History Podcasts

Eugene B. Germany

Eugene B. Germany

Eugene Benjamin Germany was born in Sweetwater, Texas, on 18th September, 1892. After graduating from Southwestern University in 1912 he worked as a teacher in Grand Saline. During the summer holidays he attended the Southern Methodist University where he studied geology.

In 1916 Germany began work as a geologist for Gadley Oil. Later he did a similar job for Calto Oil. In 1928 he moved to Dallas where he formed a partnership with Thomas Cranfill (the Cranfill and Germany Oil Company). Germany's company was involved in several business ventures in Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi and New Mexico.

In the early 1940s Germany joined a group of right-wing members of the Democratic Party that were plotting against President Franklin D. Roosevelt. In 1944 they formed the Texas Regulars. Members included Germany, Wilbert Lee O'Daniel, Martin Dies and Hugh R. Cullen. Supported by Texas oilmen, the group were also opposed to the fixed prices of oil and gas imposed by Roosevelt's government during the Second World War. They also campaigned against the New Deal, civil rights and pro-trade union legislation. The group disbanded in 1945 after they failed to remove Roosevelt as the leader of their party.

In 1947 Germany became president of the Lone Star Steel Company. Later he became president of the Mustang Oil Company and its subsidiaries. He was also president of the Independent Petroleum Association of Texas and the Texas Manufacturers Association.

Germany was also opposed to Harry S. Truman and his Fair Deal proposals that included legislation on civil rights, fair employment practices, opposition to lynching and improvements in existing public welfare laws. When Truman won the nomination in 1948, he joined the States' Rights Democratic Party (Dixiecrats). Storm Thurmond was chosen as its presidential candidate. It was thought that with two former Democrats, Thurmond and Henry Wallace standing, Truman would have difficulty defeating the Republican Party candidate, Thomas Dewey. However, both Thurmond and Wallace did badly and Truman defeated Dewey by 24,105,812 votes to 21,970,065.

Eugene Benjamin Germany died in Dallas, Texas, on 12th July, 1971.

On the history of dissociative identity disorders in Germany: the doctor Justinus Kerner and the girl from Orlach, or possession as an "exchange of the self"

The history of hypnosis is closely linked to the theme of possession one such link is that the forerunner of hypnosis, animal magnetism, replaced exorcism in 1775 when Franz Anton Mesmer testified against Father Johann Joseph Gassner's exorcism. Modern authors have noted remarkable similarities between states of possession and dissociation. The treatment of possession by animal magnetism and exorcism represents the special romantic-magnetic therapy of the German medical doctor Justinus Kerner in the early 19th century. This article describes the man, his methods, and his thinking and presents one of his most famous case studies, the girl from Orlach, which, by today's standards, was a true case of dissociative identity disorder (DID). This article describes how contemporary principles of treatment were used and controversial issues about the nature and causes of DID were discussed 175 years ago.

Respond to this Question

World history

Which of the following was one reason that World War II alliances broke down following the end of the conflict? Britain refused to impose reparations on Germany and other aggressor nations France refused to permit socialist

Why did Britain and France adopt a policy of appeasement when meeting with Hitler at the Munich conference A They knew he had an agreement with the Soviet union over Poland B they were led to believe he wouldn't try to take any

Social Studies

1 Which of the following was among President Wilson's fourteen points? A Disarm all major powers B Form a league of Nations C Create an alliance with Germany D Make or European countries repay their debts 2 What was the main

1. Which of the following established a limited self-government to the Puerto Ricans by the United Sates? Platt Amendment*** Foraker Act Sherman Act Roosevelt Corollary

Social Studies

1 Which of the following was among President Wilson's fourteen points? A Disarm all major powers B Form a league of Nations C Create an alliance with Germany D Make or European countries repay their debts 2 What was the main


what was the goal of the lend-lease act?

US History

Match the following items. 1. Judiciary Act 2. Alien Enemies Act 3. Naturalization Act 4. Alien and Sedition Acts 5. Sedition Act 6. Alien Act A. permitted president to imprison or deport dangerous aliens in time of war B. an

Social Studies

Use the passage to answer the question. “This great nation will endure as it has endured, will revive and will prosper. So, first of all, let me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear


During the Yalta Conference, what did President Roosevelt promise Premier Stalin in exchange for the Soviet Union joining the Pacific War against Japan? 1. The Soviet Union would gain a sphere of influence in Manchuria. 2. The


