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1560 - 1592
Life of the Elizabethan mariner, privateer and explorer Thomas Cavendish.
1586 - 1588
Thomas Cavendish circumnavigates the globe, only the third man to do so.
Thomas Cavendish is the first Englishman to land at Saint Helena.
1591 - 1592
Thomas Cavendish's attempt at a second circumnavigation of the globe ends in his death at sea.
Thomas Hobbes senior had an older brother, Francis Hobbes, who was a wealthy merchant with no family of his own. Thomas Hobbes, the subject of this biography, had one brother Edmund who was about two years older than he him. Thomas began his schooling in Westport Church when he was four years old. However, when he was seven years old, his father had an argument with another vicar at the door of his church. Blows were exchanged and Hobbes' father ran off. It is unclear what role his mother played in his upbringing after that, but he was certainly brought up by his uncle Francis after this.
From age eight Hobbes, who was by this time proficient at reading and arithmetic, attended Mr Evan's school in Malmesbury, then later Robert Latimer's private school in Westport. Hobbes showed his brilliance at this school and was an outstanding Greek and Latin scholar by the time he left this school at age fourteen, having already translated Euripides' Medea from Greek into Latin iambics. Aubrey in [ 13 ] tells us that as a young boy Hobbes was sometimes playful, but also sometimes withdrawn and melancholy. Often at school [ 13 ] :-
He graduated with a B.A. in 1608 and on the recommendation of Sir James Hussey, Principal of Magdalen Hall, he became the tutor of William Cavendish, later the Second Earl of Devonshire. For around two years Hobbes did little in the way of academic studies, being more of a companion to Cavendish who was only a little younger that he was. In 1610 Hobbes went with Cavendish on a European tour and they visited France, Germany, and Italy. He learnt French and Italian on this trip, but more importantly, it reinvigorated his desire for learning and he decided that he would pursue a study of classics. On his return Hobbes took up studying Greek and Latin again. He had progressed from being a tutor to Cavendish to being his secretary and having few duties he had plenty of time to devote to his studies.
In 1626 , on the death of his father, William Cavendish inherited the title the Earl of Devonshire, but two years later William died and Hobbes lost a friend as well as his secretarial post. William Cavendish's son was only eleven years old and Hobbes' services were no longer required by the Cavendish family at this time.
Hobbes was tutor to the son of Sir Gervase Clinton of Nottinghamshire, from 1628 to 1631 . During this period, in 1629 , he published his translation of Thucydides which he had been working on for several years. So far we have not mentioned any interest by Hobbes in mathematics, and perhaps even more surprisingly no particular interest in philosophy. In fact Hobbes was about forty years old before he became fascinated by mathematics. Although Aubrey's description of Hobbes encountering mathematics for the first time is, like so much of Aubrey, rather overdone, nevertheless his description in [ 13 ] is well worth recording:-
Hobbes published a new expanded edition of De Cive in 1647 , then three years later, in 1650 , his earlier work The Elements of Law, Natural and Politic was published without his permission. It appeared in two parts as Humane Nature Ⓣ and De Corpore Politico Ⓣ .
Hobbes was the mathematics tutor of the Prince of Wales between 1646 and 1648 . He remained on the continent until 1651 , the year his most famous work Leviathan was published then, late in that year, he returned to England. In fact he was now in some difficulties with all sides of the political spectrum. In England the Royalists, with Charles I dead, seemed to have lost their struggle for power. Passages near the end of the Leviathan appeared to indicate that Hobbes was trying to make his peace with the English government, which angered the Royalists. In fact in these passages Hobbes was remaining consistent with his view that one showed allegiance to a ruler only so long as that ruler could provide protection. Hobbes had also attacked the Roman Catholic Church which made his position in Paris pretty untenable.
Hobbes' masterpiece Leviathan set out his ideas with great clarity. He argued that people want to live in peace and security and to attain this they must organise themselves into communities for protection. Since there will always be some in the community who cannot be trusted, people must set up a government with their authority to make and enforce laws necessary to protect the community. It is, Hobbes argues, the rational way for people to behave so moral behaviour is rational. Although Hobbes was himself a Christian, these arguments were seen as many as removing the need for God as the giver of moral code, for Hobbes argues that it follows by reason alone. Another aspect of the work which caused many to attack it was Hobbes' vitriolic arguments against the university system.
