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26 June 1945

26 June 1945


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26 June 1945

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Diplomacy

The preparatory commission for the UNO is formed

World Security Charter is signed at San Francisco

China

Chinese troops take Liuchow airfield

Pacific

US troops capture Kume Island (near Okinawa)



Signing of United Nations Charter

U.S. #928 was the last stamp created under FDR’s leadership, issued just two weeks after his death.

On June 26, 1945, 50 nations signed the United Nations Charter.

Following the Paris Peace Conference that ended World War I, several nations joined together to create the League of Nations, aimed at maintaining world peace. However, the league was unable to prevent the aggression of the Axis powers in the 1930s that ultimately led to World War II.

U.S. #1419 was issued for the U.N.’s 25th anniversary.

By 1939, the U.S. State Department had formulated a place for a new world organization to replace the League of Nations. Additionally, representatives from the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and nine other nations met in London in June 1941 to sign the Declaration of St. James’ Palace. This was the first of six conferences that ultimately led to the founding of the United Nations.

That December, U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt suggested the term United Nations as a name for the Allies of World War II. Then, on December 29, 1941, Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston Churchill drafted the Declaration of the United Nations, an agreement to uphold the Atlantic Charter, commit all resources to war against the Axis powers, and to not sign separate treaties with Germany or Japan. Twenty-six nations signed the declaration in early January 1942 at the Arcadia Conference (21 more nations would sign it within the next three years).

U.S. #2974 – The U.N. emblem pictures a map of the world viewed from the North Pole.

Over the course of the war, the idea of the United Nations continued to evolve as Allied nations met at the Moscow and Tehran Conferences. Through these meetings national leaders agreed to the need for an international peace and security organization. President Franklin Roosevelt wrote that the work of the U.N. was “peace: more than an end of this war – an end to the beginning of all wars.”

This led to a meeting of 46 nations in San Francisco on April 25, 1945. Exhausted from the extended war and disheartened by the inhumanity they’d seen, they were determined to prevent future generations from experiencing what they had seen firsthand. Their ultimate goal was to form an international organization that would have the power to maintain security and foster prosperity and give human rights an international legal status.

U.S. #3186k pictures the Secretariat Building, the New York headquarters completed in 1952.

A group of non-governmental organizations lobbied vigorously for a strong commitment to human rights in the U.N. Charter. In particular, several small Latin American countries were committed to the inclusion of such a guarantee. A Pan-American conference held in Mexico City produced a group united in their determination to see such goals met. A number of American non-governmental groups also pushed for a type of “bill of rights” in the charter. Over 1,300 organizations placed ads in newspapers demanding that human rights be an integral part of the international organization.

When the member nations met in San Francisco in April of 1945, their proposal fell short of the clear and concise commitment to human rights that these groups sought. Forty-two American groups serving as consultants to the U.S. delegation convinced participating governments of the need to clearly state a policy of protection for individual human rights. They were persuasive, and the result was a legal commitment by governments around the world to promote and encourage respect for the inalienable human rights of every man, woman, and child.

U.N. #12 pictures the Veterans Building (War Memorial) in San Francisco where the U.N. Charter was signed.

On June 26, 1945, the fifty nations present signed the United Nations charter, with its high goal. “We the peoples of the United Nations determined to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war…to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights…to establish conditions under which…international law can be maintained, and…to promote social progress and better standards of life…”

U.N. #85 pictures the United Nations headquarters in New York City.


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Here is the preamble to the Charter, which reflects the determination of the international community, in the wake of World War Two, to build a better world and design the future they wanted.

WE THE PEOPLES OF THE UNITED NATIONS DETERMINED to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and to regain faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,

AND FOR THESE ENDS…to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbours, and to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples,

HAVE RESOLVED TO COMBINE OUR EFFORTS TO ACCOMPLISH THESE AIMS…Accordingly, our respective Governments, through representatives assembled in the city of San Francisco, who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good and due form, have agreed to the present Charter of the United Nations and do hereby establish an international organization to be known as the United Nations.

