the Light Brigade was a military disaster, costing one of the best cavalry units in the world about 40% of its number. Almost none of the light horsemen escaped unwounded one later wrote that he was the only one left out of the ten men who normally slept in his assigned tent. After British forces nonetheless took Sevastopol, Cardigan was regaled as the hero of the day in London, and presented his story personally to Queen Victoria and Prince Albert as a moment of great heroism. The Cardigan vest, later identified with the modern type of sweater, became a popular piece of clothing because of his actions in the Crimea. Raglan and Lucan blamed each other for the failure Raglan continued his role in the Crimean before dying of dysentary two years later, while Lucan would be eventually promoted to Field Marshal, although he never again saw action in the field.

Links and Sources:
Campaign 6: Balaclava 1854, The Charge of the Light Brigade, by John Sweetman, Osprey Publishing, 1990. The color image of the cavalryman is by Michael Roffe and is from that book.
How to Lose a Battle, by Bill Fawcett, Harper Collins, 2006.
Period photo of the cavalryman is that of Cornet Henry John Wilkin of the 11th Hussars, a survivor of the Charge, and was taken by Roger Fenton.
The painting "Charge of the Light Brigade" is by Thomas Jones Barker.


Lies, damn lies, and statistics

The science of statistics was in its infancy during the mid-nineteenth century and some of the methods of data handling appear unusual by today’s standards. For example, it is nonsensical to calculate the average weight of a growing child by adding the weight on each birthday and dividing the sum by the age in years. It is inappropriate, therefore, to adopt a similar approach for estimating the size of the army as this is influenced by gains from reinforcements and returning convalescents and losses from enemy action, disease, and redeployment. It is for this reason that the method adopted by Colonel Alexander Tulloch, one of the Supplies Commissioners, is questionable, summing the number of deaths during ‘n’ months and dividing the total by the average monthly strength during that period. 35 This is illustrated clearly when the whole campaign is considered (Table 1). Tulloch’s denominator of 37,324 men was far too low given that the number sent to the East was two and a half times greater at approximately ninety-four thousand. 36 The use of Tulloch’s approach resulted in an overall mortality rate of 43.5 per cent, a figure which is clearly incorrect as it is over twice what it was in reality.

The mortality rate for the whole campaign calculated using Colonel Tulloch’s method, April 1854–June 1856.

Year Month Estimated monthly strength* No. of deaths † Cumulative average monthly strength ‡ Cumulative deaths Tulloch’s mortality rate (col. 6/col. 5)x100
1854 Apr. 8,265 3 8,265 3 <0.1
May 21,789 21 15,027 24 0.2
June 25,122 17 18,392 41 0.2
July 28,722 379 20,975 420 2.0
Aug. 30,226 852 22,825 1,272 5.6
Sep. 30,329 858 24,076 2,130 8.8
Oct. 30,607 624 25,009 2,754 11.0
Nov. 29,791 937 25,606 3,691 14.4
Dec. 32,799 1,847 26,406 5,538 21.0
1855 Jan. 32,469 3,076 27,012 8,614 31.9
Feb. 31,027 2,478 27,377 11,092 40.5
Mar. 30,082 1,377 27,602 12,469 45.2
Apr. 31,328 531 27,889 13,000 46.6
May 35,063 543 28,401 13,543 47.7
June 39,226 830 29,123 14,373 49.4
July 42,919 414 29,985 14,787 49.3
Aug. 44,414 507 30,834 15,294 49.6
Sep. 48,243 208 31,801 15,502 48.8
Oct. 48,812 145 32,696 15,647 47.9
Nov. 49,942 206 33,559 15,853 47.2
Dec. 50,089 116 34,346 15,969 46.5
1856 Jan. 50,881 87 35,098 16,056 45.8
Feb. 50,319 39 35,759 16,095 45.0
Mar. 55,000 49 36,561 16,144 44.2
Apr. 54,452 37 37,277 16,181 43.4
May 47,472 24 37,669 16,205 43.0
June 25,935 6 37,234 16,211 43.5
General total 37,234 16,211 Not relevant

* Calculated from the Medical and Surgical History of British Army in Turkey and Crimea during Russian War (HC Command Papers (1857–58) C. (1st series) 2434, II, p. 43, cols 2 and 6).

† Transcribed from the Medical and Surgical History, II, pp. 43, 44, col. 2, respectively, being the sum of those numbers recorded for the cavalry, ordnance (Royal Artillery and Royal Sappers and Miners), and infantry including the foot guards.

‡ The average strength calculated on the basis that the campaign had finished during the month in question, in other words the sum of the strength for ‘n’ months in column 3 divided by ‘n’.

There can be no doubt that death is a once in a lifetime experience and so quoting a mortality rate in excess of one hundred per cent is a biological impossibility. Yet, Nightingale did so, as illustrated in Table 2. The cause of this distortion is the scaling up of the rate to show per cent per annum. She justified this, with perhaps a touch of arrogance, by suggesting that giving a percentage figure ‘is simply misleading to the authorities, unless indeed, which is hardly likely, they are thoroughly au fait at statistical inquiries’ because the ‘standard comparison all over the civilized world would be in percentages per annum’. 37 This ploy may be useful for persuading policy makers to introduce improvements but in other respects it is indefensible, the more so because the valid statistic presented in the third column of Table 2 would seem to make the point equally forcibly.

Mortality in the hospitals in England, Scutari, and Kululi.

Location Mortality
Rate per cent per annum of sick population Per cent of cases treated
Eleven London General Hospitals 82 7.6
Fever Hospital 110.5 11.3
Military and Naval Hospitals in London 39 2.4
Scutari and Kululi General Hospitals during 4 months 203 19.8
During 4 weeks 319 32.1
During 4 weeks 415 42.7
Kululi during 4 weeks 608 52
Scutari and Kululi, summer, 1855 34 2.2

Adapted from the anonymously published A Contribution to the Sanitary History of the British Army during the Late War with Russia (London: Harrison, 1859), p. 6.

In addition, there are some examples in the modern literature that reveal a failure to consult primary sources of information before publication. For example, cholera accounted for only 246 (4.5%) of 5,432 deaths in the Scutari hospitals, and yet the Commonwealth War Graves Commission stated that Haidar Pasha cemetery adjacent to the General Hospital at Scutari contained about six thousand graves of the Crimean War, mostly the result of a cholera epidemic in Istanbul. 38 Similarly, typhus was responsible for only 49 (0.9%) deaths, though the Science Museum suggested that ‘Florence Nightingale worked to reduce the numbers of soldiers who were dying from diseases like typhus, caused by poor standards of cleanliness’. 39 A third example of an oversight in this context is provided by Edgerton, who wrote that ‘the deadliest killers were diseases, including pneumonia and tuberculosis […], typhus, and malaria’, while in fact these conditions accounted for only 161 (1%), 116 (0.7%), 285 (1.75%), and 311 (1.9%), respectively, of all deaths from disease. 40


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B/w illustrations. Biography of Fitzroy James Henry Somerset, first Baron Raglan. ISBN: 1854090593. A few light marks to endpapers and outer page edges. Some edge-creasing to wrapper.

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MOSQUITO THE ORIGINAL MULTI-ROLE AIRCRAFT
Written by Graham M. Simons.
Stock no. 2132161
Published by Arms & Armour Press. 1st 1990. Slightly better than very good condition in a slightly better than very good dustwrapper.

B/w photos. 160 pages. ISBN: 0853689954. A few light foxspots to spine. Wrapper is price-cut.

£ 26.00

GERMAN MILITARY TRANSPORT OF WORLD WAR TWO
Written by John Milsom.
Stock no. 1817944
Published by Arms & Armour Press. 1st 1975. Very good condition in a very good dustwrapper.

Lorries and cars of the German army, 1933-1945. B/w photos. 224 pages. ISBN: 0853682690. Contents lightly browned. Pictorial dustwrapper is edge-rubbed and worn, slightly faded to spine.

£ 12.00

GREAT ZULU BATTLES 1838-1906
Written by Ian Knight.
Stock no. 2131429
Published by Arms & Armour Press. 1998. Nearly fine condition in a slightly better than very good dustwrapper.

Burgundy boards, gilt title to spine. B/w maps and plates. ISBN: 1854093908.

£ 12.00

ELITE UNIT INSIGNIA OF THE VIETNAM WAR
Written by Leroy Thompson.
Stock no. 1817194
Published by Arms & Armour Press. 1st 1986. Fine condition in a fine dustwrapper.

An Illustrated Reference Guide for Collectors. With 1987/88 price guide. Red cloth boards, gilt title to spine. B/w illustrations. ISBN: 085368815X.

£ 12.00

THE ROYAL AIR FORCE OF WORLD WAR TWO IN COLOUR
Written by Roger Freeman.
Stock no. 1817087
Published by Arms & Armour Press. 1st 1993. Nearly fine condition in a slightly better than very good dustwrapper.

Large format. Packed with colour pictures. ISBN: 1854091859. Minor foxing to top edge of text block. Blue pictorial dustwrapper crinkled by damp to lower front edge (no staining).

£ 16.00

THE RED BARON COMBAT WING
Written by Peter Kilduff.
Stock no. 2127877
Published by Arms & Armour Press. 1st 1997. Slightly better than very good condition in a slightly better than very good dustwrapper.

Jagdgeschwader Richthofen In Battle. Blue boards, gilt title to spine. B/w photos. ISBN: 1854092669.

£ 20.00

THE NAPOLEONIC SOURCE BOOK
Written by Philip Haythornthwaite.
Stock no. 2126547
Published by Arms & Armour Press. 1st 1990. Slightly better than very good condition in a slightly better than very good dustwrapper.

A detailed historical section plus a comprehensive list of all the battles, together with details of the numerous treaties and conventions. The weaponry and tactics employed. The medical services, the organisation, composition and uniforms of more than 50 countries which fought. Some 40 detailed biographies of the leading military and naval figures. B/w illustrations. ISBN: 0853689695. Bumping to spine. Contents are excellent. Wrapper is edge-creased and faded to spine.

£ 12.00

Card wraps. B/w photos and colour illustrations. ISBN: 1854090569.