Before this Hobbes had been seen by many as promoting a mechanistic scientific approach which was much in tune with those who would form the Royal Society. Indeed he had argued that since what we know and understand only comes through our senses and all objects that our senses can detect are material, we can only view the world in a material way. He promoted an approach through language and mathematics to analyse experience which he claimed would lead to a complete mechanistic understanding of the world. The certainty of mathematics would lead to correct and indisputable conclusions about society and about man. His argument that all was material was seen as denying the existence of the immaterialistic soul and intellect. Seth Ward, the Savilian Professor of Astronomy at Oxford, wrote:-
At this stage, however, although Hobbes had published little in the way of mathematics, he certainly was considered by some as a leading mathematician on a par with Roberval and Fermat.
In 1655 Hobbes published De Corpore Ⓣ which, was one part of his trilogy of philosophy. He had already published De Cive Ⓣ (1642) and the third part, De Homine Ⓣ , would appear in 1658 . De Corpore Ⓣ contained a large amount of mathematical material in fact Chapters 12 to 20 are devoted entirely to the topic. Hobbes saw mathematics as an essential part of knowledge, but he also saw his own materialistic approach as revolutionising the subject and he set out to reform mathematics in this work. His approach is certainly consistently materialistic, denying abstract ideas for Hobbes mathematics is the study of quantity, and quantities are the measures of 3 -dimensional bodies. His definition of a point in De Corpore Ⓣ ( which totally differs from that of Euclid ) is as follows:-
Lines, therefore, are the paths of moving points, surfaces are the paths of moving lines, volumes are the result of moving surfaces. He then proceeded to study ratios and angles, then acceleration, projectiles and the ideas of Galileo followed by a study of indivisibles and the ideas of Cavalieri, the rectification of the spiral, and finally squaring the circle. It is fair to say that much of Hobbes' mathematical ideas are generalised from Galileo's study of mechanics and of motion. The new method of indivisibles, as put forward by Cavalieri, was accepted by Hobbes but he rejected Wallis's version as given in Arithmetica infinitorum Ⓣ .
Jesseph writes of Hobbes' attempt to square the circle [ 5 ] :-
This was a phrase that Wallis would pour scorn on when he attacked Hobbes' ideas. Although Hobbes did not believe that the "proofs" in De Corpore Ⓣ proved the result, he would go on to publish several "proofs" of squaring the circle over the next 25 years which he did believe to be correct.
Wallis attacked the whole of Hobbes' mathematical work of De Corpore Ⓣ and a vigorous argument between the two arose which lasted for 25 years. To Hobbes mathematics was geometry and only geometry, and Wallis's Algebra he described as:-
Hobbes claimed that the algebraic symbols could denote different things such as lines, surfaces or volumes, and therefore were unreliable in mathematical proofs. Hobbes responded to the attack by Wallis and others of De Corpore Ⓣ by publishing Six Lessons to the Professors of Mathematics in the University of Oxford in 1656 .
In 1660 Hobbes attacked the 'new' methods of mathematical analysis. In Dialogus Physicus, sive de Natura Aeris Ⓣ (1661) he attacked Boyle and those setting up the Royal Society which, as a matter of interest, never elected Hobbes as a Fellow ( it is probably that since he was perceived as an atheist entry would have been impossible ) . Wallis replied with telling mathematical arguments, but also with unfair charges of disloyalty. Hobbes ended the argument about disloyalty with Mr. Hobbes Considered in His Loyalty, Religion, Reputation, and Manners (1662) . Hobbes could win arguments when his morality was attacked, but when it came to mathematics Wallis had a clear upper hand understanding mathematics far more deeply than Hobbes.
Over the years Hobbes attempted to solve a number of outstanding mathematical problems. Jesseph, in [ 22 ] , studies:-
In mathematics, he corrected some principles of geometry. he solved some most difficult problems, which had been sought in vain by the diligent scrutiny of the greatest geometers since the very beginnings of geometry namely these:
1 . To exhibit a line equal to the arc of a circle, and a square equal to the area of a circle, and this by various methods.
2 . To divide an angle in a given ratio.
3 . To find the ratio of a cube to a sphere.
4 . To find any number of mean proportionals between two given lines.
5 . To describe a regular polygon with any number of sides.
6 . To find the centre of gravity of the quadrant of a circle.