75 years on, the United Nations is still trying to achieve the ideals reflected in this pre-amble. To that end, the UN has launched a massive survey available in nearly every language, asking “we the peoples” to help determine the future of the UN. You can find that here.


1998 : A study done on the Coyote Population in America says they continue to grow in numbers and more are now mating with dogs and wolves. The coyote has been in North America for 2 million years through the Ice Age, the Stone Age and now the human age and adapts well to the human world. The Coyote can run at up to 40 MPH and when hunting larger animals form packs.

1998 : Microsoft has released its latest version Windows 98 and one of its key new features is the plug in capability of video cameras, games machines and other plug and play peripherals.


***Dedicated to Cristiano and the memory of his old friend Johann Elser***

In the 1930s and the 1940s Britain boasted perhaps the best intelligence services in the world, with only the Soviets as rivals. SIS (aka MI6) operated throughout the Empire but also in allied and potential enemy countries to great effect. When World War Two came British expertise and experience in this field paid off handsomely in terms of information gathering, sabotage, counter intelligence and decryption. As one old hand noted, only SIM, the Italian secret services were able to keep up with the British once the conflict had got underway: the Germans and especially the Japanese fell far behind. Of course, the dominance that Britain had built up went horribly wrong after the war, when Soviet moles made MI6 into a liability for the western alliance. But that’s another and a far sadder story… For today, MI6 has been much in the news in the last week because a range of pre-war and war documentation has been released describing MI6 activities and intelligence gathering. There have been notes about a cross-dressing British spy in Franco’s Madrid – whoops… and even a British project to assassinate a series of Third Reich leaders, after DDay, one that was happily scotched but that survives on paper. However, a real and little discussed gem (fo-1093-288, pdf) is this piece from the debriefing of two German officers. Herbert Kappler (obit 1978: pictured above), a man with a good deal of blood on his hands, who, at the end of his life, escaped from an Italian prison hospital in a suitcase, and Constantin Canaris (obit 1983), nephew of the legendary Admiral Canaris.

No explanation is given as to how this conversation between two German officers was attained. But it was common policy in the war for British interrogators to bug cells – there are already cases from the summer of 1940 – and almost certainly this was a private conversation with a microphone at the end of it. Was Canaris perhaps deliberately asking questions for the British? drbeachcombing AT yahoo DOT com Possibly.

Canaris and Kappler speak about two fascinating subjects. The first is Kappler’s interrogation of Johann Elser, the man who came closest to killing Hitler, in 1939, one of several times when ‘providence’ (that ‘arrant whore’) saved the Führer. Canaris describes how he killed Elser with kindness, chatting away until the man’s life story came pouring out in four hundred closely typed pages. We know from elsewhere that Kappler was an all too capable Gestapo chief: his abilities were unfortunately lent to horrific ends, including the liquidation of the Roman ghetto and the Ardeatine Massacre: Kappler personally shot one of the hostages there. Kappler, on the evidence of this conversation, seems to have had a genuine affection for Elser calling him a ‘genius’ and stating ‘I hope he is still alive’: unfortunately that brave man had been executed in April of 1945 as the Third Reich began to tie up ‘loose ends’, spiting posterity. What a hero Elser would have been for post-war Germany.

Kappler does give us one particularly precious anecdote from the interrogation that, to the best of Beach’s knowledge, has not so far made it into the history books.

One morning just as I was interrogating Elser, the Reichsfuehrer walked in and took over the interrogation himself. With me [Elser] always used to talk. After the Reichsfuehrer had been in it took me two whole hours till I could get him to open his mouth again. He was just too frightened to talk. He was completely cowed and asked me whether it was true that the Reichsfuehrer wanted to have him roasted alive.

