History Podcasts

Golet SS-31 - History

Golet SS-31 - History

Golet SS-31


A trout of the scientific name Salvelinus malma, fish family Salmonidae; voracious, feeding mostly on other fishes when adult.

( SS-31: dp. 1,526; 1. 311'9", b. 27'3"; dr. 15'3"; s. 20.25 k. (surf.), 8:75 k. (submerged); cpl. 80; a. 1 3", 2 30 cal. ma. 10 21" tt.; cl. Balao)

Golet was launched 1 August 1943 by the Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, Wis.; sponsored by Mrs. Alexander Wiley, wife or U.S. Senator Wiley of Wisconsin; commissioned 30 November 1943, Lt. Cmdr. James M. Clement in command.

Golet departed Manitowoc 19 December 1943 via the Mississippi River for New Orleans, arriving the 28th. After shakedown training at Panama and final battle practice in Hawaiian waters, she departed Pearl Harbor 18 March 1944 for her maiden war patrol off the Kurile Island chain, Southern Hokkaido and Eastern Honshu, Japan. Severe combinations of fog, rain and ice were encountered and only one ship worth a torpedo came into view. This enemy proved too fast for Golet to gain torpedo range; she returned to Midway, 3 May 1944.

Lt. James S. Clark took command of Golet and departed Midway 28 May 1944 to patrol off northern Honshu, Japan. A door of silence closed behind her and Golet was never heard from again. She had been scheduled to depart her area on 5 July and expected at Midway about 12 or 13 July. She failed to acknowledge a message sent her on 9 July and was presumed lost 26 July 1944.

Japanese antisubmarine records available after the war revealed that Golet was the probable victim of a Japanese antisubmarine attack made 14 June 1944 in latitude 41¡04' North, longitude 14¡30' East. These records mention that the attack brought up corks, rafts, and other debris and a heavy pool of oil, all evidence of the sinking of a submarine, Eighty-two gallant men of the Navy's "Silent Service" perished with Golet.

Gal Gadot

Gal Gadot-Varsano [8] [9] [10] (Hebrew: גל גדות ‎ [ˈɡal ɡaˈdot] [11] born ( 1985-04-30 ) 30 April 1985) [12] is an Israeli actress and model. At age 18, she was crowned Miss Israel 2004. She then served two years in the Israel Defense Forces as a soldier, whereafter she began studying at the IDC Herzliya college, while building her modeling and acting careers. [13] [7] [14]

Gadot's first international film role came as Gisele Yashar in Fast & Furious (2009), a role she reprised in subsequent installments of the film franchise. She went on to achieve global stardom for portraying Diana Prince / Wonder Woman in the DC Extended Universe, beginning with Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice (2016), followed by the solo film Wonder Woman, the ensemble Justice League (both 2017), the sequel Wonder Woman 1984 (2020), and the alternate cut Zack Snyder's Justice League (2021). [15] [16]

Gadot has been dubbed the "biggest Israeli superstar" by local media outlets. [17] Time magazine named her one of the 100 most influential people in the world in 2018 and she has placed twice in annual rankings of the world's highest-paid actresses.

On January 30, 2006, San Marco drove to her former Santa Barbara condominium and killed Beverly Graham, a former neighbor who she argued with. She then drove to the mail processing plant in Goleta, California. San Marco entered the sprawling plant's lot by tailgating another car as it passed through the gate. She gained entry to the building by taking an employee's identification badge at gunpoint in order to gain an electronic access to the secure staff entrance. She then told the employee to leave. They were unharmed. [1]

At 9:00 p.m., San Marco shot Ze Fairchild, 37, in the head in the building's parking lot. She turned to Maleka Higgins and shot her at point-blank range. She then shot Nicola Grant. Some workers, after hearing gunshots, went to the windows to see what was happening. San Marco reportedly turned to them and smiled. Several employees fled to a nearby fire station.

San Marco entered the building (which had around 80 employees inside at the time) and continued firing. Walking into the complex, she shot supervisor Charlotte Colton, who was then dragged into a room by a coworker. Colton would die two days later in Cottage Hospital. [2] San Marco headed to her former work station, where she encountered Guadalupe Swartz who saw her coming and tried to flee. San Marco, however, rapidly fired four shots into Swartz, killing her. Dexter Shannon, an Air Force veteran of the Vietnam War with grandchildren, heard nothing of the gunshots as he was working with headphones on he was fatally shot at point-blank range. San Marco then took her own life by shooting herself in the head. [3]

Graham's body was linked to the shooting hours after it ended. Neighbors reported gunshots rang out at the condominium at around 7:15 p.m. that night. One victim, Charlotte Colton, had a funeral with over 1,200 mourners. Colton was buried at Cavalry Cemetery. Goleta's mayor Jonny Wallis held a conference in which she praised the police response, condemned the shooting, and offered her condolences to its victims. [4]

Santa Barbara Edit

Post office shooting Edit

  • Ze Fairchild, 37
  • Maleka Higgins, 28
  • Nicola Grant, 42
  • Charlotte Colton, 44
  • Guadalupe Swartz, 52
  • Dexter Shannon, 57

Background Edit

Jennifer San Marco was born in Brooklyn, New York. She went to Edward R. Murrow High School, later attending Brooklyn College. She then studied natural resources management at Rutgers University in New Jersey but did not graduate. In 1989 she came to California, where after studying she was hired as a guard at medium-security Chuckawalla Valley State Prison in Blythe. She quit two days before her probationary period ended. She never gave a reason for quitting but was described as a good worker.