Which of the following actions occurred first? A. Japan attacked Pearl Harbor B. The axis powers invaded neighboring territories C. The lend-lease act was proposed D. The United States drafted men into Armed Forces


which of the following is a way a bill can become a law without the president's signature a. the president delegates the signing of a bill to the vice president b. the president waits until the congress is not in session c. the


Which of the following took place at the Tehran Conference? A: Roosevelt deferred to Churchill in all discussions with Stalin. B: Roosevelt and Churchill agreed to attack Germany on the Western Front**** C: The leaders agreed that

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60 Pictures of Easy Company

The 506th, which is part of the U.S. Army’s 101st Airborne Division, was established in 1942 at Camp Toccoa, Georgia, and underwent extensive training under strict rules and regulations. The most physically challenging part of their training was the regular running of Currahee, a 1,735 ft (529 m) steep hill.

The hill itself became an unofficial symbol of the entire regiment, which adopted the nickname “Currahee,” and E Company also adopted the Cherokee word as its motto―We stand alone together.

Major Richard Winters Captain Lewis Nixon & Lieutenant Harry Welsh Austria 1945

While the “E” stands for “Easy,” these men were anything but, jumping into Normandy behind enemy lines as part of the 2nd Battalion hours before the invasion.

During Operation Overlord, E Company was part of the airborne invading force which was to secure the rear and provide cover until the Omaha and Utah beachheads were linked.

Among their most famous endeavors was taking and holding the town of Carentan―a crucial strategic point, without which the outcome of the Allied invasion could have taken a different turn.

General Anthony Clement “Nuts” McAuliffe

After the liberation of France, E Company was sent to assist the British forces around Eindhoven, as part of Operation Market Garden.

In late October 1944, they would play a key role in evacuating over 100 British soldiers who were trapped behind German lines near the village of Renkum, close to the town of Arnhem.

Richard Winters in Holland, October 1944

Their next stop was the winter offensive in December 1944 and January 1945 in Belgium. The men from Easy Company took part in the famous Battle of the Bulge, and fought under horrible winter conditions, suffering from a general lack of supplies and ammunition.

Some of their more notable actions from this period involved taking control of the Bois Jacques woods area, and the frustrating attack on the town of Foy, where they dealt with fierce resistance as well as the breakdown of the chain of command.

Easy Company near Foy

However, Foy was eventually captured from the enemy, as the German line in Bastogne fell apart. The figurative gates of Germany were finally open.

As the war was nearing its end, the company was assigned to occupation duties which included guarding Berchtesgaden, better known as Adolf Hitler’s famous Eagle’s Nest. E Company’s contribution to the fight was rewarded with patrol duties in mostly safe areas during the last few months of the war.

Although the 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment is still in service as a training unit of the U.S. Army, the direct lineage of E Company is today inactive.

More photos

Richard Winters and Harry Welsh

Popeye Wynn and Hank Zimmerman

Burr Smith was killed by a direct mortar hit along with PENKALA near FOY

Joe Lesniewski Herbert M. Sobel Sr.

Staff Sergeant Myron N. “Mike” Ranney

Robert “Popeye” Wynn

George Luz and ‘Babe’ Heffron

David Webster

David Kenyon Webster

Floyd Talbert, unidentified soldier, Paul Rogers and Forrest Guth

Richard Winters (facing the camera in the back) teaching his soldiers to pack their parachutes. Skip Muck is the man on the right looking at the camera.

Richard Winters and Harry Welsh

William Dukeman Pat Christenson, Denver ‘Bull’ Randleman and Bill Dukeman

Joe Toye and Don Malarkey

Easy Company

Don Malarkey, Joe Toye and Skip Muck

Donald Hoobler

William J. “Wild Bill“ Guarnere

Joe Liebgott Earl McClung

Floyd Talbert Earl ‘One Lung’ McClung Don Malarkey and Floyd Talbert

Captain Richard D. Winters and Captain Lewis Nixon

Skip Muck and Chuck. Easy Company, 2nd Battalion, 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division.

Lynn D. Campton, Easy Company

Easy Company members Joe Liebgott, Eugene Roe and Burton Christenson in Eindhoven, 1944.

101st Airborne Medic Eugene Roe, a member of Easy Company, Band of brothers.

Carwood Lipton

Frank Perconte

Left to right: Forrest Guth, Floyd Talbert, John Eubanks, unknown, Francis Mellet on D-Day

George Luz (1921-1998) Fought in Normandy, the Netherlands, and the Battle of Bulge. Luz is credited with keeping Easy Company morale up with his humor in dire times.