The Reichsführer is, of course, the truly dreadful Heinrich Himmler, an individual, unlike Kappler, with no redeeming features, a murderous, empty tomb of a man. The image of him banging his fist on the table, his sweating face coming over the table toward the terrified and decent Elser will stay with Beach for the rest of this evening. Perhaps a hot bath…

The second subject is the capture of Stevens and Best, two members of British intelligence who were scooped up in a brilliant German trick at the Dutch border in the so-called Venlo incident in 1939. Kappler describes the interrogation of Stevens (obit 1957) and a worrying episode where, if Kappler is to be believed, Stevens gave up a German working for the British to the tender mercies of the Gestapo: luckily the man in question had already escaped. As always with these questions far more is unknown than known: this may have been a deliberate even a prearranged strategy, it may have been a necessary if ruthless improvisation. Spy-masters are not loving fathers.


Case History Of An Alcoholic – Look, June 26, 1945

This is Joe, an alcoholic, on the fourth day of a binge. He is drinking beer because that’s all he can get at the moment. His last dollar is lying on the table. Finding the glass too slow, Joe drains the bottle till he blacks out. For him alcohol is not a beverage, but a disease he can’t cure himself, needs very specialized help.

One in a million is Joe, the subject of the remarkable picture sequence on these and the following pages. Joe (the name is fictitious) is an alcoholic–one of an estimated one million alcoholics in the United States today. With a few minor deviations, Joe’s story could be the story of them all.

In his late 30’s, he has been an uncontrolled drinker for 10 years. He has drunk himself out of jobs, friends, all the amenities of a constructive place in society. He has been drinking, not for a temporary lift or because he likes the taste of liquor, but to escape reality.

Psychiatrists say the alcoholic is an individual who, at some stage of his development, refused to grow up he finds himself uncomfortable in maturity. Joe, like all alcoholics, has sought to drown this discomfort in the dream-world of drinking. In his sobering off-periods he has known guilt and remorse but later, finding himself lonely or insufficiently appreciated–or often for no apparent reason at all–he would brood over his “separateness” and again futilely attempt to escape life via alcohol.

This vicious cycle which traps the Joes of the world has defied the sincere salvaging efforts of doctors, clergymen, the law. Threats and entreaties of families and friends usually are equally vain. Only psychiatric treatment, which is expensive and lengthy, had any consistent measure of success till Alcoholics Anonymous began its group therapy.

Now 10 years old, AA is an informal organization of some 15,000 ex-alcoholics. Recognizing themselves as sufferers from a specific illness, their mutual concern is recovery from that illness for themselves and all men and women like them. Joe, who lives in Minneapolis, was helped by the AA group in his city. Because he hoped his story would encourage other alcoholics, he consented to publication of the record of his last drunken hours, and his subsequent steps along the road to sobriety. In presenting the complete chronicle, LOOK salutes the altruism of this man and the unstinted co-operation of his mentors.

Alcoholics Anonymous in action is pictured on the following pages [picture captions only]:

1. Coming out of his drunk at home next day, Joe (acquainted slightly with AA) has phoned for help. Two members, ex-alcoholics now highly respected in their community, answer his call, are ready to help if Joe really wants to get well.

2. Told that he needs hospitalization, he has a temporary change of heart, claims his call was a mistake. But these men, having been through the mill, can’t be tricked, combine sympathy and discipline to get him into his coat.

3. On his way to the sanitarium, Joe shows signs of backing out again. But this doesn’t worry his sponsors. They know from personal experience that this is an old routine for Joe, so they patiently steer him out of the car.

4. Once inside sanitarium, his face reflecting his condition, Joe is felt to have passed first stage of his redemption. No further effort is made to reason with him, to lecture, upbraid or reproach him. He needs rest, food, medication.

5. Joe is still resistant as he is undressed for bed. Before AA members can help him constr-uctively, he must “hit bottom” by admitting that he is an alcoholic and smash the delusion that he can ever hope to “drink like a gentleman.”