She held down a number of jobs, including a dispatcher for the Santa Barbara Police Department in the mid-1990s, a job for which she underwent a background check and psychological evaluation. She left the job after several months. [5] San Marco worked at a high school serving lunch before quitting in 2000. She eventually bought a condominium and went to work for the postal service as a clerk. She left on psychological disability following a 2003 incident in which she was pulled out from under a mail-sorting machine and had to be wheeled from her workplace by police in handcuffs. [1] She did return briefly, but was again removed from the building due to her erratic behavior and never returned. She was institutionalized at a Ventura mental hospital for three days in February 2001.

San Marco's car broke down in Grants, New Mexico in 2004 and she decided to stay and reside there until the shooting. In the small town of Grants, she earned a reputation for strange behavior, which included speaking (or sometimes furiously shouting) to herself, ordering food at restaurants and bolting out the door before eating it, stripping naked in public (often in random parking lots), kneeling and praying in random places (often roadsides), talking to an imaginary friend, screaming death threats, yelling profane rap lyrics and making racist comments. She began getting tattoos and showed them to neighbor Jeannie Steen. When Steen didn't react, San Marco walked around her in a circle and spat on the ground.

In July 2004, San Marco was denied a business license to begin publishing a periodical known as The Racist Press. [6] San Marco also at one point said she wanted to register a cat food business and was rejected because she lived in an unincorporated area of Cibola County. While being interviewed there, she would often talk to herself. After the rejection, she would frequently come to the office and stare at an employee named Sonya Salazar and ask to see her. Salazar was often told to hide when San Marco came to the office. San Marco once made a rude accusation that Salazar slept with someone and authorities were called. She also came into contact with authorities after she appeared naked at a gas station. She was clothed when the officers arrived and ultimately let her off with a warning. These run-ins with authorities were frequent and she was once admonished for driving half-naked. San Marco sold her condominium and told people she was going to visit a sister on the East Coast.

In November, a mental health clinic manager named Darlene Hayes said she saw San Marco alone in a post office parking lot kneeling at her car and talking to herself. When asked what she was doing, she replied, "They pray before they get in." She was supposedly talking about her sister and brother (whom she apparently believed were there). Hayes called the police and left several minutes later. According to a police lieutenant, there was no record of Hayes’s call.

A man who delivered propane gas to her and described her as polite noted that she always paid her bills on time, though he had noticed her talking to an "imaginary friend." [7]

Possible motives and preparation Edit

San Marco was apparently convinced that she was the target of a nefarious conspiracy centered at the Goleta postal facility, according to writings recovered from her home in New Mexico. A spokesman for the Santa Barbara County Sheriff's Office conjectured that San Marco's paranoia and history of mental illness may have motivated her to commit the murders. [8] Racism may have also been an influence in the massacre, as six of the victims were minorities (three were black, one was Chinese-American, one was Hispanic and one was Filipino). She may have also murdered Graham for personal reasons. Graham had been in several arguments with San Marco. According to Graham's boyfriend, San Marco would often go outside and start singing loudly. Graham also complained to her brother that San Marco would come out and "rant and rave" in front of her building. [9]

Among San Marco's writings were error-laden explanations of various religions and a confusing theory linking the U.S. government to "Son of Sam" killer David Berkowitz, the Ku Klux Klan and racist murders. [10] A diary with over 100 pages was also found full of meticulously tracked perceived slights and offenses she received from people. An auto body worker once said San Marco claimed that the postal service mistreated her, but that she never said anything violent or talked about murder (only that they had to "pay", which may indicate revenge as another possible motive).

San Marco purchased the murder weapon and ammunition from two different pawn shops (one in Grants, the other in Gallup). She was able to do this with no problem, and she passed background checks. She also got a buzz cut hairstyle, which left her barely recognizable (and may have helped her in gaining entry into the building to commit the shooting). [11]


The USS Hunley (AS-31) keel was laid 28 November 1960 at the Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Company, Newport News, Virginia. Hunley was sponsored by Mrs. J. Palmer Gaillard, wife of the Mayor of Charleston, South Carolina, launched on 28 September 1961 and commisioned on 16 June 1962.

AS-31 was named for Horace Lawson Hunley (1823-1863), designer of the Confederate submarine CSS Hunley. Horance Hunley, along with the entire crew of the CSS Hunley, was drown when the Hunley was swamped during testing. The CSS Hunley was salvaged and went on to sink the USS Housatonic of the Union blockade force at Charleston SC.

Hunley was the first of a class of submarine tenders designed to support the Polaris Missle Submarines coming into service.

USS Hunley (AS-31) sailed from Hampton Roads in July 1962 for shakedown training at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. She continued with post-commisioning training and detailed fit out until late Decmeber 1962 when she departed for Holy Loch, Scotland. Hunley continued as tender to Submarine Squadron 14 at Holy Loch until April 1964. Hunley was upgraded to support a modified version of the Polaris Missle and returned to duty at Holy Loch in June 1964.

USS Hunley moved to her new homeport of Charleston SC in 1966. Overhauled in late 1967, Hunley steamed to Guam to relieve USS Proteus for overhaul. Hunley returned to Charleston in June 1968.