7 . To find the centres of gravity of all types of parabolas.
He was the first to construct and demonstrate these, and many other things besides, which ( because they will appear in his writings are less important ) I pass over.
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The Crown of Ireland Act 1542 is an Act passed by the Parliament of Ireland on 18 June 1541, which created the title of King of Ireland for King Henry VIII of England and his successors, who previously ruled the island as Lord of Ireland.
After the death of Henry VIII's only legitimate son, Edward VI, the throne passed to his oldest daughter, Mary I, who was a devout Roman Catholic. Mary shortly thereafter married Philip of Spain, who was also staunchly Catholic. The new monarch restored papal authority in both England and Ireland. However, the status of Ireland as a kingdom remained in question: would the Papacy recognise Ireland's existence as a kingdom in its own right or maintain some fiction of temporal papal power in the land? To rectify this, Pope Paul IV issued a papal bull in 1555, Ilius, per quem Reges regnant, recognising Philip and Mary as King and Queen of England and its dominions including Ireland. Although this did not explicitly recognise Ireland as a kingdom, it represents the surrender of most of the Papacy's declared authority over Ireland, elevating it from a mere province of the Holy See to one that united Ireland's and England's crowns in one person.
Mary died without issue in 1558, and the thrones of England and Ireland passed to her half-sister, Elizabeth I, who was a Protestant. Once again, both kingdoms were removed from papal authority. In reply, Pope Pius V issued a papal bull in 1570, Regnans in Excelsis, declaring "Elizabeth, the pretended Queen of England and the servant of crime" to be a heretic and releasing all her subjects from any allegiance to her and excommunicating any that obeyed her orders.
Sir Thomas Cavendish
Sir Thomas Cavendish.
The third circumnavigator of the globe, born at Trimley St. Martin, Suffolk. On quitting Corpus Christi College, Cambridge (without a degree), he almost ruined himself by his extravagance as a courtier. To repair his fortune he turned to maritime and colonial enterprise, and in 1585 accompanied Sir Richard Grenville to America. Soon returning to England, he undertook an elaborate imitation of Sir Francis Drake's great voyage. On the 21st of July 1586, he sailed from Plymouth with 123 men in three vessels, only one of which (the "Desire", of 140 tons) came home. By way of Sierra Leone, the Cape Verde Islands and C. Frio in Brazil, he coasted down to Patagonia (where he discovered "Port Desire", his only important contribution to knowledge), and passing through Magellan's Straits, fell upon the Spanish settlements and shipping on the west coast of South and Central America and of Mexico. Among his prizes were nineteen vessels of worth, and especially the treasure galleon, the "Great St. Anne", which he captured off Cape St. Lucas, the southern extremity of California (November 14, 1587). After this success he struck across the Pacific for home touched at the Ladrones, Philippines, Moluccas and Java rounded the Cape of Good Hope and arrived again at Plymouth (September 9-10, 1588), having circumnavigated the globe in two years and fifty days. It is said that his sailors were clothed in silk, his sails were damask, and his topmast covered with cloth of gold. Yet by 1591 he was again in difficulties, and planned a fresh American and Pacific venture. John Davis accompanied him, but the voyage (undertaken with five vessels) was an utter failure, much of the fault lying with Cavendish himself, who falsely accused Davis, with his last breath, of deserting him (May 20, 1592). He died and was buried at sea, on the way home, in the summer of 1592.
Inventors Timeline: The Inventions that Shaped America
This article contain brief, fast facts in an Inventors timeline format detailing the History of famous inventions that shaped America during the Industrial Revolution. The Inventors Timeline covers important dates and events in the years leading up to the Civil War up to the inventions of the second Industrial Revolution up to the outbreak of World War 1 (1914) The Inventors Timeline includes famous names of American inventors and the inventions and discoveries of men such as Eli Whitney, Cyrus McCormick, Samuel Colt, Samuel Morse, Elias Howe, Richard Gatling, Levi Strauss, Thomas Edison, the Wright Brothers and Henry Ford.