6. Joe remains in a fog on his second day at the sanitarium. Because, like most alcoholics, he never ate while drinking and is undernourished, he receives vitamin injections. His sponsor returns, leaves cigarets, talks with doctor.

7. His brain clears on the third day, and Joe drinks pitchers of water. His sponsor calls again, quietly discusses his own case–and his recovery. Joe recognizes a kindred spirit, thinks: “If this man got well, why not I?”

8. Physically restored after three days, Joe waves good-by to his nurse. In fresh clothing provided by his sponsors, he looks–and feels–a new man. For the first time, he faces the future with hope for recovery.

A sociable lunch after a meeting in an AA member’s home shows Joe he can have a good time when sober–a vital first step.

Joe gains insight into his own problems at weekly AA meetings. As he hears others talk openly about their cases, his guilty feeling fades.

Back at his old job in a coffee-roasting plant, Joe is visited by AA friends who helped him get on his feet. Proudly, he shows them around.

With a new outlook on life, Joe has a good chance to stay sober.

The cycle of AA therapy is complete when Joe returns to the sanitarium to visit another who needs help. He now has a rough grasp of AA principles, knows that helping other alcoholics is a technique for preserving his own sobriety. For the first time in 10 years he has found a path to a decent life. It’s too early to tell whether he’ll stay on it, but AA’s record of 75 per cent recovered is in his favor.

At the AA clubhouse, formerly one of Minneapolis’ finest private homes, Joe learns about the inner workings of AA. They exact no membership requirements, no fees, no dues require no special religious or medical point of view. They’re not missionaries, reformers or prohibitionists, have no quarrel with alcohol as a beverage. The cornerstone of their therapy is mutual encouragement in the battle for sobriety which is the life-long concern of the alcoholic.

What are the symptoms of alcoholism? Test yourself. . .

The following test questions are taken from the pamphlet Alcoholics Anonymous, published by one of the 300 AA groups now active in America. If you answer YES, HABITUALLY, to any two of the questions, the chances are you are an alcoholic.


26 June 1945 - History

Please note: The audio information from the video is included in the text below.

The Berlin Airlift could be called the first battle of the Cold War. It was when western countries delivered much needed food and supplies to the city of Berlin through the air because all other routes were blocked by the Soviet Union.


A C-54 landing at Berlin Tempelhof Airport
Source: United States Air Force

At the end of World War II the country of Germany was divided by the Allies into four zones. Great Britain, France, the United States, and the Soviet Union each controlled a different zone. The capital of Germany, Berlin, was located in the Soviet Union zone, but control of this city was also split into four zones between the four countries.

Tensions Between the East and West

With the war over, tensions began to mount between the democratic countries of the west and the communist countries controlled by the Soviet Union of the east. The west was determined to stop the spread of communism and the Marshall Plan and the Truman Doctrine made this clear.

The west also wanted the country of Germany to be united under one democratic government. The Soviet Union didn't want this. Soon the two sides were at odds over the future of Germany. The west introduced a new currency called the Deutsche Mark, but the Soviets refused to use it in their zone.

The city of Berlin was an island in the middle of the Soviet controlled zone. The west sent supplies there via railroads and roads. However, the Soviets wanted total control of Berlin. They figured if they cut off Berlin from their external supplies and food, then it would fall under their control.

On June 24, 1948 the Soviets blocked all rail and road traffic to Berlin. They cut off the electricity coming from the Soviet part of the city. They halted all traffic going in and out of the city. The only way in was to fly.

When the blockade first started, the city of Berlin had around 36 days worth of food. They also needed tons of coal for energy and other items such as medical supplies.

Without going to war or giving up the city of Berlin, the only option the western countries had was to try and fly in all the supplies. This was a huge task. There were over two million people living in the city at the time. The army estimated that it would take over 1500 tons of food each day to keep them alive.

The Soviets did not believe that an airlift would work. They felt that the people of Berlin would eventually give up.