In July 1971 Hunley again transited to Guam to relieve USS Proteus for maintenance. Hunley returned to the the US in early 1973 and underwent overhaul in the Puget sound NSY. The overhaul included modifications to support the Posideon Missle then in service. Once out of the shipyard, USS Hunley voyaged to Charleston SC, touching at San Francisco, San Diego, Acapulco, the Panama Canal, Guantanomo Bay, Ft. Lauderdale and Cocoa Beach, Florida as she progressed back into service.

USS Hunley again relieved Proteus as the submarine tender on Gaum in November 1978, returning to Charleston in July 1980. Upon return she was overhauled in the Charleston NSY.

In January 1982 Hunley crossed to Atlantic to take up station at Holy Loch, Scotland. After spending five years on station at Holy Lock, she was relieved by USS Simon Lake and headed for the US in July 1987. Shortly after arriving in Charleston, Hunley was sent to Florida to assist in Hurricane Andrew Recovery.

Hulney shifted homeport to Norflok in July 1992. In November 1993 she sailed to Cape Canaveral, stopped at Key West and returned to Norfolk. This proved to be her last sailing.

USS Hunley (AS-33) was decommissioned on 30 September 1994. Hunleys hulk as sold for scrapping in 2007.

The USS Hunley (AS-31) operational history and significant events of her service career follow:

Golet SS-31 - History

Part of the Axis Order of Battle Series by John Mulholland.

The Artic Front (under OKW command)

And Wehr.Befh.- Norway:
AOK Reserves:
- Stab XVIII (18) Gebirgskorps.
Armee-Abt.”Narvik” (Stab XIX (19) Gebirgskorps):
Armee Reserves:
- Stab XXXVI (36) Gebirgskorps
- Stab XVIII (18) Gebirgskorps
- M.G.Ski-Bde.”Finland”
- Pz.Bde.”Norway”
XIX (19) Gebirgskorps:
- 7 Geb.Div. + 139 Geb.Bde.
- 230 Inf.Div.
- 6 Geb.Div. + 388 Gren.Bde.
- Div.Grp.”K” (140 z.b.V.Div.)
- 270 Inf.Div. + 193 Gren.Bde.
- 169 Inf.Div.
LXXI (71) Armeekorps:
- 210 Inf.Div. + Fest.Bde.”Lofoten”
- 163 Inf.Div.
- 199 Inf.Div. + 503 Gren.Bde..
GebirgsAOK 20 – direct:
XXXIII (33) Armeekorps:
- 14 Luft.Fld.Div.
- 702 Inf.Div.
- 295 Inf.Div.
LXX (70) Armeekorps:
- 280 Inf.Div.
- 274 Inf.Div.

The Eastern Front (under OKW command)

- “Nord” Fld.Trg.Div.

AOK Reserves:
- Stab 52 Sich.Div.
I (01) Armeekorps:
- 563 VG.Div.
- 225 Inf.Div.
- 32 Inf.Div.
- 218 Inf.Div.
- 11 Inf.Div.
III (03) Panzerkorps-SS:
- 4 SS-PzGR.Bde. “Nederland”
- 11 SS-PzGR.Div. “Nordland”
- 121 Inf.Div.
X (10) Armeekorps:
- 132 Inf.Div.
- 87 Inf.Div.
- 30 Inf.Div.
II (02) Armeekorps:
- 14 Pz.Div.
- 31 VG.Div.
- 263 Inf.Div.
- 126 Inf.Div.

AOK Reserves:
- Stab 207 Sich.Div.z.b.V.
- Stab 201 Sich.Div.
XXXVIII (38) Armeekorps:
- 329 Inf.Div. + 201 Sich.Div. (part)
- 205 Inf.Div.
- 215 Inf.Div. + 227 Inf.Div. (part)
L (50) Armeekorps:
- 389 Inf.Div.
- 290 Inf.Div.
- 122 Inf.Div.
- 24 Inf.Div.
VI (06) SS-Korps:
- 93 Inf.Div.
- 19 SS-Div. “Latvian#2”
- 12 Luft.Fld.Div.
- 4 Pz.Div.
- 12 Pz.Div.
- 227 Inf.Div. (most)
XVI (16) Armeekorps:
- Group “Henze” (Stab 21 Luft.Fld.Div.) + 201 Sich.Div. (part)
- 281 Inf.Div.
- 81 Inf.Div.

- 7 Pz.Div.
- 18 PzGR.Div. (forming)
- Group “Hauer” (605 z.b.V.Div.)
- 20 Pz.Div.

XX (20) Armeekorps:
- 14 Inf Div.
- 292 Inf.Div.
- 102 Inf.Div.
XXIII (23) Armeekorps:
- 5 Jag.Div.
- 7 Inf.Div.
- 299 Inf.Div.
- 129 Inf.Div.
XXVII (27) Armeekorps:
- 542 VG.Div.
- 252 Inf.Div.
- 35 Inf.Div.

AOK Reserves:
- 5 Pz.Div.
- “HG.1” Pz.Div.
LV (55) Armeekorps:
- 547 VG.Div.
- 562 VG.Div.
- 203 Inf.Div.
VI (06) Armeekorps:
- 541 VG.Div.
- Group “Hannibal”
- 131 Inf.Div.
- 558 VG.Div.
XXXXI (41) Panzerkorps:
- 170 Inf.Div.
- 367 Inf.Div.
- 50 Inf.Div.
- 28 Jag.Div.
- 21 Inf.Div.
“H.G.” Panzerkorps:
- “HG.2” PzGR.Div.
- 61 Inf.Div.