Raglan: From the Peninsula to the Crimea, John Sweetman - History

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J.M. Roberts 1993 History of the World , London &ndash BCA

Michael Byrne 1998 Britain and the European Powers 1815-65 , London &ndash Hodder & Stoughton

Richard Natkiel/Antony Preston 1986 The Weidenfeld Atlas of Maritime History &ndash Weidenfeld Macmillan

R.L.V. ffrench Blake 1971 The Crimean War &ndash Leo Cooper Ltd

W.H. Russell, ed. N. Bentley 1966 Despatches from the Crimea André Deutsch

Earl of Malmesbury 1884 Memoirs of an ex-Minister &ndash Longmans Green

Baron de Bazancourt 1857 L'Expédition de Crimée &ndash Librairie d'Amyot

ed. R. Hudson, intro. Max Hastings William Russell, Special Correspondent of The Times , 1995, The Folio Society, London.
[Link to worldcat.org database]

Col. J.J.G. Cler 1860 Reminiscences of an Officer of Zouaves New York, &ndash D Appleton & Co. DOWNLOAD

Byron Farwell 1981 For Queen and Country Allen Lane

Mark Adkin 1996 The Charge &ndash Pimlico 2000

Paddy Griffith 1989 Military Thought in the French Army, 1815-51 Manchester University Press

Baron de Bazancourt 1857 L'Expédition de Crimée &ndash Librairie d'Amyot

Col. J.J.G. Cler 1860 Reminiscences of an Officer of Zouaves New York, &ndash D Appleton & Co. DOWNLOAD

John Shelton Curtis 1965 The Russian Army under Nicholas I, 1825-1855 Duke University Press, Durham NC, USA

Robert H.G. Thomas & Richard Scollins 1991 The Russian Army of the Crimean War 1854&ndash56 Osprey Publishing Ltd

Christopher Hibbert 1961 The Destruction of Lord Raglan &ndash Wordsworth Editions (1999)

Osprey Military Campaign Series 6, 1990 Cavalry Illustration &ndash Osprey Publishing Ltd


Sources, Chapter 3a &mdash British Order of Battle

Tony Margrave &ndash List of British Officers Serving in the Crimea

The Dictionary of National Biography &ndash Oxford University Press


Sources, Chapter 3b &mdash French Order of Battle

A.W. Kinglake 1863-87 The Invasion of the Crimea William Blackwood & Sons, Edinburgh & London

Christopher Hibbert 1961 The Destruction of Lord Raglan &ndash Wordsworth Editions (1999)

Mark Adkin 1996 The Charge &ndash Pimlico 2000

Baron de Bazancourt 1857 L'Expédition de Crimée &ndash Librairie d'Amyot

Lt. Col. John Adye CB 1860 A Review of the Crimean War to the Winter of 1854&ndash55 EP Publishing Ltd (1973)
Original 1860 edition: A Review of the Crimean War to the Winter of 1854&ndash55 Hurst & Blackett, London. DOWNLOAD

Cecil Woodham Smith 1953 The Reason Why Constable

Lord George Paget, ed. C.S. Paget 1881 The Light Cavalry Brigade in the Crimea , John Murray, London

Piers Compton 1972 Cardigan of Balaclava Robert Hale & Co.

Col. J.J.G. Cler 1860 Reminiscences of an Officer of Zouaves New York, &ndash D Appleton & Co. DOWNLOAD

Rev. Robert Edgar Hughes 1856 Two Summer Cruises with the Baltic Fleet in 1854 55 Smith, Elder & Co. London. DOWNLOAD

John Duncan & John Walton 1991 Heroes for Victoria Spellmount Ltd

R.L.V. ffrench Blake 1971 The Crimean War &ndash Leo Cooper Ltd

Baron de Bazancourt 1857 L'Expédition de Crimée &ndash Librairie d'Amyot

A.W. Kinglake 1863-87 The Invasion of the Crimea William Blackwood & Sons, Edinburgh & London

Cecil Woodham Smith 1953 The Reason Why Constable

Mark Adkin 1996 The Charge &ndash Pimlico 2000

Christopher Hibbert 1961 The Destruction of Lord Raglan &ndash Wordsworth Editions (1999)

ed. A.Lambert & S. Badsey 1994 The War Correspondents &ndash The Crimean War Bramley Books (1997) [ Link to A. Sutton 1994 edition ]

Baron de Bazancourt 1857 L'Expédition de Crimée &ndash Librairie d'Amyot

Lt. Col. John Adye CB 1860 A Review of the Crimean War to the Winter of 1854&ndash55 EP Publishing Ltd (1973)
Original 1860 edition: A Review of the Crimean War to the Winter of 1854&ndash55 Hurst & Blackett, London. DOWNLOAD

Anthony Dawson 2014 Letters from the Light Brigade Pen & Sword Books Ltd, Barnsley. [ Link to Pen & Sword Books ]

A.W. Kinglake 1863&ndash87 The Invasion of the Crimea Volume 3 William Blackwood & Sons, Edinburgh & London. DOWNLOAD

Albert Seaton 1977 The Crimean War: A Russian Chronicle B.T. Batsford Ltd

Baron de Bazancourt 1857 L'Expédition de Crimée &ndash Librairie d'Amyot

Lt. Col. A. Sterling 1895 The Highland Brigade in the Crimea John MacQueen, London

Algernon Percy 2005 A Bearskin's Crimea Leo Cooper

Algernon Percy 2005 A Bearskin's Crimea Leo Cooper

Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.) . Cambridge University Press

Mark Adkin 1996 The Charge &ndash Pimlico 2000

Christopher Hibbert 1961 The Destruction of Lord Raglan &ndash Wordsworth Editions (1999)

ed. A.Lambert & S. Badsey 1994 The War Correspondents &ndash The Crimean War Bramley Books (1997) [ Link to A. Sutton 1994 edition ]

Lt. Col. John Adye CB 1860 A Review of the Crimean War to the Winter of 1854&ndash55 EP Publishing Ltd (1973)
Original 1860 edition: A Review of the Crimean War to the Winter of 1854&ndash55 Hurst & Blackett, London. DOWNLOAD

Baron de Bazancourt 1857 L'Expédition de Crimée &ndash Librairie d'Amyot

Albert Seaton 1977 The Crimean War: A Russian Chronicle B.T. Batsford Ltd

Cecil Woodham Smith 1953 The Reason Why Constable

Anthony Dawson 2014 Letters from the Light Brigade Pen & Sword Books Ltd, Barnsley. [ Link to Pen & Sword Books ]

W.H. Russell, ed. N. Bentley 1966 Despatches from the Crimea André Deutsch

H. Evelyn Wood 1895 The Crimea in 1854 and 1894 , Chapman & Hall Ltd, London
Plus ebook at archive.org DOWNLOAD

A.W. Kinglake 1863&ndash87 The Invasion of the Crimea Volume 3 William Blackwood & Sons, Edinburgh & London. DOWNLOAD

Lt. Col. John Adye CB 1860 A Review of the Crimean War to the Winter of 1854&ndash55 EP Publishing Ltd (1973)
Original 1860 edition: A Review of the Crimean War to the Winter of 1854&ndash55 Hurst & Blackett, London. DOWNLOAD

Col. J.J.G. Cler 1860 Reminiscences of an Officer of Zouaves New York, &ndash D Appleton & Co. DOWNLOAD

Albert Seaton 1977 The Crimean War: A Russian Chronicle B.T. Batsford Ltd

Lieutenant&ndashGénéral E. de Todleben 1863 Défense de Sébastopol, Tome 1 N. Thieblin et Co. St Petersburg. DOWNLOAD

Ian Fletcher & Natalia Ischenko 2004 The Crimean War: A Clash of Empires Spellmount, The History Press

Christopher Hibbert 1961 The Destruction of Lord Raglan &ndash Wordsworth Editions (1999)

Cecil Woodham Smith 1953 The Reason Why Constable

Anthony Dawson 2014 Letters from the Light Brigade Pen & Sword Books Ltd, Barnsley. [ Link to Pen & Sword Books ]

H. Evelyn Wood 1895 The Crimea in 1854 and 1894 , Chapman & Hall Ltd, London
Plus ebook at archive.org DOWNLOAD

Lord George Paget, ed. C.S. Paget 1881 The Light Cavalry Brigade in the Crimea , John Murray, London

Mark Adkin 1996 The Charge &ndash Pimlico 2000

John Sweetman 1990 Balaklava 1854 Osprey Publishing. [ Also available to buy as a Google ebook through the link ]

Albert Seaton 1977 The Crimean War: A Russian Chronicle B.T. Batsford Ltd

Ian Fletcher & Natalia Ischenko 2004 The Crimean War: A Clash of Empires Spellmount, The History Press

Thomas Morley 1892 The Cause of the Charge at Balaclava [ Link to ebook at Project Gutenberg ] DOWNLOAD

Sergeant Alfred Mitchell 1885 Recollections of One of the Light Brigade N. Ginder, Canterbury
transc. & annot. L. W. Crider & G. Fisher 2009 SP31 Recollections of the Light Brigade by Albert Mitchell CWRS, Lulu.com

Wightman Pte. J.W. May 1892 One of the Six Hundred on the Balaclava Charge Nineteenth Century Magazine [ Link to cosmobooks.co.uk ]

Baron de Bazancourt 1857 L'Expédition de Crimée &ndash Librairie d'Amyot

Lt. Col. A. Sterling 1895 The Highland Brigade in the Crimea John MacQueen, London

A.W. Kinglake 1863&ndash87 The Invasion of the Crimea &ndash Vol 6 W. Blackwood & Sons. [ Link is to 'Classic Reprint', 2012, at Amazon ]

ed. Michael Hargreave Mawson 2001 Eyewitness in the Crimea Greenhill Books, London.