Over the next ten months the United States and Great Britain flew around 277,000 flights into Berlin. They carried over 2.3 million tons of supplies into the city. On May 12, 1949 the Soviet Union stopped the blockade and the airlift was over.


The news of the treaty came as a complete shock to the new government and to the German people. Virtually all sections of German opinion denounced the treaty. It was known as the Diktat as Germany had been forced to sign the treaty.

On the day it was signed, Germany’s Protestant churches declared a day of national mourning. Germans were outraged at the loss of her colonies and her territory and population to France, Belgium and Poland.

She also resented the limitations placed on the size of her army and navy, the ban on an air force and tanks and the demilitarisation of the Rhineland. She felt that the principle of self-determination had been ignored in the case of the Germans of Austria and the Sudetenland. She believed that the War Guilt Clause and the reparations payments were unjust. One effect of the Treaty was an immediate lack of confidence in the politicians that had signed it. This was reflected in the poor performance of the parties that supported the republic in the elections of 1920.

  • Terms of the Peace treaty
  • Massively reduced military capability
  • ‘War guilt’ clause imposed
  • Reparations fixed at a very high level
  • All of this led to BIG problems from 1919

Problems from 1919 - 1924

  • Anger directed at the government for signing the Treaty of Versailles
  • The new constitution reliant on coalition governments, which weakens its power
  • Economic problems as all profit is sent directly to the Allies as reparations pay-outs
  • Valueless currency as economic crisis leads to hyper-inflation
  • Rise of extremist groups attempting to wrestle power from the de-stabilised government (Freikorps, Spartacists etc.)
  • The Communist Spartacists in 1919, defeated by the right-wing militia of the Freikorps
  • The right-wing Kapp Putsch, defeated by a general strike

Right wing dissatisfaction with the new government was worsened when the government moved to disband Freikorps units. A nationalist politician, Wofgang Kapp led a revolt in Berlin backed by the Freikorps and the military commander of Berlin. The regular army refused to crush the revolt and the government fled to Stuttgart. Its call for a general strike was carried out by the trade unions in the city and the putsch collapsed. At the same time a communist revolt was crushed in the Ruhr, the industrial heartland of Germany, with over a thousand dead.

Right wing assassinations were to plague the early years of the new republic with leading politicians such as Matthias Erzberger and Walther Rathenau assassinated. Many of the murderers were treated with great leniency by the courts but the murders did have the effect of strengthening support for the institutions of the republic.


AQA A Level History: Democracy and Nazism: Germany, 1918&ndash1945, 7042/2O - 5 June 2019

Looking at last years paper, there could be an essay question on social stuff (at anytime in the period) as there wasn&rsquot last year, neither did anti-semitism feature- though it was in the 2017 paper.

In a perfect world i would like wartime opposition, and perhaps something economic based, though I think it could be a tough paper overall and I&rsquom quite nervous for it.

These are some topics that I don't think have come up much on the AQA 2014 specimen papers and the 2017 and 2018 papers:

- German Revolution, 1918-19
- Social/Cultural Stability, 1924-29
- Foreign Policy, 1924-29
- Nazi Popularity and Collapse of Democracy, 1928-33
- Terror State, 1933-39
- Economy, 1933-39
- Radicalisation, 1933-41 (including anti-Semitism, 1933-39)
- Social Impact of War, 1939-45

The German Revolution and the Nazi Party's electoral successes especially haven't come up before. Then again, my predictions for the Stuart Monarchy paper were mostly wrong so.

(Original post by luke.ah)
These are some topics that I don't think have come up much on the AQA 2014 specimen papers and the 2017 and 2018 papers:

- German Revolution, 1918-19
- Social/Cultural Stability, 1924-29
- Foreign Policy, 1924-29
- Nazi Popularity and Collapse of Democracy, 1928-33
- Terror State, 1933-39
- Economy, 1933-39
- Radicalisation, 1933-41 (including anti-Semitism, 1933-39)
- Social Impact of War, 1939-45

The German Revolution and the Nazi Party's electoral successes especially haven't come up before. Then again, my predictions for the Stuart Monarchy paper were mostly wrong so.