XXVI (26) Armeekorps:
- 549 VG.Div.
- 349 VG.Div.
- 1 Inf.Div.
- 69 Inf.Div.
IX (09) Armeekorps:
- 56 Inf.Div.
- 561 VG.Div.
- 548 VG.Div.
- 551 VG.Div.
- Stab 286 Sich.Div.
XXVIII (28) Armeekorps:
- Stab 607 z.b.V.Div.
- 58 Inf.Div.
- 95 Inf.Div.

- Stab XXIV (24) Panzerkorps
- Stab XXXX (40) Panzerkorps
- 601 z.b.V.Div.
- 602 z.b.V.Div.
- 603 z.b.V.Div.
- 608 z.b.V.Div.
- 391 Sich.Div.
- 344 Inf.Div. (in transit)
- 16 Pz.Div.
- 17 Pz.Div.
- 20 PzGR.Div.
- 19 Pz.Div.
- 25 Pz.Div.
- 10 PzGR.Div. (KGrp)
ARMEEGRUPPE “Heinrici” (Stab PzAOK 1):
AOK Reserves:
- 154 Fld.Trg.Div.

(Under AGrp.”Heinrici”)
XVII (17) Armeekorps:
- 208 Inf.Div.
- 3 Geb.Div. (KGrp)
- 4 Geb.Div. (KGrp)
V (05) (Hung) Corps:
- 24 (Hung) Inf.Div. + 1 (Hung) Mtn.Bde.
- 16 (Hung) Inf.Div.

(Under AGrp.”Heinrici”)
XXXXIX (49) Gebirgskorps:
- 1 Ski-Jag.Div. + 2 (Hung) Res.Div.
- 97 Jag.Div.
- 254 Inf.Div.
- 101 Jag.Div.
XI (11) Armeekorps:
- 75 Inf.Div. + 5 (Hung) Res.Div.
- 100 Jag.Div.
- 253 Inf.Div.

XI (11) SS-Korps:
- 545 VG.Div.
- 78 VG.Div.
- 320 VG.Div.
LIX (59) Armeekorps:
- 544 VG.Div.
- 359 Inf.Div.
- 371 Inf.Div.

XXXXVIII (48) Panzerkorps:
- 304 Inf.Div.
- 68 Inf.Div.
- 168 Inf.Div.
XXXXII (42) Armeekorps:
- 291 Inf.Div.
- 88 Inf.Div.
- 72 Inf.Div.
- 342 Inf.Div.

LVI (56) Panzerkorps:
- 214 Inf.Div.
- 17 Inf.Div.
VIII (08) Armeekorps:
- 45 VG.Div.
- 6 VG.Div.
- 251 Inf.Div.
XXXXVI (46) Panzerkorps:
- 337 VG.Div.
- 73 Inf.Div.
- Kdr.Fest.”Warsaw”
- 70 H-Pi.Bde.

- 153 Fld.Trg.Div.
- Pz.Trg.Div.”Tatra”
- Stab IV (04) SS-Panzerkorps
- 3 SS-Pz.Div. “Tot.”
- 5 SS-Pz.Div. “Vik”
- 711 Inf.Div.
- 118 Jag.Div.
- 211 Inf.Div.
- 96 Inf.Div.

LXVIII (68) Armeekorps:
- 44 Inf.Div.
- 13 SS-Geb.Div. “Croatian#1” (remnants)
- 71 Inf.Div.
XXII (22) Gebirgskorps:
- 1 Geb.Div. + 92 Mot.Gren.Bde. (remnants)
- 3 Kav.Bde.
ARMEEGRUPPE “Balck” (Stab AOK 6):

(Under AGrp.”Balck”)
II (02) (Hung) Corps:
- 25 (Hung) Inf.Div.

(Under AGrp.”Balck”)
Group “Breith” (Stab III (03) Panzerkorps):
- Kav.Korps:
-- 1 Pz.Div.
-- 23 Pz.Div.
-- 4 Kav.Bde.
- Group “Pape”:
-- 3 Pz.Div. (part)
-- 1 (Hung) Cav.Div.
-- 8 Pz.Div. (part)
-- 6 Pz.Div. (part)
-- 271 VG.Div.
Group “Kirchner” (Stab LVII (57) Panzerkorps):
- LXXII (72) Armeekorps:
-- 6 Pz.Div. (part) + Div.”Szentlaszlo”
-- 2 (Hung) Arm.Div. (remnants)
-- 3 Pz.Div. (part)
- LVII (57) Panzerkorps:
-- 8 Pz.Div. (part)
-- Group “Rintelen”
-- 357 Inf.Div. (remnants)
IX (09) SS-Gebirgskorps:
- Group “Schmidthuber”
- Pz.Div.”F”
- 13 Pz.Div. + 10 (Hung) Inf.Div.
- 22 SS-Cav.Div. + 1 (Hung) Arm.Div.
- 8 SS-Cav.Div. “Flo.Gey.”
- 12 (Hung) Res.Div. (remnants) +
-- Group “Kesseoe” +
-- 23 (Hung) Inf.Div. (remnants)
AOK Reserves:
- 9 (Hung) Border Div.
- 27 (Hung) Light Div. (remnants)
- Stab IX (09) (Hung) Corps
XXIX (29) Armeekorps:
- 8 Jag.Div.
- 15 Inf.Div. (o.1 Rgt.)
- 76 Inf.Div.
IV (04) Panzerkorps:
- 24 Pz.Div.
- 4 SS-PzGR.Div. “Polizei” + 18 SS-PzGR.Div. “H.W.”
- 46 Inf.Div.
- SS-Inf.Bde. “Dirlewanger”