Smith, Muck, Malarkey, Randelmann, Serila, Sheehy, Burgess, Lowery, Grant, Cunningham, bain, Toye at Camp McKall

Easy Company’s David Kenyon Webster, author of “Parachute Infantry – An American Paratrooper’s Memoir of D-Day and the Fall of the Third Reich”

Forrest Guth and Floyd Talbert with locals on D-day morning

Albert Blithe at Camp Toccoa, Georgia, in 1942.

Eugene Roe

Forrest Guth (1921 2009) One of the original 140 men who trained under Sobel at Camp Toccoa. Guth had the ability to repair and modify weapons. For instance he could make an M-1 rifle fully automatic. He became the armorer for his comrades. Guth’s uniform was also unique Guth sewed many extra pockets on it. Guth fought in D-Day, the Netherlands, and the Battle of Bulge.

William ‘Wild Bill’ Guarnere

Colonel Robert Frederick Sink

Don Malarkey, left, with Burr Smith in Austria near war’s end.

Technical Sergeant Donald Malarkey

Major Richard Winters.

Staff Sergeant Darrell Powers

Private First Class Edward Heffron

Richard Winters at the end of training

Gordon Carson and Frank Perconte, Easy Company, 101st Airborne

Captain Herbert M. Sobel

Easy Company during Operation Market Garden

Brigadier General Anthony McAuliffe and his staff gathered inside Bastogne’s Heintz Barracks for Christmas dinner December 25th, 1944. This military barracks served as the Division Main Command Post during the siege of Bastogne, Belgium during World War II.


There was an interesting article (in German) in the local newspaper of Weiden in 2012, giving a lot information about the history of the camp and the prisoners:  Weiden article

More information and photos about the camp:

Note: I've noticed some POW websites that refer to a Stalag XIII B in Lamsdorf that was actually Stalag VIII B in Lamsdorf, now located in Poland.

Stalag XIII B was in Weiden, Germany. For great info on Stalag VIII B in Lamsdorf, see:  Stalag VIII B

Eugene B. Sledge

Eugene B. Sledge in 1982 Eugene Bondurant Sledge was born in Mobile on November 4, 1923, to Edward Simmons Sledge and Mary Frank Sturdivant. Sledge's father was a physician with undergraduate and medical degrees from the University of Pennsylvania. His mother was the daughter of Ellen Rush Sturdivant, the dean of women at Huntingdon College in Montgomery. Sledge grew up in Georgia Cottage, an antebellum house on the outskirts of Mobile that once had been owned by nineteenth-century novelist Augusta Jane Evans. As a boy, Sledge spent many hours exploring Mobile Bay waterways observing nature (his father taught him to describe birds, animals, and features of the landscape—training that came in handy in his career as a biologist) and looking for Civil War relics. Two of Sledge's ancestors on his mother's side served as officers in the Confederate States Army during the Civil War, and Sledge maintained a lifelong interest in that conflict. Sledge Family, 1942 Sledge graduated from Murphy High School in Mobile in 1942 and entered Marion Military Institute in Marion, Perry County. He then enlisted in the U.S. Marine Corps at Marion in December 1942. After a brief stint at the Georgia Institute of Technology in an officers' training program in 1943-44, he left the program to serve in the ranks as an enlisted man. Sledge received basic training at the Marine Corps Recruit Depot in San Diego and at Camp Elliott (located near San Diego) and was assigned as a mortarman to Company K, Third Battalion, Fifth Regiment, First Marine Division. Eugene Sledge on Okinawa, 1945 After the Japanese surrender in August 1945, Sledge served in Beijing, China, as part of a U.S. occupation force. He was honorably discharged from the Marine Corps in February 1946 with the rank of corporal. Sledge returned to Alabama but found it hard to readjust to civilian life. He entered the Alabama Polytechnic Institute (now Auburn University) and earned a bachelor of science degree in business administration in 1949. After graduation, Sledge attempted to make a career in the insurance and real estate business in Mobile, but with little enthusiasm. Sledge married Jeanne Arceneaux of Mobile in 1952. The couple would have two sons: John (born 1957) and Henry (born 1965). On his father's advice, Sledge returned to Auburn and earned a master of science degree in botany, writing his thesis on parasitic worms (nematodes) and their effect on varieties of corn. Eugene Sledge at the University of Montevallo Sledge is best known not for his long academic career but as the author of two World War II memoirs: With the Old Breed: At Peleliu and Okinawa (1981) and China Marine: An Infantryman's Life after World War II (2002). Although With the Old Breed was published almost 40 years after the experiences it describes, its composition began during and soon after the war. Sledge kept clandestine notes during the fighting on Peleliu and Okinawa in a pocket edition of the New Testament that he had been issued at Camp Elliott, and his personal papers include a 1946 outline of the book that eventually became With the Old Breed. He drew on these and other materials when he started writing the memoir in earnest in the late 1970s. According to his son John, Sledge wrote the memoir at high speed, as if he were "taking dictation." Sledge originally wrote about his war experiences for his family but was persuaded by his wife to seek publication. His second memoir, China Marine, describes Sledge's postwar service in Beijing, his return to Mobile, and his gradual readjustment to civilian life it was published posthumously in 2002.