Inventors Timeline: The Inventions that shaped America
The Inventors Timeline details the famous inventions that shaped America. Many famous American inventors and discoveries are included in the history timeline but the important European inventors have also been included. The inventions of the American Industrial Revolution led to the Industrialization of America when people moved from a rural agricultural environment to an urban city environment. It was a time of dramatic change and people found that their working lives were not governed by the seasons and daily chores necessary in the farming industry. Americans worked a six day week which gave them some time for leisure which is why we have included inventions such as baseball and the Ferris Wheel. The Ferris Wheel was the most popular attraction at the 1893 Chicago World's Fair showcasing American inventions and technical advances to over 4 million visitors. The Inventors Timeline provides a fast overview of the technical advances, inventions and social changes that occurred in a relatively short period of time.
Inventors Timeline Fact 1: 1744 - Benjamin Franklin - Benjamin Franklin invents the Franklin stove and in 1747 invents the lightning rod. Franklin also invents the odometer and bifocal glasses
Inventors Timeline Fact 2: 1765 - James Watt - James Watt invents the first modern steam engine
Inventors Timeline Fact 3: 1782 - Jacob Yoder - Jacob Yoder invents the Flatboat for inland waterways
Inventors Timeline Fact 4: 1783 - Montgolfier Brothers - Joseph and Jacques Montgolfier fly the first Hot Air Balloon
Inventors Timeline Fact 5: 1793 - Eli Whitney - Eli Whitney invents the Cotton Gin - Eli Whitney Cotton Gin
Inventors Timeline Fact 6: 1795 - Thomas Jefferson - Thomas Jefferson invented the Wheel cypher, a cipher system for encrypting messages to prevent code breaking
Inventors Timeline Fact 7: 1807 - Robert Fulton - Robert Fulton builds the first commercial steamboat
Inventors Timeline Fact 8: 1821 - George Stephenson - George Stephenson is the famous inventor of the first steam locomotive engine for railways
Inventors Timeline Fact 9: 1831 - Cyrus McCormick - Cyrus McCormick invents the mechanical horse-drawn reaper - McCormick Reaper
Inventors Timeline Fact 10: 1832 - John G. Stephenson - John G. Stephenson builds the first horse car
Inventors Timeline Fact 11: 1834 - Hiram Moore - Hiram Moore invented the first combine harvester
Inventors Timeline Fact 12: 1836 - Samuel Colt - Samuel Colt invents the Colt Revolver
Inventors Timeline Fact 13: 1836 - John Deere - John Deere invents the lightweight plow with steel cutting edge
Inventors Timeline Fact 14: 1837 - Samuel Morse - Samuel Morse develops the Morse Code and the first telegraph line - Samuel Morse and the First Telegraph
Inventors Timeline Fact 15: 1839 - Charles Goodyear - Charles Goodyear invented the first vulcanized rubber
Inventors Timeline Fact 16: 1842 - Joseph Dart - Joseph Dart and Robert Dunbar invent steam-powered Grain Elevators
Inventors Timeline Fact 17: 1845 - Alexander Cartwright - Alexander Cartwright invented the modern sport of baseball
Inventors Timeline Fact 18: 1846 - Elias Howe - Elias Howe invented the world's first practical sewing machine - Elias Howe Sewing Machine
Inventors Timeline Fact 19: 1852 - Elisha Otis - Elisha Otis invented the first safety brake for elevators
Inventors Timeline Fact 20: 1853 - George Cayley - George Cayley invented the first manned glider
Inventors Timeline Fact 21: 1855 - Henry Bessemer - Henry Bessemer invents the Bessemer process to create steel from iron
Inventors Timeline Fact 22: 1858 - Hamilton Smith - Hamilton Smith patents the first rotary washing machine
Inventors Timeline Fact 23: 1860 - Daniel Hess - Daniel Hess invents the vacuum cleaner
Inventors Timeline Fact 24: 1861 - Richard Gatling - Richard Gatling invented the Gatling gun during the American Civil War
Inventors Timeline The Inventions that shaped America.
Inventors Timeline cont.
Interesting, fast facts about racial discrimination are provided Inventors Timeline of the 1900's detailed below. The history of Segregation is told in a factual timeline sequence consisting of a series of interesting, short, fast facts and dates providing a simple method of relating the history of the Segregation for kids, schools and homework projects.
Inventors Timeline The Inventions that shaped America.