The Balkans Front (under OKW command)

And OB - “Southeast”:
Stab V (05) SS-Gebirgskorps

Heeresgruppe “E”:
(Acting as an AOK under HGrp.”F”):
LXXXXI (91) z.b.V.Korps:
- 963 Fest.Bde.
- 964 Fest.Bde.
- 966 Fest.Bde.
- 1077 Fest.Bde.
- 22 Inf.Div.
- 369 (Kroat) Inf.Div.
- 181 Inf.Div.
- 297 Inf.Div. (o.1 Regt.)
XXI (21) Gebirgskorps:
- 104 Jag.Div.
- 297 Inf.Div. (part)
- 967 Fest.Bde.
- 969 Fest.Bde.
- 41 Fest.Div.
XXXIV (34) z.b.V.Korps:
- 7 SS-Geb.Div. “Prinz Eugen”
- 21 SS-Div. “Albanian#1” (remnants)
- 11 Luft.Fld.Div. + 117 Jag.Div.
- 1 Geb.Div. (KGrp)
- 264 Inf.Div. (part)
- Koruck z.b.V. “Stephan”
- 18 SS-Police Geb.Jag.Regt.
- 5 SS-Police Regt.
XV (15) Gebirgskorps:
- 264 Inf.Div. (o.1 Rgt.)
- 373 (Kroat) Inf.Div.
- 392 (Kroat) Inf.Div.
Kdt.d. Ost (Eastern) Aegean:
- 939 Fest.Bde. (Rhodes)
- 968 Fest.Bde. (Leros)
Kdt.d.Festung “Crete”:
- 133 Fest.Div. (part)

The Italian front (under OKW command)

And OB - “Southwest”:
ARMEEGRUPPE “Ligurien” :
- 162 Inf.Div. (ohne 1 Rgt.)
- SS-Gren.Bde. “Italian#1” (forming)
LXXV (75) Armeekorps:
- 5 Geb.Div.
- 34 Inf.Div.
- 2 (Ital) Inf.Div. “Littorio”
Korps “Lombardia”:
- 3 (Ital) Inf.Div. “San Marco”
- 148 Inf.Div. (part)
- 4 (Ital) Mtn.Div. “Monte Rosa” (part)

(Under AGrp.”Ligurien”)
AOK Reserve:
- 1 (Ital) Inf.Div. “Italia”
LI (51) Gebirgskorps:
- 148 Inf.Div. (ohne1 Rgt.)
- 4 (Ital) Mtn.Div. “Monte Rosa” (ohne 1 Rgt.)
- 232 Inf.Div.

AOK Reserves:
- 26 Pz.Div.
- 157 Geb.Div.
- 98 Inf.Div.
I (01) Fschjag.Korps:
- 94 Inf.Div.
- 4 Fschjag.Div.
XIV (14) Panzerkorps:
- 65 Inf.Div.
- 362 Inf.Div.
- 42 Jag.Div.
- 1 Fschjag.Div.
- 334 Inf.Div.
LXXVI (76) Panzerkorps:
- 715 Inf.Div.
- 90 PzGR.Div.
- 29 PzGR.Div.
- 278 Inf.Div.
LXXIII (73) z.b.V.Korps:
- 356 Inf.Div.
- 162 (Turk) Inf.Div. (1 Regt.)
- 114 Jag.Div.
- 710 Inf.Div. (part)
- 16 SS-PzGR.Div. “RFSS”
XCVII (97) z.b.V.Korps:
- 710 Inf.Div. (most – forming)
- 188 Res.Geb.Div.
- 237 Inf.Div.

The Western Front (under OKW command)

- 166 Res.Div.
- 160 Res.Div.
- 233 Res.Pz.Div.
- 2 Geb.Div. (refitting)
- 6 Inf.Div.
OB - “WEST”:
OB Reserves:
- Div.Stab z.b.V.604 (stationed in the Netherlands)
- 70 Inf.Div. (formation unknown)

XXX (30) z.b.V.Korps:
- 346 Inf.Div. (KGrp)
LXXXVIII (88) Armeekorps:
- 711 Inf.Div.
- 6 Fschjag.Div.
- 2 Fschjag.Div.

AOK Reserves:
- 7 Fschjag.Div.
- Kdo. “Feldt”
II (02) Fschjag.Korps:
- 606 z.b.V.Div.
LXXXVI (86) Armeekorps:
- 84 Inf.Div. (KGrp)
- 180 Inf.Div.
- 190 Inf.Div.

AOK Reserves:
- 10 SS-Pz.Div. “Frund.”
XII (12) SS-Korps:
- 176 Inf.Div.
- 59 Inf.Div.
- 183 VG.Div.
LXXXI (81) Armeekorps:
- 47 VG.Div.
- 353 Inf.Div.
- 363 VG.Div.
LXXIV (74) Armeekorps:
- 85 Inf.Div.
- 272 VG.Div.
- 326 VG.Div.
LXVII (67) Armeekorps:
- 277 VG.Div.
- 246 VG.Div.
- 89 Inf.Div.
- 3 Fschjag.Div.