Eugene Sledge and Students Overall, Sledge was a man of wide-ranging interests. As an avid lifelong ornithologist, he led bird-watching expeditions in Montevallo and other parts of the state. He read widely in history and philosophy and was fond of poetry, especially the works of Siegfried Sassoon, Wilfred Owen, and other English soldier-poets of World War I. He enjoyed classical music and played classical guitar. By Sledge's own account, classical music (especially Mozart) and the rigors of scientific research helped him recover from his war experiences. Sledge died of stomach cancer on March 3, 2001, and was buried in Pine Crest Cemetery in Mobile.

Ambrose, Hugh. The Pacific. New York: New American Library/Penguin Publishers, 2010.

History of Germany

Germanic peoples occupied much of the present-day territory of Germany in ancient times. The Germanic peoples are those who spoke one of the Germanic languages, and they thus originated as a group with the so-called first sound shift ( Grimm’s law), which turned a Proto-Indo-European dialect into a new Proto-Germanic language within the Indo-European language family. The Proto-Indo-European consonants p, t, and k became the Proto-Germanic f, [thorn] (th), and x (h), and the Proto-Indo-European b, d, and g became Proto-Germanic p, t, and k. The historical context of the shift is difficult to identify because it is impossible to date it conclusively. Clearly the people who came to speak Proto-Germanic must have been isolated from other Indo-Europeans for some time, but it is not obvious which archaeological culture might represent the period of the shift. One possibility is the so-called Northern European Bronze Age, which flourished in northern Germany and Scandinavia between about 1700 and 450 bc . Alternatives would be one of the early Iron Age cultures of the same region (e.g., Wessenstadt, 800–600 bc , or Jastorf, 600–300 bc ).

Evidence from archaeological finds and place-names suggests that, while early Germanic peoples probably occupied much of northern Germany during the Bronze and early Iron ages, peoples speaking Celtic languages occupied what is now southern Germany. This region, together with neighbouring parts of France and Switzerland, was the original homeland of the Celtic La Tène culture. About the time of the Roman expansion northward, in the first centuries bc and ad , Germanic groups were expanding southward into present-day southern Germany. The evidence suggests that the existing population was gradually Germanized rather than displaced by the Germanic peoples arriving from the north.

Solid historical information begins about 50 bc when Julius Caesar’s Gallic Wars brought the Romans into contact with Germanic as well as Celtic peoples. Caesar did cross the Rhine in 55 and 53 bc , but the river formed the eastern boundary of the province of Gaul, which he created, and most Germanic tribes lived beyond it. Direct Roman attacks on Germanic tribes began again under Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, who pushed across the Rhine in 12–9 bc , while other Roman forces assaulted Germanic tribes along the middle Danube (in modern Austria and Hungary). Fierce fighting in both areas, and the famous victory of the Germanic leader Arminius in the Teutoburg Forest in ad 9 (when three Roman legions were massacred), showed that conquering these tribes would require too much effort. The Roman frontier thus stabilized on the Rhine and Danube rivers, although sporadic campaigns (notably under Domitian in ad 83 and 88) extended control over Frisia in the north and some lands between the Rhine and the upper Danube.

Both archaeology and Caesar’s own account of his wars show that Germanic tribes then lived on both sides of the Rhine. In fact, broadly similar archaeological cultures from this period stretch across central Europe from the Rhine to the Vistula River (in modern Poland), and Germanic peoples probably dominated all these areas. Germanic cultures extended from Scandinavia to as far south as the Carpathians. These Germans led a largely settled agricultural existence. They practiced mixed farming, lived in wooden houses, did not have the potter’s wheel, were nonliterate, and did not use money. The marshy lowlands of northern Europe have preserved otherwise perishable wooden objects, leather goods, and clothing and shed much light on the Germanic way of life. These bogs were also used for ritual sacrifice and execution, and some 700 “bog people” have been recovered. Their remains are so well preserved that even dietary patterns can be established the staple was a gruel made of many kinds of seeds and weeds.