Inventors Timeline Fact 25: 1861 - Horace Hunley - Horace Lawson Hunley developed the submarine during the Civil War
Inventors Timeline Fact 26: 1863 - Birdsill Holly - Birdsill Holly invented the modern version of the fire hydrant
Inventors Timeline Fact 27: 1866 - Alfred Nobel - Alfred Bernhard Nobel invented dynamite
Inventors Timeline Fact 28: 1866 - Charles Goodnight - Charles Goodnight who introduces the concept of the chuck wagon used on cattle drives by cowboys
Inventors Timeline Fact 29: 1867 - Christopher Scholes - Christopher Scholes invents the first practical typewriter and develops the QWERTY keyboard layout
Inventors Timeline Fact 30: 1869 - George Westinghouse - George Westinghouse Invented the air brake system
Inventors Timeline Fact 33: 1876 - Alexander Graham Bell - Alexander Graham Bell was the inventor of the telephone
Inventors Timeline Fact 34: 1876 - Carl von Linde - Carl von Linde invents the refrigerator
Inventors Timeline Fact 35: 1876 - Nicholaus Otto - Nicholaus Otto invents the Internal Combustion Engine
Inventors Timeline Fact 36: 1877 - Thomas Alva Edison - Thomas Alva Edison invented the cylinder phonograph and in 1879 develops the first practical electric light bulb
Inventors Timeline Fact 37: 1879 - Joseph Swan - Joseph Swan inventor of the electric light bulb
Inventors Timeline Fact 38: 1879 - James Ritty - James Ritty invented the mechanical cash register
Inventors Timeline Fact 39: 1880 - Walter Camp - Walter Camp invented the modern sport of American football
Inventors Timeline Fact 40: 1882 - Schuyler Wheeler - Schuyler Skaats Wheeler invented the first electric fan
Inventors Timeline Fact 41: 1884 - William Le Baron Jenney - The Home Insurance Building was the first skyscraper built, designed by architect William Le Baron Jenney - The First Skyscraper
Inventors Timeline Fact 42: 1884 - George Eastman - George Eastman invents the first film in roll form and then the Kodak camera in 1888
Inventors Timeline Fact 43: 1885 - Sylvanus F. Bowser - Sylvanus F. Bowser invented the gasoline/petrol pump
Inventors Timeline Fact 44: 1887 - John Dunlop - John Dunlop invention of the pneumatic tire
Inventors Timeline Fact 45: 1887 - Charles Fey - Charles Fey invented the first "one-armed bandit"
Inventors Timeline Fact 46: 1889 - George Fuller - George Fuller built the Tacoma Building Skyscraper
Inventors Timeline Fact 47: 1889 - Daimler and Benz - Gottlieb Daimler and Karl Benz First 4 Wheel Automobile
Inventors Timeline Fact 48: 1891 - Jesse W. Reno - Jesse W. Reno invented the escalator
Inventors Timeline Fact 49: 1892 - Rudolf Diesel - Rudolf Diesel invented the diesel-fueled internal combustion engine called the Diesel engine
Inventors Timeline Fact 50: 1892 - John Froelich - John Froelich invented the first gasoline-powered tractor
Inventors Timeline Fact 51: 1893 - George Ferris - George Ferris invents the Ferris Wheel - Ferris Wheel Invention
Inventors Timeline Fact 52: 1895 - Guglielmo Marconi - Marconi invented of the first practical radio signaling system - 1920's Radio and Advertising
Inventors Timeline Fact 53: 1897 - Nikola Tesla - Nikola Tesla invents the induction coil or Tesla coil, a device essential to sending and receiving radio waves
Inventors Timeline Fact 54: 1898 - Edwin Prescott - Edwin Prescott patented the first roller coaster
Inventors Timeline Fact 55: 1899 - Joshua Lionel Cowen - The flash-lamp was invented by Joshua Lionel Cowen
Inventors Timeline Fact 56: 1900 - Count Ferdinand Zeppelin - Ferdinand Zeppelin invented the first rigid dirigible (zeppelin) - Zeppelin Airship
Inventors Timeline Fact 57: 1901 - Ransom Olds - Ransom Olds inventor of the assembly line for automobiles
Inventors Timeline Fact 58: 1902 - Willis Carrier - Willis Carrier invented the first mechanical air conditioning unit
Inventors Timeline Fact 59: 1903 - Wright Brothers - Orville and Wilbur Wright first powered, sustained, and controlled flight of an airplane - Wright Brothers
Inventors Timeline Fact 60: 1905 - Albert Einstein - Albert Einstein and the Theory of Relativity
Inventors Timeline Fact 61: 1907 - Leo Baekeland - Leo Baekeland invents Bakelite
Inventors Timeline Fact 62: 1907 - Paul Cornu - The Helicopter was invented by Paul Cornu
Inventors Timeline Fact 63: 1907 - Lee DeForest - The Radio amplifier was invented by Lee DeForest
Inventors Timeline Fact 64: 1908 - Henry Ford - Henry Ford created the Model T car and in 1913 introduces mass production of automobiles
Inventors Timeline Fact 65: 1911 - Charles F. Kettering - Charles F. Kettering invented the automobile self-starter used by the Cadillac company
Inventors Timeline The Inventions that shaped America.