Albert Seaton 1977 The Crimean War: A Russian Chronicle B.T. Batsford Ltd

Patrick Mercer 1998 Inkerman 1854 &ndash The Soldiers' Battle Osprey &ndash Reed Consumer Books Ltd

Algernon Percy 2005 A Bearskin's Crimea Leo Cooper

R.L.V. ffrench Blake 1971 The Crimean War &ndash Leo Cooper Ltd

C.E. Vulliamy 1939 Crimea Jonathan Cape Ltd, London

W.H. Russell 1855 The Battles of the Crimean War G.S. Wells, New York. [Link to Hathi Digital Library] DOWNLOAD

Baron de Bazancourt 1857 L'Expédition de Crimée &ndash Librairie d'Amyot

ed. A.Lambert & S. Badsey 1994 The War Correspondents &ndash The Crimean War Bramley Books (1997) [ Link to A. Sutton 1994 edition ]

Wrench Collection , Wr Wre Wr Ki Wr/BT University of Nottingham Library. [ Link to collection in Univ. of Nott. lib. online cat. ]

Cecil Woodham Smith 1950 Florence Nightingale 1820 1910 Constable, London

Elspeth Huxley 1975 Florence Nightingale Weidenfeld & Nicolson

ed. Tim Coates 2000 Florence Nightingale and the Crimea 1854-55 London: The Stationery Office

A.W. Kinglake 1863-87 The Invasion of the Crimea Volume 4 Blackwood & Sons, Edinburgh & London DOWNLOAD

Christopher Hibbert 1961 The Destruction of Lord Raglan &ndash Wordsworth Editions (1999)

W.H. Russell, ed. N. Bentley 1966 Despatches from the Crimea André Deutsch

Lawrence W. Crider 2001 A Day of Disasters &ndash 14th November &ndash Part 1 The War Correspondent Vol 19 No 2 CWRS [ Link to The War Correspondent Index ]

Lawrence W. Crider 2001 A Day of Disasters &ndash 14th November &ndash Part 2 The War Correspondent Vol 19 No 3 CWRS [ Link to The War Correspondent Index ]

Lt. Col. John Adye CB 1860 A Review of the Crimean War to the Winter of 1854&ndash55 EP Publishing Ltd (1973)
Original 1860 edition: A Review of the Crimean War to the Winter of 1854&ndash55 Hurst & Blackett, London. DOWNLOAD

C.E. Vulliamy 1939 Crimea Jonathan Cape Ltd, London

Col. J.J.G. Cler 1860 Reminiscences of an Officer of Zouaves New York, &ndash D Appleton & Co. DOWNLOAD

Edward Wells 1987 Mailshot: A history of the Forces Postal Service Defence Postal & Courier Services, London

Letter from Smith To Canning June 1854 POST 29/71 The British Postal Museum & Archive [ Link to museum's online cat. ref. ]

Punch Magazine 1855 Vol XXVIII [ Link to ebook at archive.org ] DOWNLOAD

A.C. Sterling 1857 Letters from the Army in the Crimea for Private Circulation only printed by Robson, Levey and Franklyn
Plus ebook at archive.org DOWNLOAD

Leo Tolstoy 1855&ndash6 (transl. D. McDuff 1986) The Sebastopol Sketches Penguin Books Ltd, London

Albert Seaton 1977 The Crimean War: A Russian Chronicle B.T. Batsford Ltd

transl. A. Kennaway from V. Porudominsky (1969) Pirogov in Sevastopol, CWRS Special Publication No.8 CWRS, Lulu.com

Hugh Robert Hibbert Letters DHB/57 The National Archives, Kew [ Letter held by Cheshire Archives and Local Studies ]

Denis Judd 1975 Palmerston Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London

Philip Magnus 1954 Gladstone, A Biography John Murray, London [ Link to E.P. Dutton 1954 edtion ]
Plus ebook at archive.org DOWNLOAD

Alain Gouttman 1995 La Guerre de Crimée 1853-1856 Editions S.P.M. Paris

Fenton Bresler 1999 Napoleon III &ndash A Life Harper Collins, London

Christopher Hibbert 1961 The Destruction of Lord Raglan &ndash Wordsworth Editions (1999)

A.W. Kinglake 1880 The Invasion of the Crimea Vol 7 William Blackwood & Sons, Edinburgh & London
Plus ebook at archive.com DOWNLOAD

Gen. Sir E. Hamley 1900 The War in the Crimea Seeley & Co. London [ Link to 1891 edition ]
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Albert Seaton 1977 The Crimean War: A Russian Chronicle B.T. Batsford Ltd

ed. Michael Hargreave Mawson 2001 Eyewitness in the Crimea Greenhill Books, London.

Tom Langley 1973 The Life of Tom Sayers Vance Harvey Publishing

G.M. Trevelyan 1976 English Social History Longman Group Ltd

The Late Mr Ken Horton of the Crimean War Research Society &ndash Adviser.

ed. Tim Coates 2000 Florence Nightingale and the Crimea 1854-55 London: The Stationery Office

Cecil Woodham Smith 1950 Florence Nightingale 1820 1910 Constable, London

Elspeth Huxley 1975 Florence Nightingale Weidenfeld & Nicolson

Lytton Strachey 1918 Eminent Victorians Chatto & Windus [ Link to Modern Library 1918 edition ]

Florence Nightingale 1851 Curriculum Vitae [ Link to transcription at countryjoe.com ]

Florence Nightingale 1859 Notes on Nursing &ndash What it is and what it is not Harrison, 59 Pall Mall, London DOWNLOAD

ed. A.Lambert & S. Badsey 1994 The War Correspondents &ndash The Crimean War Bramley Books (1997) [ Link to A. Sutton 1994 edition ]

Brian Cooke 1990 The Grand Crimean Central Railway Cavalier House

Philip Marsh 2000 Beatty's Railway New Cherwell Press Oxford

Lt. Col. A. Sterling 1895 The Highland Brigade in the Crimea John MacQueen, London

W.H. Russell, ed. N. Bentley 1966 Despatches from the Crimea André Deutsch

Mr Tony Margrave of the Crimean War Research Society, who generously provided me copies of his collection of Operation Orders and After Battle Reports by commanders participating in the Battle of Eupatoria.

Christopher Hibbert 1961 The Destruction of Lord Raglan &ndash Wordsworth Editions (1999)

ed. Michael Hargreave Mawson 2001 Eyewitness in the Crimea Greenhill Books, London.

George Palmer Evelyn, ed. & pref. Cyril Falls 1954 A Diary of the Crimea Gerald Duckworth & Co. London

Albert Seaton 1977 The Crimean War: A Russian Chronicle B.T. Batsford Ltd

transl. M. Conrad 2001 Yevpatoria in the Crimean War The War Correspondent Vol 18 No 4, CWRS [ Link to The War Correspondent Index ]

Gen. Sir E. Hamley 1900 The War in the Crimea Seeley & Co. London [ Link to 1891 edition ]
Plus ebook at archive.org [ Link is to one of several versions at archive.org ] DOWNLOAD

Alexis Soyer 1857 A Culinary Campaign Southover Press (1995 Reprint). Plus ebook at Project Gutenberg DOWNLOAD

F. Clement&ndashLorford 2001 Alexis Soyer &ndash The First Celebrity Chef Private Printing. [ Link to ebook at academia.edu ] DOWNLOAD

The Dictionary of National Biography &ndash Oxford University Press

Baron de Bazancourt 1857 L'Expédition de Crimée &ndash Librairie d'Amyot

Col. J.J.G. Cler 1860 Reminiscences of an Officer of Zouaves New York, &ndash D Appleton & Co. DOWNLOAD

Alain Gouttman 1995 La Guerre de Crimée 1853-1856 Editions S.P.M. Paris

Fenton Bresler 1999 Napoleon III &ndash A Life Harper Collins, London

ed. Michael Hargreave Mawson 2001 Eyewitness in the Crimea Greenhill Books, London.

Gen. Sir E. Hamley 1900 The War in the Crimea Seeley & Co. London [ Link to 1891 edition ]
Plus ebook at archive.org [ Link is to one of several versions at archive.org ] DOWNLOAD

Herman Van Meir 2003 Sardinia and the War Suite 101 [ now defunct ]

Uberto Govone 1920 Il Generale Giuseppe Govoni Frammenti di Memorie Fratelli Bocca Editori Torino [ Link to 1929 edition ]

George Palmer Evelyn, ed. & pref. Cyril Falls 1954 A Diary of the Crimea Gerald Duckworth & Co. London

Pier Giusto Jaeger 1991 Le Mura di Sebastopoli Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, Milano

Cristoforo Manfredi 1956 La Spedizione Sarda in Crimea nel 1855&ndash56 Stato Maggiore Esercito, Roma

Franco Valsecchi 1968 L'Europa e il Risorgimento: L'alleanza di Crimea Vallecchi Editore, Firenze

Rear&ndashAdmiral Adolphus Slade K.C.B. 1867 Turkey and the Crimean War Smith Elder & Co. Cornhill, London. DOWNLOAD

James Henry Skeane 1883 With Lord Stratford in the Crimean War Richard Bentley & Son London

Alexis Soyer 1857 A Culinary Campaign Southover Press (1995 Reprint). Plus ebook at Project Gutenberg DOWNLOAD

F. Clement&ndashLorford 2001 Alexis Soyer &ndash The First Celebrity Chef Private Printing. [ Link to ebook at academia.edu ] DOWNLOAD

Chapter 17a &mdash Allied Order of Battle Feb 1855

Roger Fenton Letters from the Crimea [ Link is to the De Montfort University website ] DOWNLOAD

John Bilcliffe 1995 Well Done the 68th! Picton Publishing (Chippenham) Ltd

Piers Compton 1970 Colonel's Lady and Camp Follower: The Story of Women in the Crimean War St Martin's Press, New York [ Link to Hale edition ]

Gen. Sir E. Hamley 1900 The War in the Crimea Seeley & Co. London [ Link to 1891 edition ]
Plus ebook at archive.org [ Link is to one of several versions at archive.org ] DOWNLOAD

W.H. Russell, ed. N. Bentley 1966 Despatches from the Crimea André Deutsch

Christopher Hibbert 1961 The Destruction of Lord Raglan &ndash Wordsworth Editions (1999)

A.W. Kinglake 1880 The Invasion of the Crimea Vol 8 William Blackwood & Sons, Edinburgh & London [ Link to reprint ]
Plus ebook at archive.org DOWNLOAD

Mary Seacole 1857 Wonderful Adventures of Mrs Seacole in Many Lands Blackwood, London [ Link to OUP edition 1988 ]
Plus ebook at Project Gutenberg DOWNLOAD

C.E. Vulliamy 1939 Crimea Jonathan Cape Ltd, London

ed. G. Douglas & G.D. Ramsay 1908 The Panmure Papers Hodder & Stoughton London

Cecil Woodham Smith 1950 Florence Nightingale 1820 1910 Constable, London

Elspeth Huxley 1975 Florence Nightingale Weidenfeld & Nicolson

W.H. Russell, ed. N. Bentley 1966 Despatches from the Crimea André Deutsch

A.W. Kinglake 1880 The Invasion of the Crimea Vol 8 William Blackwood & Sons, Edinburgh & London [ Link to reprint ]
Plus ebook at archive.org DOWNLOAD

A.W. Kinglake 1880 The Invasion of the Crimea Vol 9 William Blackwood & Sons, Edinburgh & London. [ Link to Vol 9 at archive.org ] DOWNLOAD

John Duncan & John Walton 1991 Heroes for Victoria Spellmount Ltd

Lt. Col. A. Sterling 1895 The Highland Brigade in the Crimea John MacQueen, London

Alain Gouttman 1995 La Guerre de Crimée 1853-1856 Editions S.P.M. Paris

Gen. Sir E. Hamley 1900 The War in the Crimea Seeley & Co. London [ Link to 1891 edition ]
Plus ebook at archive.org [ Link is to one of several versions at archive.org ] DOWNLOAD

C.E. Vulliamy 1939 Crimea Jonathan Cape Ltd, London

ed. Michael Hargreave Mawson 2001 Eyewitness in the Crimea Greenhill Books, London.