AOK Reserves:
- 12 VG.Div.
LXVI (66) Armeekorps:
- 18 VG.Div.
- 62 VG.Div.
II (02) Panzerkorps-SS:
- 9 SS-Pz.Div. “Honhen.”
- 560 VG.Div.
- 2 SS-Pz.Div. “Reich”

AOK Reserves:
- Stab I (01) SS-Panzerkorps
- 340 VG.Div.
- 12 SS-Pz.Div. “H.J.”
LVIII (58) Panzerkorps:
- 116 Pz.Div.
- 9 Pz.Div.
- 2 Pz.Div.
XXXIX (39) Panzerkorps:
- 3 PzGR.Div.
- 26 VG.Div.
- 1 SS-Pz.Div. “LAH”
XXXXVII (47) Panzerkorps:
- Pz.Div. “Lehr”
- Fuhrer Begl.Div.
- 15 PzGR.Div.

AOK Reserves:
- 11 Pz.Div.
LXXXV (85) Armeekorps:
- 352 VG.Div.
- 79 VG.Div.
LXXX (80) Armeekorps:
- 276 VG.Div.
- 212 VG.Div.
LIII (53) Armeekorps:
5 Fschjag.Div.
Fuhrer Gren.Div.
9 VG.Div.

- 553 VG.Div. (forming)

AOK Reserves:
- Div.Nr.526
- 559 VG.Div.
- 36 VG.Div.
- 17 SS-PzGR.Div. “Gotz von B.”
- 25 PzGR.Div. (KGrp)
- 21 Pz.Div.
XIII (13) SS-Korps:
- 347 Inf.Div.
- 19 VG.Div.
LXXX (80) Armeekorps:
- 257 VG.Div.
Group “Hoehne” (Stab LXXXIX (89) Armeekorps):
- 361 VG.Div.
- 245 Inf.Div.
- 256 VG.Div.
XXV (25) Armeekorps:
- 265 Inf.Div.
- 319 Inf.Div.
- 226 Inf.Div.
- Fest.”Lorient”

OB “Oberrhein”:
(Under RFSS command)
- Stab XIV (14) SS-Korps: (forming)
- Stab XVIII (18) SS-Korps: (forming)
- Div.Nr.405
- 716 Inf.Div. (part)

LXIV (64) Armeekorps:
- 708 VG.Div. + 716 Inf.Div. (most)
- 198 Inf.Div.
- 189 Inf.Div.
- 106 Pz.Bde.
- 16 VG.Div.
LXIII (63) Armeekorps:
- 159 Inf.Div.
- 269 Inf.Div.
- 338 Inf.Div.

General reserves

Chef H.Rust und BdE:
- 23 Inf.Div. (forming in Wkr.I)
- 300 z.b.V.Div. (forming in Wkr.I)
- 275 VG.Div. (forming in Wkr.X)
- 83 Inf.Div. (forming in Wkr.XX)
- 182 Res.Div. (forming in Slovakia)
- 48 VG.Div. (forming in Slovakia)
- 167 VG.Div. (forming)
- 182 Res.Div. (forming)
- 14 SS-Div. “Ukranian#1” (forming in Slovakia)
- 15 SS-Div. “Latvian#1” (forming)
- 20 SS-Div. “Estonian#1” (forming)
- 27 SS-Div. “Langemarck” (forming)
- 28 SS-Div. “ Wallonien” (forming)
- SS-Gren.Bde.”Franz.” (forming)
- SS-Gren.Bde. “Tartar#1” (forming in Hungary)
- SS-Gren.Bde. “Land.Neder.” (forming in Holland)
- 600 (Russ.) Inf.Div. (forming in Wkr.V)
- 23 SS-Div. “Kroatian#1” (forming in Croatia)
- 31 SS-Div. “Boh.-Mah.” (forming in Wkr.XVIII)
- 25 SS-Div. “Hungarian#1” (forming)
- 1 Kos.Kav.Div. (forming in Croatia)
- 2 Kos.Kav.Div. (forming in Croatia)

Note: All units are German unless otherwise indicated.
All errors, omissions, or “typos” are those of the writer.

In the anime

Major appearances

Golett debuted in Movie Time! Zorua in "The Legend of the Pokémon Knight"!, under the ownership of Luke. It helped its Trainer film his movies by building props, as well as being a stagehand and carrying equipment. Luke used his Golett in a battle against Iris in the semifinals of the Battle Club Tournament against Axew. In An Epic Defense Force!, Golett once again helped with Luke's movie, though it now starred in the movie instead of helping with carrying equipment. It was often seen outside of its Poké Ball.

The Sinking of Andrea Doria

Though not the largest or fastest ocean liner of its era, the 697-foot Andrea Doria was widely regarded as the most beautiful. Its decks were dotted with three outdoor swimming pools, and it was dubbed a 𠇏loating art gallery” for its dazzling array of paintings, tapestries and surrealist murals. There was even a life-sized bronze statue of the ship’s namesake, a 16th century Genoese navigator. Equally impressive were the Doria’s safety features. It boasted two radar screens𠅊 relatively new technology on ocean liners𠅊nd its hull was divided into 11 watertight compartments. Anxious travelers could also take solace in the presence of Captain Piero Calamai, a venerable Italian mariner and veteran of both World War I and World War II.

The Doria safely completed 100 transatlantic crossings between 1953 and 1956, and it initially seemed that its 101st would be no different. After leaving Italy on July 17, 1956, the ship stopped at three ports in the Mediterranean and then steamed into the open ocean on a nine-day voyage to New York City. Along with 572 crewmembers, it held 1,134 passengers ranging from Italian immigrant families to business travelers, vacationers and even a few notables such as Hollywood actress Ruth Roman.