Facts about Inventions and Inventors
For visitors interested in inventions and inventors refer to the following articles:
1902 - Sir Archibald Edward Garrod is the first to associate Mendel's theories with a human disease
In 1902, Sir Archibald Edward Garrod became the first person to associate Mendel's theories with a human disease. Garrod had studied medicine at Oxford University before following in his father's footsteps and becoming a physician.
Whilst studying the human disorder alkaptonuria, he collected family history information from his patients. Through discussions with Mendelian advocate William Bateson, he concluded that alkaptonuria was a recessive disorder and, in 1902, he published The Incidence of Alkaptonuria: A Study in Chemical Individuality. This was the first published account of recessive inheritance in humans.
It was also the first time that a genetic disorder had been attributed to "inborn errors of metabolism", which referred to his belief that certain diseases were the result of errors or missing steps in the body's chemical pathways. These discoveries were some of the first milestones in scientists developing an understanding of the molecular basis of inheritance.
John Locke’s Early Life and Education
John Locke was born in 1632 in Wrighton, Somerset. His father was a lawyer and small landowner who had fought on the Parliamentarian side during the English Civil Wars of the 1640s. Using his wartime connections, he placed his son in the elite Westminster School.
Did you know? John Locke’s closest female friend was the philosopher Lady Damaris Cudworth Masham. Before she married the two had exchanged love poems, and on his return from exile, Locke moved into Lady Damaris and her husband’s household.
Between 1652 and 1667, John Locke was a student and then lecturer at Christ Church, Oxford, where he focused on the standard curriculum of logic, metaphysics and classics. He also studied medicine extensively and was an associate of Robert Hooke, Robert Boyle and other leading Oxford scientists.
Researching Cavendish Families
The cost of the “Families of Cavendish” is $40 per volume, plus $5 for shipping and handling. Cemeteries of Cavendish costs $4.00 with a $1 for shipping and handling. Checks should be made payable to CHS and sent to PO Box 472, Cavendish, VT 05142.
PLEASE NOTE-The Church of Latter Day Saints has microfilmed all of the town records in the mid 1980s. We recommend checking Family History Centers (see link below ) before coming to Cavendish seeking birth , marriage and death certificates.
What was Thomas Cavendish‘s claim to fame?
English navigator Thomas Cavendish (c. 1560–1592) followed in Sir Francis Drake’s (1540 or 1543–1596) footsteps. Seeing Drake return from his exploits at sea and against the Spanish, Cavendish was inspired. And it was for good reason: Drake had earned himself fame, wealth, and the honor of being knighted. So in 1586 Cavendish set out with three ships for Brazil, made it through the Strait of Magellan and then proceeded to capture Spanish treasure—including their prized ship, the Santa Ana. The Kings of Spain later mourned the loss and the fact that the ship had been taken by “an English youth … with 40 or 50 companions.”
Cavendish, now in the Pacific, continued his voyage, which took him to the Philippines, Moluccas, and Java before he rounded the Cape of Good Hope (Africa) and returned home. The journey had taken 2 years and 50 days, cost him two of his own ships, and made him the third person to circumnavigate the globe.
But his welcome in England was not what he expected: Cavendish was received with acclaim, but was not knighted by the queen. The fame and fortune that had come his way quickly vanished he spent most of his new money, and his renown soon faded. By 1590 Cavendish thought he would try the journey again. Setting sail with five ships in August 1591, the fleet was headed for trouble. Having made it to South America, heavy storms separated the ships as they attempted to make their way through the Strait of Magellan. The ship Cavendish captained turned back toward Brazil, attempting to make landfall. But Cavendish himself never made it. He died en route, believing he had been deserted by his mates.
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