Camille F.M. Rousset 1877 Histoire de la Guerre de Crimée Vol 1 Hachette et Cie, Paris

Alexis Soyer 1857 A Culinary Campaign Southover Press (1995 Reprint). Plus ebook at Project Gutenberg DOWNLOAD

F. Clement&ndashLorford 2001 Alexis Soyer &ndash The First Celebrity Chef Private Printing. [ Link to ebook at academia.edu ] DOWNLOAD

ed. Tim Coates 2000 Florence Nightingale and the Crimea 1854-55 London: The Stationery Office

Cecil Woodham Smith 1950 Florence Nightingale 1820 1910 Constable, London

Elspeth Huxley 1975 Florence Nightingale Weidenfeld & Nicolson

Albert Seaton 1977 The Crimean War: A Russian Chronicle B.T. Batsford Ltd

Mary Seacole 1857 Wonderful Adventures of Mrs Seacole in Many Lands Blackwood, London [ Link to OUP edition 1988 ]
Plus ebook at Project Gutenberg DOWNLOAD

Herman Van Meir 2003 Sardinia and the War Suite 101 [ now defunct ]

Uberto Govone 1920 Il Generale Giuseppe Govoni Frammenti di Memorie Fratelli Bocca Editori Torino [ Link to 1929 edition ]

George Palmer Evelyn, ed. & pref. Cyril Falls 1954 A Diary of the Crimea Gerald Duckworth & Co. London

Pier Giusto Jaeger 1991 Le Mura di Sebastopoli Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, Milano

Cristoforo Manfredi 1956 La Spedizione Sarda in Crimea nel 1855&ndash56 Stato Maggiore Esercito, Roma

Baron de Bazancourt 1857 L'Expédition de Crimée &ndash Librairie d'Amyot

Alain Gouttman 1995 La Guerre de Crimée 1853-1856 Editions S.P.M. Paris

Albert Seaton 1977 The Crimean War: A Russian Chronicle B.T. Batsford Ltd

Camille F.M. Rousset 1877 Histoire de la Guerre de Crimée Vol 1 Hachette et Cie, Paris

Lieutenant&ndashGénéral E. de Todleben 1863 Défense de Sébastopol, Tome 1 N. Thieblin et Co. St Petersburg. DOWNLOAD

Ian Fletcher & Natalia Ischenko 2004 The Crimean War: A Clash of Empires Spellmount, The History Press

W.H. Russell, ed. N. Bentley 1966 Despatches from the Crimea André Deutsch

Christopher Hibbert 1961 The Destruction of Lord Raglan &ndash Wordsworth Editions (1999)

Gen. Sir E. Hamley 1900 The War in the Crimea Seeley & Co. London [ Link to 1891 edition ]
Plus ebook at archive.org [ Link is to one of several versions at archive.org ] DOWNLOAD

C.E. Vulliamy 1939 Crimea Jonathan Cape Ltd, London

ed. Michael Hargreave Mawson 2001 Eyewitness in the Crimea Greenhill Books, London.

Lt. Col. A. Sterling 1895 The Highland Brigade in the Crimea John MacQueen, London

G. Caldwell & R. Cooper 1994 Rifle Green in the Crimea Bugle Horn Publications

ed. Tim Coates 2000 Florence Nightingale and the Crimea 1854-55 London: The Stationery Office

Cecil Woodham Smith 1950 Florence Nightingale 1820 1910 Constable, London

Elspeth Huxley 1975 Florence Nightingale Weidenfeld & Nicolson

Lord George Paget, ed. C.S. Paget 1881 The Light Cavalry Brigade in the Crimea , John Murray, London

W. S. Curtis 2000 Russian Lead Shortage The War Correspondent Vol 18 No 1 CWRS [ Link to The War Correspondent Index ]

Col. J.J.G. Cler 1860 Reminiscences of an Officer of Zouaves New York, &ndash D Appleton & Co. DOWNLOAD

R.L.V. ffrench Blake 1971 The Crimean War &ndash Leo Cooper Ltd

Pier Giusto Jaeger 1991 Le Mura di Sebastopoli Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, Milano

Cristoforo Manfredi 1956 La Spedizione Sarda in Crimea nel 1855&ndash56 Stato Maggiore Esercito, Roma

Franco Valsecchi 1968 L'Europa e il Risorgimento: L'alleanza di Crimea Vallecchi Editore, Firenze

Piers Compton 1970 Colonel's Lady and Camp Follower: The Story of Women in the Crimean War St Martin's Press, New York [ Link to Hale edition ]


Chapter 20a &mdash Allied Order of Battle Aug 1855

Herman Van Meir 2003 Sardinia and the War Suite 101 [ now defunct ]

Leo Tolstoy 1855&ndash6 (transl. D. McDuff 1986) The Sebastopol Sketches Penguin Books Ltd, London

Albert Seaton 1977 The Crimean War: A Russian Chronicle B.T. Batsford Ltd

Ian Fletcher & Natalia Ischenko 2004 The Crimean War: A Clash of Empires Spellmount, The History Press

Evgenii Viktorovich Tarle, 1959, Krymskaya Voina Moscow

ed. Michael Hargreave Mawson 2001 Eyewitness in the Crimea Greenhill Books, London.

Pier Giusto Jaeger 1991 Le Mura di Sebastopoli Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, Milano

Cristoforo Manfredi 1956 La Spedizione Sarda in Crimea nel 1855&ndash56 Stato Maggiore Esercito, Roma

Mary Seacole 1857 Wonderful Adventures of Mrs Seacole in Many Lands Blackwood, London [ Link to OUP edition 1988 ]
Plus ebook at Project Gutenberg DOWNLOAD

Alexis Soyer 1857 A Culinary Campaign Southover Press (1995 Reprint). Plus ebook at Project Gutenberg DOWNLOAD

F. Clement&ndashLorford 2001 Alexis Soyer &ndash The First Celebrity Chef Private Printing. [ Link to ebook at academia.edu ] DOWNLOAD

Elspeth Huxley 1975 Florence Nightingale Weidenfeld & Nicolson

John Duncan & John Walton 1991 Heroes for Victoria Spellmount Ltd

Sir William Laird Clowes 1901 The Royal Navy: A History from the Earliest Times till 1900 Samson Low Marston & Co. London [Link to the Chatham Publishing 1997 edition, 7 volumes ]
Plus ebook of Volume 6 at archive.org [ Volume 6 covers the Crimean War ] DOWNLOAD

Rev. Robert Edgar Hughes 1856 Two Summer Cruises with the Baltic Fleet in 1854 55 Smith, Elder & Co. London. DOWNLOAD

ed. A.Lambert & S. Badsey 1994 The War Correspondents &ndash The Crimean War Bramley Books (1997) [ Link to A. Sutton 1994 edition ]

James Grant 1877 British Battles on Land and Sea Volume 3 1827 1874 Cassell [ Link to General Books edition, 2012 reprint ]

R.L.V. ffrench Blake 1971 The Crimean War &ndash Leo Cooper Ltd

C.E. Vulliamy 1939 Crimea Jonathan Cape Ltd, London

Alain Gouttman 1995 La Guerre de Crimée 1853-1856 Editions S.P.M. Paris

Fenton Bresler 1999 Napoleon III &ndash A Life Harper Collins, London

Rear&ndashAdmiral Adolphus Slade K.C.B. 1867 Turkey and the Crimean War Smith Elder & Co. Cornhill, London. DOWNLOAD

Col. Sir H.A. Lake 1856 Kars and our Captivity in Russia Richard Bentley, London. DOWNLOAD

Humphry Sandwith 1856 A Narrative of the Siege of Kars John Murray, London DOWNLOAD
Plus ebook at archive.org DOWNLOAD

R.L.V. ffrench Blake 1971 The Crimean War &ndash Leo Cooper Ltd

ed. G. Douglas & G.D. Ramsay 1908 The Panmure Papers Hodder & Stoughton London

Alain Gouttman 1995 La Guerre de Crimée 1853-1856 Editions S.P.M. Paris

Camille F.M. Rousset 1877 Histoire de la Guerre de Crimée Vol 1 Hachette et Cie, Paris

W.H. Russell, ed. N. Bentley 1966 Despatches from the Crimea André Deutsch

Arthur J. Barker 1970 The Vainglorious War Weidenfeld & Nicolson

Gen. Sir E. Hamley 1900 The War in the Crimea Seeley & Co. London [ Link to 1891 edition ]
Plus ebook at archive.org [ Link is to one of several versions at archive.org ] DOWNLOAD

H. Evelyn Wood 1895 The Crimea in 1854 and 1894 , Chapman & Hall Ltd, London
Plus ebook at archive.org DOWNLOAD

General Codrington 1855 The Codrington Papers 6807/375 to 6807/381 at the National Army Museum [ Link to The National Archives catalogue online ]

Captain A.M. Earle 1854-7 57th (West Middlesex) Regiment of Foot, Letters 1994-03-153 at the National Army Museum

C.E. Vulliamy 1939 Crimea Jonathan Cape Ltd, London

Lt. Col. A. Sterling 1895 The Highland Brigade in the Crimea John MacQueen, London

ed. Michael Hargreave Mawson 2001 Eyewitness in the Crimea Greenhill Books, London.