Andrea Doria, part of Italy’s transatlantic liner fleet, now lies a battered wreck about 300 miles east of New York after colliding with the Swedish liner Stockholm. (Credit: Keystone/Getty Images)

On July 25, the Doria entered the heavily trafficked sea-lanes off the Northeast coast of the United States. That same day, the 524-foot Swedish passenger liner Stockholm departed New York on a voyage to its homeport of Gothenburg. By around 10:30 p.m., the two ships were approaching one another from opposite directions off Nantucket. Neither was following the established “rules of the road” for ocean travel. Despite sailing in heavy fog, Captain Calamai had ordered only a minor reduction in speed to stay on schedule for an early morning arrival in New York. Stockholm, meanwhile, was steaming north of the recommended eastbound route in the hope of shaving time off its journey.

Around 10:45 p.m., Calamai’s radar picked up a blip representing Stockholm. The Swedish vessel, under the watch of third officer Johan-Ernst Carstens-Johannsen, spotted the Doria on its own radar a few minutes later. It was a situation both had encountered countless times, yet on this occasion the two ships somehow came to opposite conclusions about one another’s locations. Carstens plotted the Doria to his left and prepared to pass port-to-port, while Calamai, fixing Stockholm’s location to his right, maneuvered for a more unconventional starboard-to-starboard passage. One of the men—it’s still not certain who—had misread his radar and inadvertently steered his ship toward the other.

The officers didn’t realize they were on a collision course until shortly before 11:10 p.m., when Calamai finally spotted Stockholm’s lights through a thick curtain of fog. “She’s coming right at us!” one Doria officer shouted. With just moments to spare, Calamai ordered a hard left turn in an attempt to outrun the other ship. Carstens, having spotted the Doria, tried to reverse his propellers and slow down. It was too late. Stockholm’s icebreaker bow crashed into Andrea Doria’s starboard side like a battering ram, snapping bulkheads and penetrating some 30 feet into its hull. It remained lodged there for a few seconds, then broke loose, leaving a gaping hole in the side of the Doria.

Aerial view of Stockholm entering harbor after crash with Andrea Doria against skyline. (Credit: Howard Sochurek/The LIFE Picture Collection/Getty Images)

Onboard Andrea Doria, passengers felt a tremendous jolt accompanied by the sound of clanging metal. Actress Ruth Roman described hearing a 𠇋ig explosion like a firecracker.” In one of the lounges, the ship’s orchestra was playing the song 𠇊rrivederci, Roma” when they were abruptly hurled from their stage by the force of the crash.

Those who only ended up with scrapes and bruises could consider themselves fortunate. The collision killed five people on Stockholm and dozens more on the Doria, which had seen a large section of its starboard side turned into twisted metal. Italian immigrant Maria Sergio and her four young children all perished on impact as they slept. In another cabin, Brooklyn resident Walter Carlin discovered that the exterior wall of his room had been completely sheared off. His wife, who had been reading in bed, had simply disappeared. By far the most extraordinary story concerned Linda Morgan, who was sleeping in a starboard side cabin. The crash killed her stepfather and stepsister, but Morgan was somehow lifted from her bed and thrown onto the crumpled bow of Stockholm, where she landed with only a broken arm. “I was on the Andrea Doria,” she told the astonished Stockholm sailor who found her. “Where am I now?”

Following the shock of the collision, both crews scrambled to take stock of their vessels. While Stockholm was found to be in no danger of sinking, the Doria had sustained critical damage and was listing over 20 degrees to its starboard side, allowing seawater to spill through its watertight compartments. Calamai resigned himself to abandoning ship, but soon encountered a catastrophic problem: the list was so bad that the Doria’s eight portside lifeboats could no longer be launched. The remaining starboard side craft could only carry around 1,000 of the ship’s passengers and crew. “Here danger immediate,” Andrea Doria radioed. “Need lifeboats𠅊s many as possible�n’t use our lifeboats.”

Promenade deck of French Liner le de France occupied by survivors of Andrea Doria. (Credit: Loomis Dean/The LIFE Picture Collection/Getty Images)

Luckily for Calamai, his ship was floating in a heavily traveled strip of the Atlantic. While the mangled Stockholm began rescuing passengers from the Doria, several other vessels answered its distress calls and raced to the scene. The first, a small freighter called the Cape Ann, arrived around 12:30 a.m. Two American Navy ships followed shortly thereafter, but lifeboats remained scarce. Finally, around 2 a.m., a massive French ocean liner called the Ile de France maneuvered alongside the Doria, lit up the darkness with its floodlights and began making rescues with its lifeboats.

Though help had arrived, the situation aboard the Doria remained perilous. Debris from the collision had trapped some of the passengers in their cabins, and many on the lower levels had to brave smoke-filled hallways and knee-deep water on their way to the main deck. Those who gathered by the useless portside lifeboats faced their own set of problems. With the Doria listing to its right, its main deck had turned into a steep, slippery slope. To reach the starboard side lifeboats, many had to lie on their backs and slide down the deck, making sure to stop before they careened off the edge and into the water. All the while, the ship continued to roll, threatening to capsize at any moment.