I think the essay questions usually specify a time scale ranging from around 2 to 6 years. For example, these were on the 2018 Paper:

'To what extent was the Nazi consolidation of power in the years 1933 and 1934 achieved by legal means?' (1-2 years)

&lsquoThe German economy was adapted successfully to meet the demands of war before 1945.&rsquo (more open-ended but would usually discuss years 1938-45)

(Original post by luke.ah)
I think the essay questions usually specify a time scale ranging from around 2 to 6 years. For example, these were on the 2018 Paper:

'To what extent was the Nazi consolidation of power in the years 1933 and 1934 achieved by legal means?' (1-2 years)

&lsquoThe German economy was adapted successfully to meet the demands of war before 1945.&rsquo (more open-ended but would usually discuss years 1938-45)

If you find it restrictive, you can broaden it out to more a question concerning overall issues that faced the Republic, 1919-24, and how responsible the Treaty of Versailles was for this - though, make sure you keep referring back to the question to stay focused. You could do more than one for economic and/or political, or use evidence as points (which might be less restrictive).

Examples could be:
- The immediate reaction in Germany (mostly political/social rather than economic).
- Left-wing and/or right-wing reaction (political, compare how directly unrest was linked to anti-Versailles or more just anti-Weimar).
- Inflation and, after the Ruhr occupation, hyperinflation (economic, compare whether it was the Treaty itself or the Republic's reaction to it).

Particularly as the date range is up to 1924, you could argue that the economic impact was clearly not that damaging as it was partially resolved in late 1923 / 1924 (such as with Stresemann's cutting expenditure, the Rentenmark, the Dawes Plan, etc).

Hope that makes sense, not the best explanation


The material you will see here are original photos, color slides and postcards from my collection of Okinawa memories that I have spent many years saving from the trash bins of history. These are the memories of those who have passed on and left no one who cared to remember. For you, who are still with us, I hope that these photos and postcards will remind you of things from your past. For those of the current and future generations, I hope that these photos and postcards will give you a sense of what you missed.

This website will take you from Hagushi Beach on 1 April 1945 and the last great battle of World War II to the back streets and alleys of Naha, Koza, Nago, Itoman, Jagaru, Yonabaru, Ishikawa, Kin, and Shuri.

Were you stationed at Camp Kue, Camp Mercy, Camp Kuba Saki, Fort Buckner, Camp Hanson, Camp Schwab, Machinato Service Area, White Beach, Sukiran, Kadena Air Base, Naha Air Base or any of the other numerous military bases?

Did you see the sites of Naminoue (Tea House August Moon), sip an Orion beer on BC Street, visit Suicide Cliff, see the numerous Okinawan castles or visit some of the historic sites related to the Battle for Okinawa?

Did you shop at Plaza House at Awase Meadows or Heiwa Dori (Black Market Alley) or stroll down Kokusai Dori, in Naha?

Did you swim at Moon Beach, Yaka Beach or Ishikawa Beach?

How many times did you go around Kadena Circle before you figured out where to get off?

Those of you of today's generation may not even know some of these names for over the years many of them have changed, such are the ways of progress.

USCAR, GRI, RYCOM, RYKOM, OBASCOM, USARYIS, sounded like a foreign language to newly arrived ARMY, NAVY, MARINES, and AIR FORCE personnel. Most are gone, but a few still remain to remind us of the old days.

Did you know it as THE ROCK, KEYSTONE OF THE PACIFIC, GIBRALTAR OF THE PACIFIC, NANSEI SHOTO, or THE RYUKYU ISLANDS, whatever name you remember it is still OKINAWA.


Watch the video: June 26, 1945 - San Francisco United Nations Charter Signed (July 2022).


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