G. Caldwell & R. Cooper 1994 Rifle Green in the Crimea Bugle Horn Publications

Leo Tolstoy 1855&ndash6 (transl. D. McDuff 1986) The Sebastopol Sketches Penguin Books Ltd, London

Mary Seacole 1857 Wonderful Adventures of Mrs Seacole in Many Lands Blackwood, London [ Link to OUP edition 1988 ]
Plus ebook at Project Gutenberg DOWNLOAD

Alain Gouttman 1995 La Guerre de Crimée 1853-1856 Editions S.P.M. Paris

Queen Victoria, ed. Arthur Helps 1868 Leaves from the Journal of Our Life in the Highlands Smith Elder & Co. London
Plus ebook at archive.org DOWNLOAD

C.E. Vulliamy 1939 Crimea Jonathan Cape Ltd, London

Pier Giusto Jaeger 1991 Le Mura di Sebastopoli Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, Milano

Cristoforo Manfredi 1956 La Spedizione Sarda in Crimea nel 1855&ndash56 Stato Maggiore Esercito, Roma

ed. G. Douglas & G.D. Ramsay 1908 The Panmure Papers Hodder & Stoughton London

Lt. Col. A. Sterling 1895 The Highland Brigade in the Crimea John MacQueen, London

Camille F.M. Rousset 1877 Histoire de la Guerre de Crimée Vol 1 Hachette et Cie, Paris

W.H. Russell, ed. N. Bentley 1966 Despatches from the Crimea André Deutsch

Arthur J. Barker 1970 The Vainglorious War Weidenfeld & Nicolson

Gen. Sir E. Hamley 1900 The War in the Crimea Seeley & Co. London [ Link to 1891 edition ]
Plus ebook at archive.org [ Link is to one of several versions at archive.org ] DOWNLOAD

James Grant 1877 British Battles on Land and Sea Volume 3 1827 1874 Cassell [ Link to General Books edition, 2012 reprint ]

Sir William Laird Clowes 1901 The Royal Navy: A History from the Earliest Times till 1900 Samson Low Marston & Co. London [Link to the Chatham Publishing 1997 edition, 7 volumes ]
Plus ebook of Volume 6 at archive.org [ Volume 6 covers the Crimean War ] DOWNLOAD

Cecil Woodham Smith 1950 Florence Nightingale 1820 1910 Constable, London

Elspeth Huxley 1975 Florence Nightingale Weidenfeld & Nicolson

Rear&ndashAdmiral Adolphus Slade K.C.B. 1867 Turkey and the Crimean War Smith Elder & Co. Cornhill, London. DOWNLOAD

Col. Sir H.A. Lake 1856 Kars and our Captivity in Russia Richard Bentley, London. DOWNLOAD

Humphry Sandwith 1856 A Narrative of the Siege of Kars John Murray, London DOWNLOAD
Plus ebook at archive.org DOWNLOAD

ed. G. Douglas & G.D. Ramsay 1908 The Panmure Papers Hodder & Stoughton London

C.E. Vulliamy 1939 Crimea Jonathan Cape Ltd, London

ed. Michael Hargreave Mawson 2001 Eyewitness in the Crimea Greenhill Books, London.

Piers Compton 1970 Colonel's Lady and Camp Follower: The Story of Women in the Crimean War St Martin's Press, New York [ Link to Hale edition ]

Medical Times and Gazette, 14th June 1856: Extract from anonymous article (reproduced at Appendix E of Letters from Headquarters S.J.G. Calthorpe (1857) John Murray

Paymaster Henry Dixon, Royal Fusiliers 1854&ndash6 Mss. Letters (in private hands), published in the Royal Fusiliers Chronicle, Vol. 4, No. 5, 1959. [ Link to COPAC, British Library catalogue listing ]

Sir William Laird Clowes 1901 The Royal Navy: A History from the Earliest Times till 1900 Samson Low Marston & Co. London [Link to the Chatham Publishing 1997 edition, 7 volumes ]
Plus ebook of Volume 6 at archive.org [ Volume 6 covers the Crimean War ] DOWNLOAD

National Army Museum &ndash Crimean War Exhibition 2003: A Most Desperate Undertaking

Alain Gouttman 1995 La Guerre de Crimée 1853-1856 Editions S.P.M. Paris

Fenton Bresler 1999 Napoleon III &ndash A Life Harper Collins, London

Stanley Weintraub 1997 Albert: Uncrowned King John Murray, London

Michael Byrne 1998 Britain and the European Powers 1815-65 , London &ndash Hodder & Stoughton

C.E. Vulliamy 1939 Crimea Jonathan Cape Ltd, London

ed. Michael Hargreave Mawson 2001 Eyewitness in the Crimea Greenhill Books, London.

Piers Compton 1970 Colonel's Lady and Camp Follower: The Story of Women in the Crimean War St Martin's Press, New York [ Link to Hale edition ]

Cecil Woodham Smith 1950 Florence Nightingale 1820 1910 Constable, London

Elspeth Huxley 1975 Florence Nightingale Weidenfeld & Nicolson

F. Clement&ndashLorford 2001 Alexis Soyer &ndash The First Celebrity Chef Private Printing. [ Link to ebook at academia.edu ] DOWNLOAD

Mary Seacole 1857 Wonderful Adventures of Mrs Seacole in Many Lands Blackwood, London [ Link to OUP edition 1988 ]
Plus ebook at Project Gutenberg DOWNLOAD

Cecil Woodham Smith 1950 Florence Nightingale 1820 1910 Constable, London

ed. Michael Hargreave Mawson 2001 Eyewitness in the Crimea Greenhill Books, London.

Piers Compton 1970 Colonel's Lady and Camp Follower: The Story of Women in the Crimean War St Martin's Press, New York [ Link to Hale edition ]

Cristoforo Manfredi 1956 La Spedizione Sarda in Crimea nel 1855&ndash56 Stato Maggiore Esercito, Roma

Ian Knight 1996 Go to your God like a Soldier Greenhill Books London

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The other charge of the Light Brigade.

Today is the anniversary of the Crimean War’s most famous event, the Charge of the Light Brigade but for a bit of a twist I have focused on the men of the French army who helped them escape from the Valley of Death, so read on and see what I’m talking about, hopefully I’ll see you on the other side.

25th October 1854

Sapoune Ridge Balaclava 11:13 AM.

Crimean Peninsula.

General Pierre Bousquet was in his mid forties with the round pugnacious face of a French Bulldog. He had two stern eyes that peered over a warlike Gallic moustache, and gave the impression that he was a formidable yet cultured warrior. Sitting with magnificent poise astride his grey horse, Bayard, on the Sapoune ridge, a few miles north of Balaclava, his carefully calculated bombastic features where fixed towards the east were the rocky grey brown hills, covered in a thick jungle of scrub bushes, descended into a number of dry valleys. There was one to the south, hidden by the Causeway Heights, and one to his immediate front formed by them and those of the Fedioukine Heights to his left. The ends and tops of these valley’s where in the possession of Russian army.

The French uniform was especially designed to flatter an elegant body. But even if you where like the General and showed a generous waist, the dark blue of his coat, the gold of his epaulettes, the jaunty angle of his gilt edged cocked hat and the high shine of his riding boots, enhanced the aura of a Corps commander. He was sitting perfectly still, eyes narrowed under thin eyebrows, his right hand casually tucked into his coat, now imitating not only the dimensions of the first Emperor but also his most iconic pose. The British Cavalry Division was advancing.

The bugle calls of “walk march” where rising from the valley floor and the scatter of officers, war correspondents and hangers on, which included not a few elegant ladies and regimental women, fringing the crest, now took greater notice. Their heads turned and their telescopes rose and glinted in the spare eastern sun and the General’s decorations, buttons and trappings shone. The breeze from the black sea blew up from Balaclava lifting Bayard’s black mane, making him twitch his ears and bob his head. Bosquet’s small tricolour guidon flapped and cracked behind him, held by a trooper of the Cent Imperial Guard.

The battle had been progressing in a logical fashion since dawn. The Russians under General Liprandi had launched themselves onto the Redoubts that ringed the distant ridges the first step in their attempt to cut the British lines of communication. The Turkish infantry holding the redoubts had held for perhaps an hour and a half before abandoning their position and fleeing back towards the port of Balaclava. After their early success the Russians had sent down a strong body of cavalry to reconnoitre the defences of the port. Balaclava sat in the bowl of the protecting hills. Down on the plain of this basin the Russian cavalry had found only one battalion of British infantry to oppose them unprotected by earthworks.

It was an excellent cavalry opportunity for the Russian commander. The Highlanders of the 93rd (Sutherland) regiment were formed in a “thin red streak tipped with steel” before the town, not an ideal formation to receive cavalry. The Highlanders were under the command of the 50 year old Scottish Major General, Sir Colin Campbell, who had them stand their ground, the Russians logically tried their luck, but the consequent volley at close range made them sheer away and trot back to safety with not a few empty saddles. By this time the British Cavalry were stood too and awaiting developments. Suddenly the men of the red coated heavy brigade under General Scarlet were confronted by another mass of Russian cavalry probing the defences and likely attempting to cut the town off from help. The ageing General Scarlet had promptly formed his men and charged. After a sharp fight the outnumbered heavies put the shocked Russians to the right about, thus the port was saved.

Then had ensued a waiting game as the Russians consolidated their hold on the high ground and began harnessing the captured guns from the Redoubts. As things stood the battle looked to end in a rather disappointing day for the British and a marginally successful one for the Russians. The prospect of further action loomed large as the Redoubts would have to be retaken. Lord Raglan, British commander in chief, had sent for infantry to retake them and the Household Division was even then doubling towards the town. The implications of fighting another Alma to secure their supply base must have been in the forefront of every officer’s mind that day at Balaclava. That is until Raglan observed the Russians pulling the captured guns out from the nearer Redoubts.

Feeling this to be an emergency, he sent a vague order to Lord Lucan, commanding the Cavalry Division, to prevent them doing so. The Light brigade led the way in two dark blue lines, Lord Cardigan in front. They were followed in support by the victorious heavy brigade in two scarlet lines. Behind came the long trains of Horse Artillery jogging after them.

Bousquet had promised Raglan that he would guard the light Brigade’s left flank and could hear his staff talking amongst themselves, discussing strategy, and counting the Russian guns and numbers. He took a moment to look around. His II Corps of Observation and cavalry from General D’Allonville’s 1st Brigade of the Cavalry Division had a paper strength of just over 10,000 men. They where spread across the top and slope of the Sapoune Ridge on the edge of the Cheresonese Uplands. Blue coated Imperial Infantry lay at their ease sitting down in line, packs off and cooking up rations, while knots of officer’s stood to the front chatting and pointing. Colourful Zouave’s reclined in easy confidence, while throughout glided the pleasant, gay, sight, of the regimental Cantiniers dispensing brandy from their shoulder flasks. The General knew that this was a British show and Bousquet was there to support them, his was the only infantry available but Raglan had not asked him for any. He called for a telescope so he could inspect the British advance more closely, it was a magnificent sight. Now and again snatches of sound reached the ears of the onlookers, the jingling of harnesses and the clunk of equipment mixed with the odd whinny and muffled command. The coats of their horses shone, officers to the front elegantly walking out two horse lengths from centre, muscular, equine, legs rippling dark beneath them, kicking up dust. Troopers bobbed up and down with the rhythm of their march, the red socks of the Hussar’s hats flapped like flags, braid glittering, equipment jangling, rains held tight, sabre’s at the carry. He looked to the right of the 11th Hussars in their red trousers to the fluttering pennants of the 17th Lancers. A waving crest of animated movement above a sombre blue block of tightly packed men. Such beautiful horses, such immaculate dressing and spacing, magnificent, then came the 13th Light Dragoons. Behind them came the second line, the 4th Light Dragoons on the left and the 8th Hussars on the right, with the Horse artillery advancing to the right rear. If only war could just be like a field day. Yes, it was magnificent.