Aerial view of Stockholm entering harbor after crash with Andrea Doria against skyline. (Credit: Howard Sochurek/The LIFE Picture Collection/Getty Images)

The rescue—one of the largest in maritime history—lasted several hours, but by 5:30 a.m., nearly all the Doria’s survivors had been evacuated. 753 people were placed aboard the Ile de France, with the rest scattered aboard Stockholm and four other vessels. Captain Calamai seemed ready to go down with his ship, but reluctantly boarded the last lifeboat after his crew refused to leave him behind. A few hours later, as the rescue fleet steamed toward New York harbor, Andrea Doria finally capsized and flooded. At 10:09 a.m., it disappeared beneath the Atlantic.

All told, 51 people had died as a result of the collision𠅏ive on Stockholm and 46 on the Doria. The ships’ owners both blamed the other for the tragedy, but following an out of court settlement, a trial was averted and neither was officially held responsible. In the years since, investigators have used crew depositions and computer simulations to try and recreate the night of the disaster. While there were obvious mistakes from both ships, many researchers now believe that Carstens made the crucial error by misreading his radar and concluding that the Doria was several miles farther away than it actually was. Nevertheless, debate over the cause of the wreck continues even today.

Stockholm was eventually repaired. Andrea Doria, meanwhile, rests in some 240 feet of water in the North Atlantic. It has become a hallowed site among scuba divers, who call it the “Mt. Everest” of diving, but poor visibility and unpredictable currents have ensured that 60-year-old wreck is still claiming lives. Since 1956, over a dozen people have perished while trying to explore its watery grave.

Golet SS-31 - History

District News

Annual Consumer Confidence Report

Click here for Results of Water Quality Testing for 2020.

Autumn 2020 Newsletter

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Winter 2020 Newsletter

Click here for the Winter 2020 Newsletter.

Featured Story

Delivering a Diverse Water Supply.

The District has a diverse water supply portfolio that allows for operational flexibility in the event of a drought, conditions at Lake Cachuma, or during an emergency. The ability to draw on multiple supply sources to meet customer demand, known as blending, is a critical tool for maintaining reliable water service to the Goleta Valley.

Upcoming Events

Because of the current public health emergency, all public meetings will be conducted by teleconference until further notice. Instructions for observing and providing public comments will be provided in meeting agendas, which will be posted in the Agendas & Minutes section and available 72 hours or more before the respective meeting.

Dive into a new depth of experience

There are three great ways to see USS Cobia up close. For our main experience, visit us during the day for our guided submarine tours. For those interested in the technical side, check out our technical Nook and Cranny tours in winter, and for the full experience, joins us for the interactive overnight!

USS Cobia

During World War II, the Manitowoc Shipbuilding Company built 28 submarines for the United States Navy. More than 7,000 men and women worked around the clock, 365 days a year to build some of the best submarines in the Navy. USS Cobia was not built in Manitowoc, but for nearly 50 years, she’s been a fitting memorial to the men and women who built Manitowoc’s Freshwater Submarines and the brave men who served on those boats.

Manitowoc’s 28 Freshwater Submarines

The Manitowoc-built submarines have become known as Freshwater Submarines since we were the only freshwater port to build subs. Of the 28 submarines built here, 25 were built in time to see action during the war. Together they sank 132 Japanese ships. Four Manitowoc submarines were lost at sea, USS Robalo, USS Golet , USS Kete , and USS Lagarto. The four boats and their brave crews are now on Eternal Patrol.

USS Lagarto: Wisconsin’s Lost Boat

USS Lagarto was the 21st out of 28 submarines built in Manitowoc. On her second war patrol, Lagarto and her crew of 86 men attacked an enemy ship on May 3, 1945. They were never heard from again. Nearly 60 years to the day, the wreck was discovered in the Gulf of Thailand in May 2005. The Museum worked with professional divers to learn more about what happened to Lagarto and her crew and spent nearly 12 years searching for their families. Want to learn more? Purchase a copy of our Emmy-Award winning documentary Lost and Found: The Search for USS Lagarto.

USS Robalo Found!

The wreck of the Manitowoc-built submarine, USS Robalo was discovered in May 2019. Learn more about the discovery and upcoming events.

Welcome aboard the American Victory Ship and Museum, a non-profit 501(c)3 organization! As one of only 4 fully-operational WWII ships in the country, the American Victory Ship is a true American icon and is recognized on the National Register of Historic Places. Anchor your place in American maritime history by experiencing an unforgettable voyage of discovery. Come aboard and witness virtually the entire ship including cavernous three-level cargo holds, radio and gyro rooms, hospital, galley, weaponry, steering stations, flying bridge, signaling equipment, wheelhouse, mess halls, crew cabins, lifeboats, the Captain's quarters, cargo equipment and the engine. Enjoy rare artifacts, exciting exhibits, uniforms, medals, documents and photographs. It's all right here throughout nine decks and our 455'x109' cargo vessel.

We are a world-class, shipboard, maritime museum dedicated to honoring the men and women who built, sailed, protected and provided service, worldwide, through the American Merchant Fleet since 1775 during times of peace and war. The American Victory Ship and Museum is a mighty beacon to veterans, active military and its community. It transports you back nearly seven decades to when brave sailors fought the harsh seas to reach their comrades around the world servicing in the United States Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, and Coast Guard, carrying ammunition, goods, cargo, equipment, materials and troops necessary to defend our county. As the "unsung heroes" of numerous conflicts and the military, the merchant marines experienced the highest percentage rate of casualties of any service.

The American Victory Ship and Museum receives very little city, county, state, federal or tax dollar financial support. It relies heavily on private donations, grassroots efforts, and sincere dedication from its group of committed volunteers. We look forward to welcoming you aboard!

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Watch the video: History (January 2022).