Clear evidence of social differentiation appears in these cultures. Richly furnished burials (containing jewelry and sometimes weapons) have been uncovered in many areas, showing that a wealthy warrior elite was developing. Powerful chiefs became a standard feature of Germanic society, and archaeologists have uncovered the halls where they feasted their retainers, an activity described in the Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf. This warrior elite followed the cult of a war god, such as Tyr (Tiu) or Odin (Wodan). The Roman historian Tacitus relates in the Germania that in ad 59 the Hermunduri, in fulfillment of their vows, sacrificed defeated Chatti to one of these gods. This elite was also the basis of political organization. The Germanic peoples comprised numerous tribes that were also united in leagues centred on the worship of particular cults. These cults were probably created by one locally dominant tribe and changed over time. Tribes belonging to such leagues came together for an annual festival, when weapons were laid aside. Apart from worship, these were also times for economic activity, social interaction, and settling disputes.


Although no public-funded universities in the 16 states of Germany charge any tuition fees for any program, you need to pay a semester contribution to the University to avail facilities like bus services, sports expenses, meals, etc.

Furthermore, if you plan to study in a private university in Germany, then the cost would vary on a large scale as all the private universities have rights to charge whatever fees they want from the students (both international and national).

Battle of Blenheim

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Battle of Blenheim, (Aug. 13, 1704), the most famous victory of John Churchill, 1st duke of Marlborough, and Eugene of Savoy in the War of the Spanish Succession. The first major defeat that the French army suffered in over 50 years, it saved Vienna from a threatening Franco-Bavarian army, preserved the alliance of England, Austria, and the United Provinces against France, and knocked Bavaria out of the war.

The battle was fought at the town of Blenheim (now Blindheim) on the Danube River, 10 miles (16 km) southwest of Donauwörth in Bavaria, and engaged about 52,000 British, Dutch, and Austrian troops under Marlborough and Eugene and about 60,000 French and Bavarian troops under the French marshal Camille, comte de Tallard. To prevent an Austrian collapse under intense French military pressure, Marlborough had marched his army to the Danube River. Tallard, knowing the desire of Marlborough and Eugene to protect Vienna from French attack, did not expect to be attacked by their slightly weaker forces. But Marlborough and Eugene joined forces on August 12 and the next day attacked the surprised and unprepared French. The French were drawn up behind the Nebel River (a tributary of the Danube), with their right wing resting on the Danube at Blenheim and their left wing on hilly terrain bounded by the town of Lützingen. The French army consisted of two nearly independent sections, with Tallard in command of the right wing and Marsin and Maximilian II Emanuel (the elector of Bavaria) in charge of the left wing. The junction between these two armies was weakly held by almost unsupported cavalry. Eugene’s forces faced those of Marsin and Maximilian II Emanuel at Lützingen, while Marlborough opposed Tallard at Blenheim.

Prince Eugene mounted a strong diversionary assault on his flank while Marlborough’s general Lord John Cutts mounted two unsuccessful assaults upon Blenheim. Cutts’s attacks forced Tallard to commit more reserves to defend Blenheim than he had intended, and thus served to further weaken the French centre. Since Eugene kept Marsin fully occupied, Marlborough then launched the main attack across the Nebel River against the French centre. Marlborough’s advance was hotly contested by French cavalry attacks, and only his personal direction and Eugene’s selfless loan of one of his own cavalry corps enabled Marlborough to maintain the momentum of his attack. Once successfully launched, however, the attack proved irresistible. The Allied cavalry broke through the French centre, dividing Marsin’s army from that of Tallard, and then wheeled left, sweeping Tallard’s forces into the Danube River. Tallard himself was taken prisoner, and about 23 battalions of his infantry and 4 regiments of dragoons were pinned in Blenheim. Marsin and Maximilian II Emanuel managed to withdraw their troops from the battle in the meantime, but on the French right wing all the infantry around Blenheim surrendered.

At a cost of 12,000 casualties, the Allies captured 13,000 Franco-Bavarian troops and killed, wounded, or caused to be drowned approximately 18,000 more. The Battle of Blenheim saved Vienna from the French and demonstrated that the armies of the French king Louis XIV were by no means irresistible. The battle also exemplified the near-perfect cooperation that was to exist between Marlborough and Eugene for the remainder of their association in the war.

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Watch the video: EUGENE - ffFffaaaAcceE (January 2022).