The first shot from the Russian batteries dispelled that fantasy with a sharp bang that echoed from out of the valley. The puff of white smoke hovered twenty feet in the air, fifty yards beyond the Light Brigade’s front. Bousquet took his eye from the telescope to observe it hanging there, suspended casting a small shadow on the valley floor before being whisked away by the sea breeze. Silence followed as if the sound of the explosion had made everything hold it’s breath. It had been a ranging shot, the next burst just in front of the first line, the bugles sounded again and the lines jumped forwards at a faster pace. General Bousquet was an artilleryman, and he knew the next shot from the Russian batteries would open some gaps they had the range now. He mentally calculated the order, from the heights, the elevation would only need to be adjusted slightly, a matter of a few degrees indeed. A round could travel 1,000 feet in a second. ‘With shell load,’ compensate for the forwards movement of the enemy, the loft and drop, maybe cut a one or two second fuse, Fire! A low thud came from the Fedioukine heights and a cotton bud blossomed from the nearest battery and, yes, a second later the shell burst overhead of the leading squadrons.

It was then Bousquet realised something must have gone wrong. He had been given to understand that the cavalry where to secure the guns on the edge of Causeway Heights, but they where fast accelerating beyond the line were they should have wheeled right to ascend the slope, and were actually entering the heart of the valley. He saw through his telescope the first casualty, a single dark lump on the ground and a horse galloping away in terror. A sudden rippling crash of cannon fire ripped from both sides of the valley. The Light brigade seemed to put its head down and dig in its spurs to the urgent rising call of the charge. Shell bursts by the dozen blossomed in the air above them, cracking and banging angrily, more dark forms where left in heaps behind the brigade as they passed the point of no return and pushed into a full gallop as more Russian batteries came to bare.

Bousquet looked back at his staff askance, among his aides was Captain Dampiere frowning from behind his beard, Captain Fay doing the same, both in simple regulation attire, blue coats and red trousers and Kepis, the aquiline Captain Tomas in his dashing Chasseurs uniform, contrasting deeply with the more sombre colours of Commander Ballard of the Navy. They all looked back, perplexed, the horror of what had just happened had created a pall of stillness over the ridge, and he shifted his gaze to were the Heavy Brigade should be, only to find there where not there, the red coated heavies had made an about face and where falling back. The Horse Artillery had halted and come into action, meanwhile the Russian guns where going at it hammer and tongs, pouring a leaden hail of iron and shrapnel into the valley that was now wreathed in smoke.

The rapidity of their fire sounded like the heavy drumming of rain on a canvass tarpaulin, the musketry sounded sharper and heavier, coming in splutters and fits as if a stick was being periodically slid down a washboard. Bousquet handed his telescope to an aid and took in the whole awful picture. A surreal dream of glory and stupidity had begun below them and they atop the ridge where mere distant witnesses, detached and helpless, just like a dream where you could see the disaster and yet do nothing to stop it. A sudden surge in the fire of the Russian guns showed that the brigade was still going, it reached such a peak as to beggar belief, how could guns fire that fast? It was against all principles of war for cavalry to charge artillery frontally that was both well supported and deployed. A stream of panicked, riderless horses where coming out of the dirty yellow – white smoke as the only testament to the cost that was being taken on the well dressed flesh and bone he had seen advancing a moment ago, now hidden by a veil of their own destruction. General Pierre Bousquet had seen war before and was familiar with its ghastly consequences, he was a veteran of Algeria, and he breathed out with a slight shake of his head. He shook his head and placed the fist of his left hand on his hip and spoke: “C’est magnifique,” the words came in a low monotone. “Mais ce n’est pas la guerre.” For the moment he said no more but as the guns gave another intense crash and the faintest peal of a bugle rose plaintively through the carnage, he muttered in glottal disgust: “C’est de la folie”

Woronstov Road,

Sapoune Ridge, Balaclava,

The rising tempo of cannon fire and musketry echoing from the North Valley could be clearly heard by the men of the 1st and 4th Chasseurs d’Afrique. They were part of the 1st Cavalry Brigade psoitioned in dead ground largly out of sight of the action, but even if they could not see much once the British cavalry had passed into the valley proper, they could hear the colossal bombardment of the five batteries of Russian guns and see the smoke rising and the shells bursting over the brim of the hills. They had been inactive since they had come up.

The Chasseurs were dressed splendidly. In red and blue cloth casquettes de afrique, red baggy booted overalls, tight blue jackets and mounted on beautiful Arab and Barb horses. The officers were prominent by their black and silver braid, red kepis and waxed moustaches. They did look a splendid sight as they had moved into position were they waited and listened to the British bang away to contain the Russians. Now the order had come to mount and the prospect of action hovered ominously before them. One of the authors of the charge of the light brigade Captain Louis Edward Nolan, 15th Hussars, attached to the British Headquarters Staff, then lying dead at the opening of the valley with a shard of shrapnel in his chest, his arm still outstretched and his mouth open in an unfinished scream, had commented favourably on the Chassuers. This as opposed to his own men, writing on the 26th of September “The French Chasseurs d’Afrique… are ever at hand for a reconnaissance an escort or an attack, though few in the French army and & therefore hard worked (these men) have their horses in perfect condition whilst our horses look wretched & are so weak that they can hardly raise a canter”

Positioned where the Woronstov road rises onto the Sepoune ridge after descending from Causeway Heights and bisects the valley floor, the brigade consisted of four squadrons each of the 1st and 4th. Both were battle hardened regiments, and in total numbered some 1,290 sabres, they now waited to see if they would be required to act.

Heads turned as General Armand Octave Marie d’Allonville, commander, 1st Cavalry Brigade of the Army of the East, came galloping down the ridge to his brigade, followed by the usual trail of aides de camp, Spahi guidon bearer and the Colonels of his regiments, he was a sturdy looking man in his mid forties. He had brown hair and a short beard which, coupled with his heavy lidded eyes, long face and downturned mouth gave him a distinctly languid, leonine, look. He had just left General Louis Morris, commander of the Cavalry Division and like most of the officer corps, a fellow veteran of the Algerian war. They had both watched the British go into the valley of death, and for Morris it brought back bad memories. When he was a Colonel of Chasseurs, he had pursued the Moroccans four miles too far after the decisive charge at General Bugeaud’s victory at Ivry in 1844. Isolated with 500 men he had to retreat in the face of 6,000 enemy cavalry, the hard faced cavalry commander had also once duelled in single combat a Merdés chief in a dry riverbed in Algeria and come out victorious. With his experience of bravado, General Morris was not about to sit idly in the saddle, smoothing his cultivated beard and watch the Light Brigade founder unsupported against the whole Russian Army, and he had ordered d’Allonville to clear the heights to his front of Russian artillery.

D’Allonville, had been a commander of Spahis in Algeria, he had charged at their head at Smalah where he had won the officer cross of the Legon d’Honneur, which now shone on his chest. He had charged again at the same victorious charge at Ivry where Morris had come to grief and had had the honour of taking the Moroccan Guns.

When he arrived at his brigade, the order quickly went out that the fourth would do duty, the officers where given his intention. They would move forward and drive off or capture the Russian guns now enfilading the retreating British.

The 4th “Traveller” Chasseurs came down the hill into the valley between Sapoune ridge and the Fedioukine Heights. Here the smell of gunpowder was heavy amid the dead ground where the sea breeze couldn’t get at it. The 4th was 532 sabres strong and commanded by the consumate Colonel Coste de Champeron. At the bottom of the ridge, he deployed his regiment in two Demi squadron lines. The Colonel then took command of the 2nd Demi Squadron and handed the 1st, the lead, to his second in command Major Abdelal, it may have been all well and good for Lord Cardigan to lead two horse lengths from the front, so all he could see was the enemy, but unlike the British army, the French put the emphasise on control as well as on dash. Colonel’s of the Emperor Napoleon III’s cavalry stayed in the second line. French officers had nothing to prove by showing their men how to die, and as brigade commander, General d’Allonville took post beside Champeron.

Apart from being an uneven, rocky, slope, the Fedioukine heights were a tangle of three to four foot high brush that came up to the girth straps of the saddles, a formidable obstacle for cavalry to climb and then be expected charge artillery, but the hard bitten Chasseurs who had spent years campaigning in the barren heights of the Atlas Mountains, took it in their stride.

None of this grit was evident to Brevet Colonel Lord George Paget of the 4th Light Dragoons. One of the men now returning from the fools errand of a charge down the North Valley. Powder stained and pale with his mind reeling from concussion and his ears ringing, he was not in the best of moods as he rode out of the valley, using the flat of his sword to encourage his wounded horse. Being the commander of the workmanlike Light Dragoons that had just gone through Hell and back, he was not inclined to be complimentary of the dressing of the Chasseurs d’Afrique as they advanced and he compared them unflatteringly with his own ragged, bleeding, powder stained troopers as he rode in, still clenching his cheroot tightly between his teeth. Thinking that they looked as if they had just stepped out of a bandbox, he saw them advance at a walk with skirmishers out, and thought they where seemingly typical of the worst type of show soldiers out for a stroll. Hanging on the verges of the battle so they could say, they had been there, playing at battle while the real men fought on. “You are very pretty to look at,” Paget remembered thinking scathingly “But you might as well have taken a turn with us, and then perhaps you would not look as spruce as you do.” Later he would have cause to feel guilty of his harsh criticism.

The “bandbox men” of the Travellers had set off en echelon, and as was the custom in the Chasseurs d’Afrique the lead squadrons extended in open order doubling their frontage and allowing more flexibility of movement. D’Allonville had been able to see from the vantage point on the Sapoune ridge that on the slopes of the Fedioukine Heights was some 5,000 men and 10 guns of Major General Jabokritski’s Forward Reserves. Two battalions of foot Cossacks from the Black Sea and two sotnias of No 60 Don Cossack Regiment where supporting ten guns of No 1 Foot Artillery battalion of the 16th brigade of artillery, deployed across the heights en batterie. Their right flank was screened by No 6 Rifle Battalion, to the left rear was the regular infantry of the Vladimir and Susdal Regiments and two squadrons of the Ingermanland regiment .

At the top of the hill the Chasseurs drew swords, five hundred and thirty two 1822 pattern three – bar cavalry sabres rasped from their steel scabbards and came to the carry, each weather beaten face grim and leathered from the North African sun, set with ferocious Bedouin beards fixed on the enemy. Their bodies were lean and hard, toughened from months in the field, their 1854 model percussion rifled carbine’s slung from their backs like the Arab tribesmen they imitated, bounced & clattered. With enemy in sight the trumpet blew trot, and Abdelal’s sword went up. The line billowed forwards from the centre. The men rode easy, bits, snaffles and curb chains jangled and chinked and equipment banged and clanked, as they increased to a canter, the trumpet spilling more repeating notes, the sound of equipment merging with the rumble of hooves as they swept on, bent forwards and lupine – like through the undergrowth.

The Russian flankers of No 6 Rifle Battalion strung out in skirmish order and largely hidden in the drab undergrowth that blended with their brown greatcoats, saw the sun glint off steel as the French sabre blades where exposed to the light. They heard both the deadly sound of hooves and the high spirited cry as the “Hunters of Africa” charged. A few scattered shots where all they had time to crack off before the Fire and Retire was sounded and they took to their heel’s, popping off shots as they went. In their open order the Chasseurs of Abdelal’s Demi Squadron easily outflanked them, but had a few saddles emptied by the discharge as they brought round their left shoulder’s while moving and rode amongst the fugitives laying about the riflemen with their sabres. The Guns of the first half battery where ahead, having cleared the skirmishers Abdelal continued his charge with great spirit and alacrity, the smooth and professional movements of the new wave of enemy cavalry unnerved the Russian infantry who upon seeing their confident advance instantly went to the right about and withdrew. This triggered a general retrograde movement by all the Russian troops holding the heights, no one had been looking to the right when the light brigade had charged. The guns nearest the Chasseurs immediately limbered up and as the French came near the battery changed ground at the trot. They were not fast enough, however, to prevent the Chassuers getting amongst them. Seeing this, the other half battery, fearing the danger of an open flank, did likewise. From his post in the reserve line, tightly controlling his supports General d’Allonville, identifiable by the guidon held by his Spahi, could watch with satisfaction as the whole Russian right, Cossacks and all, receded in front of his squadrons.

To the Russians, who just moments before where completely focused on gratifying the British cavalry’s mad desire for destruction, this was a disturbing turn of events. Commanding the troops on the heights was Major General Jabrokriski and to his mind the sudden Appearance of the French Cavalry portended the descent of the whole of Bousquet’s corps from Sapoune Ridge to attack his position. Seeing the Chasseurs continuing to put pressure in his retreating command, he galloped to the head of the three battalions of the Vladimir regiment, hitherto standing in readiness to assist the action in the valley, and lead two of them at the double towards the French cavalry. Undaunted at the singular prospect of attacking cavalry, the Russian infantry, veterans of the Alma, responded and advanced in close column, bayonets fixed, to retake the position.

Blue jacketed Chasseurs were roving with impunity over the heights, snapping off shots from their carbines, as the Vladimir regiment came up, panting in their heavy brown greatcoats and equipment. They quickly became the focus on which the disordered Cossacks could reform. The artillery was safely behind them now, as they closed to effective musket range, and as the first volleys rolled along the heads of the columns, accompanied by the snap and crack of rifle fire, the French bugles sounded recall and the victorious squadrons came to a disciplined halt, then with superlative ease made an about face and glided back down the hill into the valley and up to their place with the brigade on Sapoune ridge as if they had never left.

From his vantage point General Morris might well be pleased to watch such a creditable example of how Cavalry should be handled. For the loss of 2 officers & 10 men killed, plus, 16 horses killed, and 28 men wounded, 3 men captured, he had achieved his objective. To put it all the more into contrast, as he looked down he could see all that was left of the gallant six hundred beginning to come back from the valley of death, and if any of them had time to notice, they would realise they where no longer being fired upon from the Fedioukine Heights.

Well if you made it to the end I hope you enjoyed it,
Josh.

And just for you, some sources.

General Liprandi’s Report on the Battle of Balaclava.
L’Armee Francais, Eduarde Detaille and Jules Richard.
Uniforms and Weapons of the Crimean War, Robert Wilkinson Latham.
History of the Crimean War, Alexander Kingslake.
Balaclava 1854, the Charge of the Light Brigade, John Sweetman.
The Thin Red Line, Julian Spillsbury
The Destruction of Lord Raglan, Christopher Hibbert.
And with thanks to the Victorian Wars Forum for their assistance in finding information about General Morris.


Breaking the Line: Cavalry Tactics at Balaklava

Breaking the Line: Cavalry Tactics at Balaklava

“Into the Valley of Death” by John Charlton. 1

“Popular history presents the Crimean War as the British army’s most disastrous campaign, with the blundering charge of the Light Brigade and the suffering soldiers at Balaclava saved only by Florence Nightingale.” 2

“In English literature the War inspired Tennyson’s ‘Charge of the Light Brigade,’ a poetic description of an episode in the battle of Balaklava. It might be added that this conflict, which is considered by many scholars as unnecessary and a result of misunderstandings, was the more tragic since typhus and other epidemics caused even more deaths than did the actual fighting.” 3

The Alliance between Britain and France was formally arranged in March 1854 when the two powers agreed to assist the Ottoman Sultan against the Russian Empire. 4 The Allies commenced operations in the Crimea with a 50,000 man expeditionary landing at Balaklava in September 1854, with the intention of securing Sevastopol, Russia’s primary naval base on the Black Sea. 5 Due to the introduction of steam transport the expeditionary force’s cavalry contingent arrived in theatre before the fodder for its horses, not to mention tents for the soldiers: the supply train had been dispatched on sailing vessels with resultant delays. 6 The Czarist forces in immediate opposition, under Prince Menshikov, were defeated at the Battle of the Alma, 20 September 1854. The Allied guns expended 900 rounds during the Alma. 7 In response to this setback, Menshikov retreated to Sevastopol, where as C-in-C, with Gortschakoff as second in command and Chomutoff in command of the artillery he prepared his defences. 8 Vice-Admiral Kornilov, who had fought at the Battle of Sinope, 30 November 1853, and was Chief of Staff of the Black Sea Fleet, led the Russian garrison. 9

Battle of the Alma, by Horace Vernet. 10

In preparation for the siege of Sevastopol the Allies deployed heavy artillery, and by the end of September naval guns and army howitzers were in position on the heights overlooking Balaklava. 11 Insufficient logistics resulted in a cholera outbreak that weakened the Allied army throughout the initial phase of the campaign. 12

Shipping at Balaklava Harbour, 1855. 13

The Russian forces defending Sevastopol were eager to prevent the extended siege of the port and prepared a counter attack of the Allied beach-head. Early in October Russian infantry and artillery moved into position: Brigadier-General Airey, Lord Raglan’s Quartermaster-General, 14 spotted a brigade size force, 5,000 men, as they moved towards the Allied positions on 3 October, a report complemented by reconnaissance from the 4 th Dragoons that identified 3,500-4,000 cavalry on 7 October. 15 The same day, Lord Raglan, General Airey and staff committed to reconnaissance of the Russian positions and a council of war was held in the evening. 16 On 10 October four French battalions, 2,400 men, began construction of trenches and redoubts for their cannon to prepare for the siege. 17

Roger Fenton’s photograph of the Allied commanders: Lord Raglan, Omar Pasha and Marshal Pelissier. 18

Allied reinforcements continued to pour in from the beach-head, despite the long range Russian batteries zeroed on the Balaklava approach. 19 The British 2 nd Division entrenched two miles from Sevastopol, supported by the 4 th Division, and covered to the right by the 3 rd Division and Light Division (Lt. General Sir George Brown) 20 with the 1 st Division outside Balaklava, the Royal Marines in garrison at the town itself. 21 The Russian lines at this time were permeable, certain Polish soldiers defected and crossed the Allied lines with sensitive information. 22

On 17 October Vice-Admiral Kornilov was mortally wounded when the Allied guns, in conjunction with a fleet sortie, bombarded Sevastopol in the opening phase of the siege that was to last for the next 13 months. 23 Continuous shelling and skirmishing for the next three days highlighted the strength of Meshikov’s positions. On 20 October reports arrived from England that Sevastopol had fallen, propaganda which “excited great indignation and ludicrous astonishment” from the forces in theatre. 24

Positions of Allied forces around Sevastopol, October 1854. 25

On 25 October, Menshikov opened his counter-attack with 25,000 men, led by General Pavel Liprandi. 26 William Howard Russell, war correspondent for The Times witnessed the battle of Balaklava and provided the account Lord Tennyson used as source material for his renowned poems. 27

General Pavel Petrovitch Liprandi 28

The morning of 25 October, pursuant to their plan of attack, Russian artillery commenced bombardment of the Allied positions with shell. The Allied batteries at No. 1 redoubt fell and the Turkish gunners retreated, but were run down by Russian cavalry as they withdrew to No. 2 redoubt. 29 A Russian cavalry charge carried No. 2 redoubt and the Turkish soldiers continued their retreat towards No. 3 redoubt, only to be likewise overrun. Russian gunners, well practiced in the rapid preparation of batteries, 30 immediately secured the Allied batteries stationed in the captured redoubts and turned them against the Allied positions. 31 These guns included advanced models capable of firing highly accurate rotating shells prior to the introduction of cannon rifling through a sophisticated ovoid barrel design, later employed against Sevastopol with deadly effect. 32 The Turkish batteries abreast the French trenches and Allied naval batteries emplaced on the Balaklava heights ineffectively returned fire. 33

The Turkish infantry, armed with the new Minie rifle, reformed when they fell back upon the positions occupied by Britain’s 93 rd Highlander regiment. Upon engaging these positions, well formed, the Russian cavalry were forced to halt their advance and deployed at half a mile distance in brigade strength, 3,500 strong in preparation for a decisive charge. 34 Opposite the Russian cavalry were the positions held by the 93 rd regiment, bayonets fixed in a “thin red streak”- two lines deep- supported by the entire Allied cavalry force: the French cavalry and the British cavalry division under Lord Lucan: Brigadier-General Scarlett’s Heavy Brigade composed of the veteran Scots Greys, Enniskillens, 4 th Royal Irish [Dragoon Guards], 5 th Dragoon Guards, and 1 st Royal Dragoons 35 flanked by Lord Cardigan’s Light Brigade (Dragoons, Lancers, Hussars) on the left echelon. 36

“Major General George Charles Earl of Lucan, KCB, Commander of the Cavalry Division.” 37

Russell vividly described the moments between the formation of the opposing lines, broken by sporadic shell bursts, and the thunderous ensuing charge of the Russian cavalry. 38 The Turks fired rifle volleys at 800 and 600 yards. 39 At 250 yards the 93 rd regiment fired volley, breaking up the Russian charge at close range. 40

The initial cavalry charge stopped short, General Liprandi developed a flanking manoeuvre against Raglan’s HQ (defended by the French Zouaves) positioned on the heights overlooking Balaklava. Liprandi planned to use his “corps d’elite- their light blue jackets embroidered with silver lace” for this coup de main. 41 Observant of the weakness of the Allied position from his HQ on the heights above the precarious Allied position, Raglan dispatched orders for Lord Lucan to have Scarlett’s Heavy Brigade prepare a counter-charge. 42 Russell, with his exclusive report for The Times in mind, watched from Raglan’s HQ as the opposing cavalry forces deployed.

The British charge, in what can only be described as a measure of incredulous courage, began when the “trumpets rang out … through the valley,” as the cavalry with the Greys and Enniskillens at the spear-point charged directly into the mass of veteran Russian cavalry and, with consummate skill, smashed through their lines. 43

Tennyson immortalized this moment in his “Charge of the Heavy Brigade” 44

Broke thro’ the mass from below,

Drove thro’ the midst of the foe

With this devastating frontal assault underway, the 4 th Dragoon Guards and 5 th Dragoon Guards swung in from the flanks and completed the route of the Russian cavalry. 45 No doubt Cannae was the central thought on Lucan’s mind at this point. Raglan dispatched his aide-de-camp, Lord Curzon, with congratulations- “Well done!”- intended for General Scarlett who had personally led the counter-charge. 46 There were 35 British killed and wounded. 47

Major General the Hon. Sir James Scarlett, KCB, Commander of the Heavy Cavalry Brigade with Lt. Colonel Alexander Low, 4 th Light Dragoons. 48

Cardigan was now ordered to recaptured the Allied redoubts, defended by 30 to 40 captured guns. 49 Russell described the orders that led to this attack: Brigadier Airey through Captain Nolan of the 15 th Hussars, ordered Lucan “to advance” upon the Russian positions. 50 Upon receipt of these orders, Lucan asked for clarification, to which Nolan was said to have replied, “’There are the enemy, and there are the guns,’ or words to that effect”. 51 Lucan passed the order on to his brother-in-law, Cardigan, and thus Cardigan assumed he was to charge the mile and a half against the Russian cannon positioned in their emplacements. It was not yet 1100 hours. 52 Spurred by the decisive victory of the Heavy Brigade, without delay, at 1110 the Light Brigade charged. 53

Lord Cardigan recalled the charge in 1855: “We advanced down a gradual descent of more than three-quarters of a mile, with the batteries vomiting forth upon us shells and shot, round and grape, with one battery on our right flank and another on the left, and all the intermediate ground covered with the Russian riflemen so that when we came to within a distance of fifty yards from the mouths of the artillery which had been hurling destruction upon us, we were, in fact, surrounded and encircled by a blaze of fire, in addition to the fire of riflemen upon our flanks.” 54

Lord Cardigan: James Thomas Brudenell. 55

Russell editorialized: “Surely that handful [the Light Brigade, 636 men] were not going to charge an army in position? Alas! It was but too true- their desperate valour knew no bounds, and far indeed was it removed from its so-called better part- discretion.” 56 The Russian cannon opened fire at 1,200 yards. 57 Captain Nolan was killed as he led the first line. 58 Riding alongside Nolan was Private James Lamb, 13 th Light Dragoons: Lamb described Nolan receiving a mortal wound from one of the first Russian volleys then, still charging, disappeared into the gun smoke. 59 The Russian gunners kept up fusillade fire of mixed canister and grape as the Light Brigade galloped in. 60 Lamb himself was knocked unconscious and awoke unhorsed and lost in the dense smoke. 61

The Allied guns on the Balaklava heights fired counter-battery, although the Light Brigade had already broken through. 62 Quoth Tennyson:

Plunged in the battery-smoke

Right thro’ the line they broke

Reel’d from the sabre-stroke

“Charge of the Light Cavalry Brigade” 1855 Lithographic print. 64

Lamb saw Russian infantry forming up from the gun positions to add their rifle fire to the melee. He initially mistook the charge of the French Dragoons (see below) as another flanking attack by Cossacks. 65

Russell described the appearance of “a regiment of [Russian] lancers” which counter-attacked at this point, although Colonel Shewell (8 th Hussars) seeing the brigade’s exposed flank, immediately charged the approaching enemy. 66 During this encounter with unquestionable courage and skill the Russian gunners rallied to the guns and fired grape directly into the general melee: Russell is unambiguous that it was this courageous act by the gunners that broke the Light Brigade. 67 Covered by the Heavy Brigade, Cardigan retreated, clearing the guns by 1135. Lucan and Cardigan were both wounded, the latter by lance. 68

Four survivors from the 17 th Lancers. 69

Meanwhile, the French cavalry charged the Russian guns firing enfilade on the Light Brigade. 70 One of these positions was covered by a regiment of Polish Lancers which the French Dragoons engaged despite suffering terrible casualties from incoming grape and canister. 71 The Russian forces began to withdraw from the Allied redoubts: No. 1 was recaptured, and at 1115, as the melee between the Light Brigade and the Russian lancers occurred, No. 2 position was destroyed when the withdrawing Russian forces exploded its magazine. 72 No. 3 position was abandoned but with great success as the Russians hauled off seven of the nine Allied guns emplaced there. 73 The British had in total 13 officers killed and missing, 156 soldiers killed and missing and 21 officers and 197 men wounded. 520 horses had become casualties. 74

Private Lamb’s calvary regiment was decimated, suffering nearly 50% casualties: “we went into action that morning 112 strong and came out with only 61.” 75 Lamb, himself wounded, had difficulty returning to the Allied lines and once back found himself reported as killed. 76

The Russians celebrated the victory at Sevastopol when the captured guns were added to their armoury. At 2100 a general barrage of the Allied position commenced although without effect. 77

The assault of 25 October was followed by a brigade sized attack “4,000 Russians” against the 2 nd Division’s position on the British right flank. 78 The Russians again attempted to displace the 2 nd Division on 5 November resulting in the Battle of Inkerman, a desperate close order affair, which Russell described as “the bloodiest struggle ever witnessed since war cursed the earth.” 79

“The Thin Red Line” by Mark Wells <http://www.coroflot.com/mark19/art> satirizing Robert Gibb’s 1881 portrayal 80 of the 93 rd Highlander Regiment at the “Battle of Balaclava on October 25, 3054… [sic]” 81

2 Arthur Herman, To Rule The Waves: How the British Navy Shaped the Modern World, New York: HarperCollins’ Publishers, 2004, p 541

3 Nicholas Riasanovsky and Mark Steinberg, A History of Russia, Seventh Edition, New York: Oxford University Press, 2005, p 316

4 Eric Grove, The Royal Navy Since 1815, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, p 29

5 F. R. Bridge and Roger Bullen, The Great Powers and the European States System 1814-1914, Second Edition, Toronto: Pearson Education Limited, 2005, p 121

6 Geoffrey Till, Seapower: A Guide for the Twenty-First Century, second edition, Cass Series: Naval Policy and History, New York: Routledge, 2009, p 237 Andrew Lambert and Stephen Badsey, The Crimean War, The War Correspondents, Stroud, Gloucestershire: Bramley Books, 1997, p 90

7 Lambert & Badsey, The Crimean War, p 90

8 Lambert & Badsey, The Crimean War, p 93

9 Lambert & Badsey, The Crimean War, p 96

11 Lambert & Badsey, The Crimean War, p 88, 90

12 Lambert & Badsey, The Crimean War, p 89-90 see also, John Sweetman, “‘Ad Hoc’ Support Services During The Crimean War, 1854-6: Temporary, Ill-Planned and Largely Unsuccessful,” in Military Affairs 52, no. 3 (July 1, 1988): 135

14 Lambert & Badsey, The Crimean War, p

15 Lambert & Badsey, The Crimean War, p 89, 92-3

16 Lambert & Badsey, The Crimean War, p 94

17 Lambert & Badsey, The Crimean War, p 95

19 Lambert & Badsey, The Crimean War, p 90

20 Hudson, ed., William Russell, p 6 fn

21 Lambert & Badsey, The Crimean War, p 90

22 Lambert & Badsey, The Crimean War, p 93

23 Lambert & Badsey, The Crimean War, p 96

24 Lambert & Badsey, The Crimean War, p 102

25 Lambert & Badsey, The Crimean War, p 99

26 Lambert & Badsey, The Crimean War, p 103

27 Robert Hill, ed., Tennyson’s Poetry, Second Edition, New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1999, p 307-8, 307 fn.

29 Roger Hudson, ed., William Russell: Special Correspondent of The Times, London: The Folio Society, 1995, p 28

30 Lambert & Badsey, The Crimean War, p 91

31 Hudson, ed., William Russell, p 28-9

32 J. F. C. Fuller, The Conduct of War: 1789-1961, New Brunswick, N. J.: Da Capo Press, 1992, p 89 fn

33 Hudson, ed., William Russell, p 29

34 Hudson, ed., William Russell, p 29

35 Hudson, ed., William Russell, p 29

36 Hudson, ed., William Russell, p 29

38 Hudson, ed., William Russell, p 29

39 Hudson, ed., William Russell, p 29

40 Hudson, ed., William Russell, p 30

41 Hudson, ed., William Russell, p 30

42 Hudson, ed., William Russell, p 30

43 Hudson, ed., William Russell, p 30-1

45 Hudson, ed., William Russell, p 31

46 Hudson, ed., William Russell, p 30-1

47 Hudson, ed., William Russell, p 31

49 Hudson, ed., William Russell, p 31

50 Hudson, ed., William Russell, p 31-2

51 Hudson, ed., William Russell, p 32

52 Hudson, ed., William Russell, p 32

53 Hudson, ed., William Russell, p 32

54 John France, Perilous Glory: The Rise of Western Military Power, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2011, p 232

56 Hudson, ed., William Russell, p 32

57 Hudson, ed., William Russell, p 32

58 Hudson, ed., William Russell, p 33

59 James Lamb, “The Charge of the Light Brigade,” Strand Magazine: An Illustrated Monthly (July 1891): 348–351


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